United States Army Combined Arms Center
The U. S. Army Combined Arms Center is located at Fort Leavenworth and provides leadership and supervision for leader development and professional military and civilian education. Components are: The Army University, created in 2015 and charged with directly integrating 70 separate U. S. Army Training and Doctrine Command internal school programs under one university system while synchronizing instruction with more than 100 additional TRADOC institutions. Subcomponents include the U. S. Army Command and General Staff College Army University Press, which includes the former Combat Studies Institute and publishes Military Review, NCO Journal and the Journal of Military Learning. Combined Arms Center for Training Mission Command Training Program National Simulations Center)Mission Command Center of Excellence Battle Command Knowledge System U. S. Army Information Operations Proponent Current Force Integration Directorate TRADOC Program Integration Office-Battle Command Center for Army Lessons Learned Combined Arms Doctrine Directorate Center for Army LeadershipComponents are: U.
S. Army Warrant Officer Career College Fort Leavenworth, Kansas is the oldest continuously operating Regular Army installation west of the Mississippi River; this historic post, noted for its campus setting, open green spaces and hometown character, is the home of the US Army's Combined Arms Center. CAC, as a major subordinate headquarters of the US Army Training and Doctrine Command, has been referred to as the "Intellectual Center of the Army", it is, in many regards, "home base" for the majority of field grade officers across the Army. Since 1882, CAC and its predecessor organizations have been engaged in the primary mission of preparing the Army and its leaders for war. At present, this mission is divided between preparing the Army for the Global War on Terrorism and transforming it to meet future threats. In order to accomplish these critical missions, CAC provides Army-wide leadership and supervision for leader development and professional military and civilian education. All of these are focused toward making CAC a catalyst for change and to support the development of a relevant and ready ground force to support joint and multinational operations anywhere in the world.
The Combined Arms Center is organized along four basic levels: The commander exercises overall responsibility over assigned personnel and subordinate organizations to ensure that assigned missions are accomplished in the most efficient and effective manner possible. The Command Sergeant Major, by tradition, is responsible for the conduct and development of enlisted soldiers and non-commissioned officers across the command; the CAC Chief of Staff manages and oversees the activities of a coordinating staff and a special staff. The coordinating staff is focused on procedure development for the command. Major subordinate organizations carry out the majority of the functions assigned to the CAC commander. In general, each is resourced for and focused on a core function and one or more specified functions. Schools and specialized activities are spread across the country and are responsible for executing a portion of the CAC mission. In general, each of these organizations is responsible for the training of specific branch skills and serving as the Army's functional expert in that area.
In this regard, CAC is an integrator of specialized skills, on one hand, an executor of common skills, on the other. Since 1922, the center has published the bimonthly journal Military Review. Since 1976 commandant of the college has been a Lieutenant General. David Petraeus was a commandant before going to command the Multinational Force - Iraq. Lieutenant General James C. Riley from Jul 01 to Jun 03 Lieutenant General William S. Wallace from Jul 03 to Oct 05 Lieutenant General David H. Petraeus from Oct 05 to Feb 07 Lieutenant General William B. Caldwell IV from Jun 07 to Nov 09 Lieutenant General Robert L. Caslen, Jr. from Feb 10 to Sep 11 Lieutenant General David G. Perkins from Nov 11 to Feb 14 Lieutenant General Robert B. Brown from Feb 14 to Apr 16 Lieutenant General Michael Lundy from Apr 16 to present Command Sergeant Major Eric C. Dostie 2018-Present Command Sergeant Major David Turnbull 2014-2018 Command Sergeant Major Jeffrey W. Wright 2013-2014 Command Sergeant Major Christopher K. Greca 2011-2013 Command Sergeant Major Philip F. Johndrow 2008-2011 Command Sergeant Major David M. Bruner 2007-2008 Command Sergeant major Cory N. McCarty 2005-2007 Command Sergeant Major John D.
Sparks 2003-2005 Command Sergeant Major Cynthia A. Pritchett 1997-2003 Command Sergeant Major Edward D. Naylor 1993-1997 Command Sergeant Major L. H. Smith 1991-1993 Fort Leavenworth, Kansas U. S. Army Training and Doctrine Command U. S. Army Command and General Staff College U. S. Army Warrant Officer Career College Buffalo Soldier Center for the Army Profession and Ethic Combined Arms Center Official Website Com
Japan International Cooperation Agency
The Japan International Cooperation Agency is a governmental agency that coordinates Official Development Assistance for the government of Japan. It is chartered with assisting economic and social growth in developing countries, the promotion of international cooperation. In October, 2003, Sadako Ogata, former United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, became the President, it has been led by Professor Shinichi Kitaoka, the former President of the International University of Japan. JICA's predecessor, the previous Japan International Cooperation Agency, was a semigovernmental organization under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, formed in 1974; the new JICA was formed on October 1, 2003. A major component of the comprehensive overhaul of Japan's ODA decided by the National Diet on November, 2006, is that the merger in 2008 will be between JICA and that part of the Japan Bank for International Cooperation which extends concessional loans to developing countries. Since its completion on 1 October 2008, the new JICA has become one of the largest bilateral development organizations in the world with a network of 97 overseas offices, projects in more than 150 countries, available financial resources of 1 trillion yen.
The reorganized agency is responsible for administering part of Japan's grant aid, under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and so all three major ODA components—technical cooperation, grant aid, concessional loans—are now managed "under one roof." The new JICA will strengthen research and training capacity in the years ahead, acting as a kind of ODA think tank, contributing to global development strategies, strengthening collaboration with international institutions, being better able to communicate Japan's position on major development and aid issues. The forthcoming changes will be an extension of a series of JICA reforms which began in October 2003 when it became administratively independent; the organization's domestic establishments including international centers where JICA helps train some 8,000 foreign public officials, engineers and community leaders annually in Japan are being streamlined. The organization is undergoing operational and organizational change in its country offices.
Greater emphasis is being placed on a field-based approach to programs/projects, decentralizing staff, delegating increased authority from Tokyo headquarters to overseas offices, reducing bureaucracy, fast tracking programs/projects. An increasing number of JICA programs/projects focus on what JICA's President, Mrs. Sadako Ogata describes as providing "human security"; the developed concept of "human security" will empower local communities to have a greater say in their own futures by strengthening grassroots programs, such as improving education and health projects. 1954 Apr - Japan joins Colombo Plan and initiates technical cooperation programs 1962 Jun - Overseas Technology Cooperation Agency established 1963 Jul - Japan Emigration Service established 1965 Apr - Japan Overseas Cooperation Volunteers program launched 1974 Aug - OTCA and JEMIS merge to form the Japan International Cooperation Agency 1987 Sep - Disaster Relief Team formed 1989 - Total official development assistance contributions exceed that of the United States to become the highest in the world 1990 Apr - Senior Cooperation Specialist dispatch program begun 2003 Oct - JICA established as an Independent Administrative Institution JICA is part of Japan's official development assistance effort, with a role in providing technical cooperation, capital grants and yen loans.
JICA's core development programs are technical assistance programs/projects for capacity and institutional development, feasibility studies and master plans. The Japan Overseas Cooperation Volunteers, JICA Senior Volunteers, Japan Disaster Relief Team groups of JICA are known among the Japanese general public and tax-payers. Japan Disaster Relief Team members are seen in news reports on relief efforts after major natural disasters around the world, such as the 2005 South Asian earthquake. JICA's Mission Statement: "We, as a bridge between the people of Japan and developing countries, will advance international cooperation through the sharing of knowledge and experience and will work to build a more peaceful and prosperous world." Major aid modalitiesTechnical assistance programs/projects for capacity and institutional development Feasibility studies and master plans Dispatch of SpecialistsSpecialists dispatched to the field include those recommended from related government ministries and agencies as well as those applying through the specialist registration system.
Assignments range from extended stays of over a year to shorter stays of less than one year. JICA provides technical training for participants from the developing countries in a wide range of fields, including medical and agricultural training. Training within Japan Group training Field-specific course Country/Region-specific course Individual training AccommodationJICA has its own accommodation facilities for participants of many of its programs, they are located in the important cities in Japan and are referred to as International Centers. The one at Tokyo is Tokyo Internation
The Japan Times
The Japan Times is Japan's largest and oldest English-language daily newspaper. It is published by The Japan Times, Ltd. a subsidiary of News2u Holdings, Inc.. It is headquartered in the Kioicho Building in Kioicho, Tokyo; the Japan Times was launched by Motosada Zumoto on March 22, 1897, with the goal of giving Japanese an opportunity to read and discuss news and current events in English to help Japan to participate in the international community. The paper was independent of government control, but from 1931 onward, the Japanese government was mounting pressure on the paper's editors to submit to its policies. In 1933, the Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs managed to appoint Hitoshi Ashida, former Ministry official, as chief editor. During World War II, the newspaper served as an outlet for Imperial Japanese government propaganda and editorial opinion; the paper's circulation at that time was about 825,000. It was successively renamed The Japan Times and Mail following its merger with The Japan Mail, The Japan Times and Advertiser following its merger with The Japan Advertiser, Nippon Times before reverting to the Japan Times title in 1956.
The temporary change to Nippon Times occurred during ban of English language sentiment during World War II era Japan. Shintaro Fukushima became the president in 1956, he exchanged each company's stock with Toshiaki Ogasawara. After Fukushima renounced managing rights, Ogasawara's company Nifco, a manufacturer of automotive fasteners, acquired control of The Japan Times in 1983 and changed all of former staffs and company's tradition established in 1897. Nifco chairman Toshiaki Ogasawara served as the chairman and publisher of The Japan Times until 2016, his daughter Yukiko Ogasawara was president of the company from 2006 to 2012, when she was replaced by career Japan Times staffer Takeharu Tsutsumi. Yukiko succeeded her father as chairman of the company in 2016. Nifco sold The Japan Times to News2u Holdings, Inc. on June 30, 2017. After being sold to the "PR company" News2u, the Japan Times changed its editorial stance and contributor lineup as part of efforts to reduce criticism of the paper as an "anti-Japanese" outlet.
In November 2018, the newspaper announced in an editor's note that it would replace the term "forced labor" with "wartime laborers", the term "comfort women" with "women who worked in wartime brothels, including those who did so against their will, to provide sex to Japanese soldiers", in its subsequent articles. The change drew immediate criticism from readers and employees, with particular concerns expressed over the paper's apparent alignment with the political positions of Prime Minister Shinzō Abe; the Japan Times, Inc. publishes three periodicals: The Japan Times, an English-language daily broadsheet. The daily's content includes: News: domestic and world news. Opinion: editorials, op-eds, letters to the editor. Features: life and style, media, technology and drink, environment, cartoons. Entertainment: film, music, books, event previews, festival listing. Sports: domestic and overseas sports news, including coverage of baseball, basketball, figure skating. Since 16 October 2013, The Japan Times has been printed and sold along with The New York Times International Edition.
Printed stories from The Japan Times are archived online. The newspaper has a reader's forum and, since 2013, the website offers a section for readers' comments below articles; this came about during a redesign and redevelopment of the newspaper, using Responsive Web Design techniques so the site is optimised for all digital devices. The Japan Times has a social media presence on Twitter and Google+. Monty DiPietro, art critic John Gauntner, Nihonshu columnist Don Maloney Dreux Richard, African community, investigative Donald Richie, film critic Edward Seidensticker Robert Yellin Ceramic Scene columnist Jean Pearce, Community columnist Fred Varcoe, Sports editor Elyse Rogers and Fume Miyatake, Women in Business Columnists Mark Brazil, "Wild Watch" nature columnist Staff at The Japan Times are represented by two unions, one of, Tozen. Capital: ¥100,000,000 Business: Publishes The Japan Times, The Japan Times On Sunday, The Japan Times Alpha, books in English and Japanese Genki: an Integrated Course in Elementary Japanese A Dictionary of Basic Japanese Grammar Yomiuri Shimbun International Herald Tribune Asahi Shimbun Media related to The Japan Times at Wikimedia Commons The Japan Times Online The Japan Times Plus The Japan Times Bookclub Genki Online
Virtual reality is an interactive computer-generated experience taking place within a simulated environment. It incorporates auditory and visual feedback, but may allow other types of sensory feedback; this immersive environment can be similar to the real world or it can be fantastical. Current VR technology most uses virtual reality headsets or multi-projected environments, sometimes in combination with physical environments or props, to generate realistic images and other sensations that simulate a user's physical presence in a virtual or imaginary environment. A person using virtual reality equipment is able to "look around" the artificial world, move around in it, interact with virtual features or items; the effect is created by VR headsets consisting of a head-mounted display with a small screen in front of the eyes, but can be created through specially designed rooms with multiple large screens. Other forms of VR include augmented reality and mixed reality systems. VR systems that include transmission of vibrations and other sensations to the user through a controller or other devices are known as haptic systems.
This tactile information is known as force feedback in medical, video gaming, military training applications. "Virtual" has had the meaning of "being something in essence or effect, though not or in fact" since the mid-1400s. The term "virtual" has been used in the computer sense of "not physically existing but made to appear by software" since 1959. In 1938, French avant-garde playwright Antonin Artaud described the illusory nature of characters and objects in the theatre as "la réalité virtuelle" in a collection of essays, Le Théâtre et son double; the English translation of this book, published in 1958 as The Theater and its Double, is the earliest published use of the term "virtual reality". The term "artificial reality", coined by Myron Krueger, has been in use since the 1970s; the term "virtual reality" was first used in a science fiction context in The Judas Mandala, a 1982 novel by Damien Broderick. One method by which virtual reality can be realized is simulation-based virtual reality.
Driving simulators, for example, give the driver on board the impression of driving an actual vehicle by predicting vehicular motion caused by driver input and feeding back corresponding visual and audio cues to the driver. With avatar image-based virtual reality, people can join the virtual environment in the form of real video as well as an avatar. One can participate in the 3D distributed virtual environment as form of either a conventional avatar or a real video. A user can select own type of participation based on the system capability. In projector-based virtual reality, modeling of the real environment plays a vital role in various virtual reality applications, such as robot navigation, construction modeling, airplane simulation. Image-based virtual reality system has been gaining popularity in computer graphics and computer vision communities. In generating realistic models, it is essential to register acquired 3D data. Desktop-based virtual reality involves displaying a 3D virtual world on a regular desktop display without use of any specialized positional tracking equipment.
Many modern first-person video games can be used as an example, using various triggers, responsive characters, other such interactive devices to make the user feel as though they are in a virtual world. A common criticism of this form of immersion is that there is no sense of peripheral vision, limiting the user's ability to know what is happening around them. A head-mounted display more immerses the user in a virtual world. A virtual reality headset includes two small high resolution OLED or LCD monitors which provide separate images for each eye for stereoscopic graphics rendering a 3D virtual world, a binaural audio system and rotational real-time head tracking for six degrees of movement, optionally motion controls with haptic feedback for physically interacting within the virtual world in a intuitive way with little to no abstraction. Augmented reality is a type of virtual reality technology that blends what the user sees in their real surroundings with digital content generated by computer software.
The additional software-generated images with the virtual scene enhance how the real surroundings look in some way. AR systems layer virtual information over a camera live feed into a headset or smartglasses or through a mobile device giving the user the ability to view three-dimensional images. Mixed reality is the merging of the real world and virtual worlds to produce new environments and visualizations where physical and digital objects co-exist and interact in real time. A cyberspace is a networked virtual reality. Simulated reality is a hypothetical virtual reality as immersive as the actual reality, it is most to be produced using a brain–computer interface and quantum computing. The exact origins of virtual reality are disputed because of how difficult it has been to formulate a definition for the concept of an alternative existence; the development of perspective in Renaissance Europe created convincing depictions of spaces that did not exist, in what has been referred to as the "multiplying of artificial worlds".
Other elements of virtual reality appeared as early as the 1860s. Antonin Artaud took the view that illusion was not distinct from reality, advocating that spectators at a play should suspend disbelief and regard the drama on stage as reality; the first references to the more modern concept of virtual reality came from science fiction. Morton Heilig wrote in the 1950s of an "Experience Theatre" that could encompass all the sen
William Jefferson Clinton is an American politician who served as the 42nd president of the United States from 1993 to 2001. Prior to the presidency, he was the governor of Arkansas from 1979 to 1981, again from 1983 to 1992, the attorney general of Arkansas from 1977 to 1979. A member of the Democratic Party, Clinton was ideologically a New Democrat, many of his policies reflected a centrist "Third Way" political philosophy. Clinton was born and raised in Arkansas and attended Georgetown University, University College and Yale Law School, he met Hillary Rodham at Yale and married her in 1975. After graduating, Clinton returned to Arkansas and won election as the Attorney General of Arkansas, serving from 1977 to 1979; as Governor of Arkansas, he overhauled the state's education system and served as chairman of the National Governors Association. Clinton was elected president in 1992. At age 46, he became the first from the Baby Boomer generation. Clinton presided over the longest period of peacetime economic expansion in American history.
He signed into law the North American Free Trade Agreement but failed to pass his plan for national health care reform. In the 1994 elections, the Republican Party won unified control of the Congress for the first time in 40 years. In 1996, Clinton became the first Democrat since Franklin D. Roosevelt to be elected to a second full term, he passed welfare reform and the State Children's Health Insurance Program, as well as financial deregulation measures, including the Gramm–Leach–Bliley Act and the Commodity Futures Modernization Act of 2000. In 1998, Clinton was impeached by the House of Representatives for perjury and obstruction of justice following allegations that he committed perjury and obstructed justice to conceal an affair that he had with Monica Lewinsky, a 22-year old White House Intern. Clinton was completed his term in office, he is only the second U. S. president—following Andrew Johnson 131 years earlier—to be impeached. During the last three years of Clinton's presidency, the Congressional Budget Office reported a budget surplus, the first such surplus since 1969.
In foreign policy, Clinton ordered U. S. military intervention in the Bosnian and Kosovo wars, signed the Iraq Liberation Act in opposition to Saddam Hussein, participated in the 2000 Camp David Summit to advance the Israeli–Palestinian peace process, assisted the Northern Ireland peace process. Clinton left office with the highest end-of-office approval rating of any U. S. president since World War II, has continually scored high in the historical rankings of U. S. presidents placing in the top third. Since leaving office, he has been involved in humanitarian work, he created the William J. Clinton Foundation to address international causes such as the prevention of AIDS and global warming, he has remained active in politics by campaigning for Democratic candidates, including the presidential campaigns of his wife and Barack Obama. In 2004, Clinton published My Life. In 2009, he was named the United Nations Special Envoy to Haiti and after the 2010 Haiti earthquake, he teamed with George W. Bush to form the Clinton Bush Haiti Fund.
In addition, he secured the release of two American journalists imprisoned by North Korea, visiting the capital Pyongyang and negotiating their release with Kim Jong-il. Clinton was born William Jefferson Blythe III on August 19, 1946, at Julia Chester Hospital in Hope, Arkansas, he is the son of William Jefferson Blythe Jr. a traveling salesman who had died in an automobile accident three months before his birth, Virginia Dell Cassidy. His parents had married on September 4, 1943, but this union proved to be bigamous, as Blythe was still married to his third wife. Virginia traveled to New Orleans to study nursing soon after Bill was born, leaving him in Hope with her parents Eldridge and Edith Cassidy, who owned and ran a small grocery store. At a time when the southern United States was racially segregated, Clinton's grandparents sold goods on credit to people of all races. In 1950, Bill's mother returned from nursing school and married Roger Clinton Sr. who co-owned an automobile dealership in Hot Springs, Arkansas with his brother and Earl T. Ricks.
The family moved to Hot Springs in 1950. Although he assumed use of his stepfather's surname, it was not until Clinton turned 15 that he formally adopted the surname Clinton as a gesture toward his stepfather. Clinton said that he remembered his stepfather as a gambler and an alcoholic who abused his mother and half-brother, Roger Clinton Jr. to the point where he intervened multiple times with the threat of violence to protect them. In Hot Springs, Clinton attended St. John's Catholic Elementary School, Ramble Elementary School, Hot Springs High School, where he was an active student leader, avid reader, musician. Clinton was in the chorus and played the tenor saxophone, winning first chair in the state band's saxophone section, he considered dedicating his life to music, but as he noted in his autobiography My Life: Clinton began an interest in law at Hot Springs High, when he took up the challenge to argue the defense of the ancient Roman Senator Catiline in a mock trial in his Latin class.
After a vigorous defense that made use of his "budding rhetorical and political skills", he told the Latin teacher Elizabeth Buck that it "made him realize that someday he would study law". Clinton has identified two influential moments in his life, both occurring in 1963, that contributed to his decision to become a public figure. One was his visit as a Boys Nation senator to
A war memorial is a building, statue or other edifice to celebrate a war or victory, or to commemorate those who died or were injured in a war. The oldest war memorial in the United Kingdom is Oxford University's All Souls College, it was founded in 1438 with the provision that its fellows should pray for those killed in the long wars with France. War memorials for the Franco-Prussian War were the first in Europe to have rank-and-file soldiers commemorated by name; every soldier, killed was granted a permanent resting-place as part of the terms of the Treaty of Frankfurt. To commemorate the millions who died in World War I, war memorials became commonplace in communities large and small around the world. In modern times the main intent of war memorials is not to glorify war, but to honor those who have died. Sometimes, as in the case of the Warsaw Genuflection of Willy Brandt, they may serve as focal points of increasing understanding between previous enemies. Using modern technology an international project is archiving all post-1914 Commonwealth war graves and Commonwealth War Graves Commission memorials to create a virtual memorial.
During the First World War, many nations saw massive loss of life. More people lost their lives in the east than in the west. In the west, in response to the victory there obtained, most of the cities in the countries involved in the conflict erected memorials, with the memorials in smaller villages and towns listing the names of each local soldier, killed in addition to their names being recorded on military headstones against the will of those directly involved, without any opportunity of choice in the British Empire. Massive British monuments commemorating thousands of dead with no identified war grave, such as the Menin Gate at Ypres and the Thiepval memorial on the Somme, were constructed; the Liberty Memorial, located in Kansas City, Missouri, is a memorial dedicated to all Americans who served in the Great War. For various reasons connected with their character, the same may be said to apply to certain governmental memorials in the United Kingdom. In Maryland, in the center of the city of Baltimore facing the Baltimore City Hall to the west is a geometric paved tree-lined plaza with the War Memorial Building to the east with a large marble decorated civic auditorium and historical and veterans museum below, designed by Laurence Hall Fowler, dedicated 1925.
After World War I, some towns in France set up pacifist war memorials. Instead of commemorating the glorious dead, these memorials denounce war with figures of grieving widows and children rather than soldiers; such memorials provoked anger among the military in general. The most famous is at Gentioux-Pigerolles in the department of Creuse. Below the column which lists the name of the fallen stands an orphan in bronze pointing to an inscription'Maudite soit la guerre'. Feelings ran so high that the memorial was not inaugurated until 1990 and soldiers at the nearby army camp were under orders to turn their heads when they walked past. Another such memorial is in the small town of Équeurdreville-Hainneville in the department of Manche. Here the statue is of a grieving widow with two small children. There seems to be no exact equivalent form of a pacifist memorial within the United Kingdom but evidently sentiments were in many cases identical. Thus, although it seems that this has never been recognized, it can be argued that there was throughout the United Kingdom a construction of war memorials with reference to the concept of peace.
In many cases, World War I memorials were extended to show the names of locals who died in the World War II in addition. Since that time memorials to the dead in other conflicts such as the Korean War and Vietnam War have noted individual contributions, at least in the West. In relation to actions which may well in point of fact be connected with the world wars if this happens, for whatever reason, not to be a matter of general discussion similar and architecturally significant memorials are designed and constructed. War memorials can differ in type and composition. Many war memorials take the form of a traditional monument or statue, while others consist of entire buildings containing a museum, while yet others are simple plaques. War memorials can take a variety of other forms, but not limited to, commemorative gardens, eternal flames, urban pl
Itoman is a city located in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan. The city sits at the southern tip of Okinawa Island; as of April 2013, the city has an estimated population of 59,605 and a population density of 1,335.53 persons per km². The total area is 46.63 km². Itoman sits on a flat tableland with craggy rolling hills of Ryukyuan limestone which range between Cape Kyan to the south and Yozadake to the north; the south of the town is known for its steep sea cliffs around the Mabuni Cliffs. Itoman has a long history as a fishing port. In the pre-modern period its fisherman ventured as far as the Indian Ocean. Records indicate that the fisherman made contact with New Guinea. By 1908 the village of Itoman numbered 8,000 residents all involved in the fishing industry. Men of Itoman worked on fishing boats, women worked at the transport and sale of fish in the prefectural capitol of Naha. In 1918 Naha and Itoman were connected by a horse-drawn tram; the line spanned 12 kilometres. The Okinawa Prefectural Railways Itoman Line was established in 1924, operated until 1945.
Itoman was a final front of the Battle of Okinawa in World War II. The area saw enormous casualties to both military civilians. Itoman is noted for the Himeyuri Butai, a field hospital nursing corps of 221 high-school students who committed suicide at the end of the battle. Itoman was established as a town in 1908. In 1961 it absorbed the villages of Kanegusuku and Miwa. Itoman was elevated to city status on December 1, 1971. Itoman is administered from the city hall in Shiozaki; the Itoman Board of Education oversees the preschool and middle school, community education centers, sports facilities of the city. The Itoman City Council consists of 23 members who serve a four-year term, are led by a chairperson and vice-chairperson of the council. Fishing remains the primary industry of the city of Itoman. Japan National Route 331, which connects Naha and Ōgimi along the eastern coast of Okinawa Island, runs through Itoman and connects the city to other municipalities in Okinawa. Cornerstone of Peace Itoman City official website Itoman City official website News of Okinawa in WEB RADIO Okinawa Prefectural Peace Memorial Museum Himeyuri Monument（Monument for high school girls who died in WWII） Cornerstone of Peace Mabuni Hill