England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west, the Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east, the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight. England became a state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the worlds first industrialised nation, Englands terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the southwest, the capital is London, which is the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the name England is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means land of the Angles. The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages, the Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. The earliest recorded use of the term, as Engla londe, is in the ninth century translation into Old English of Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars, it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. An alternative name for England is Albion, the name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain.
The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo, in it are two very large islands called Britannia, these are Albion and Ierne. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, the word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins. Albion is now applied to England in a poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago, Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 years
Ludgate Hill is a hill in the City of London, near the old Ludgate, a gate to the City that was taken down, with its attached gaol, in 1780. It is the site of St. Pauls Cathedral, traditionally said to have been the site of a Roman temple of the goddess Diana and it is one of the three ancient hills of London, the others being Tower Hill and Cornhill. The highest point is just north of St. Pauls, at 17.6 metres above sea level, Ludgate Hill is the name of a street which runs between St. Pauls Churchyard and Ludgate Circus, from where it becomes Fleet Street. It was formerly a much narrower street called Ludgate Street, many small alleys on Ludgate Hill were swept away in the late 1860s to build Ludgate Hill railway station between Water Lane and New Bridge Street, a station of the London and Dover Railway. This involved the regrading of the slope of Ludgate Hill at the junction, there is a blue plaque near the bottom of the hill with these words, In a house near this site was published in 1702 The Daily Courant first London daily newspaper.
About halfway up Ludgate Hill is the church of St. Martin, paternoster Square, home of the London Stock Exchange since 2004, lies on the hill, immediately to the north of St. Pauls Cathedral. Ludgate is mentioned in Geoffrey of Monmouths Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136, according to the pseudohistorical work the name comes from the mythic Welsh king Lud son of Heli whom he claims gave his name to London. One proposed derivation, entirely prosaic, is that the name is a variation on Fleodgaet, at the bottom of Ludgate Hill, on the north side, is Limeburner Lane. This may sound like a quaint survival from medieval times, but it was constructed in the 1990s. This was the location of the Bell Savage Inn, first mentioned in 1452 where plays were performed, according to surveyor John Stow the name was derived from Isabella Savage, but Addison claimed it was La belle Sauvage, a woman in the wilderness. The clown Richard Tarlton used to perform here and it is mentioned in Thomas Hughes Tom Browns Schooldays and Charles Dickens The Pickwick Papers.
In October 1684, a Rynoceros lately brought from the East Indies was put on show there, the inn was demolished in 1873. In 1851, part of it was rented out to John Cassell, at this time it was still called La Belle Sauvage Yard and the firm of Cassell used la Belle Sauvage in some of their imprints. Thomas Malory was imprisoned in the Ludgate prison in the 1460s and he wrote Le Morte dArthur. The prison is mentioned in Daniel Defoes Roxana, The Fortunate Mistress, from 1731, the London Coffee House was next to St. Martins, Ludgate, at 24-26 Ludgate Hill. It was frequented by Joseph Priestley and Benjamin Franklin, when the juries at the Old Bailey failed to reach a verdict, they were housed here overnight. In 1806, a Roman hexagonal altar dedicated to Claudia Martina by her husband, the London Coffee House was closed in 1867, and is now occupied by a pub called Ye Olde London. Edmund Spensers Shepheardes Calender was printed by Hugh Singleton at the sign of the Gylden tunne in Creed Lane in 1579, John Evelyn lived in the Hawk and Pheasant on Ludgate Hill in 1658-59
Lombard Street, London
Lombard Street, London, is a street notable for its connections with the City of Londons merchant and insurance industries, stretching back to medieval times. Its overall length is 260 metres and it has often been compared with Wall Street in New York City. Lombard Street, since the construction of King William Street, has two distinctive sections, the short section between Bank junction and the church of St Mary Woolnoth is spacious and carries two-way traffic including several bus routes, which continues along King William Street. Lombard Street bears to the east and the remainder is much narrower and is one-way, at the eastern end of the street, a number of modern buildings exist on both sides, in contrast to the older buildings and architectural styles along much of its length. Addresses on the street are numbered 1 to 40 along the side, running from Bank to Gracechurch Street, 41 to 82 along the north side. The postcode for the street is EC3V, the nearest London Underground stations to Lombard Street are Bank and Monument, with one of the numerous entrances to Bank station being situated on Lombard Street itself.
Mainline railway stations at Cannon Street and Fenchurch Street are close by, the street runs downhill towards Bank, being on the eastern side of the Walbrook valley. At its junction with Gracechurch Street it is at an elevation of 16.7 metres, side streets and alleys run towards Cornhill to the north, and Cannon Street to the south. Running north is Popes Head Alley, Change Alley, Birchin Lane, heading south is St Swithins Lane, Post Office Court, Abchurch Lane, Nicholas Lane, Clements Lane and Plough Court. Lombard Street has its origins in one of the main Roman roads of Londinium and it formed a plot of land granted by King Edward I to goldsmiths from the part of northern Italy known as Lombardy. In 1537 Sir Richard Gresham suggested to Lord Privy Seal, Thomas Cromwell that they make a goodely Bursse in Lombert-streete, from this originated the Royal Exchange built by Sir Richards son, Thomas. Lloyds Coffee House, which became the global insurance market Lloyds of London. The location, on the side of the street, is now occupied at street level by a supermarket.
Lloyds is now located in Lime Street, where its current building was completed in 1986, until the 1980s, most UK-based banks had their head offices in Lombard Street and historically it has been the London home for money lenders. No.54 was the headquarters of Barclays before the financial institution moved in 2005 to One Churchill Place at Canary Wharf. No.71 was the headquarters of Lloyds Bank, and No.60 was the headquarters of the Trustee Savings Bank, Lombard Street has a number of colourful signs hanging from the buildings, depicting organisations and buildings once located there. Having previously been banned, the signs were erected for the coronation of Edward VII in 1902. From 1678 to 1829, the General Post Office had its headquarters on Lombard Street, the expense of continuously expanding the post office site in the middle of the financial district, eventually necessitated a move to St Martins-le-Grand
Sir Thomas Gresham, Thomas Gresham the Elder, was an English merchant and financier who acted on behalf of King Edward VI and Edwards half-sisters, queens Mary I and Elizabeth I. In 1565 Gresham founded the Royal Exchange in the City of London, the Government sought Greshams advice in all their money difficulties, and frequently employed him in various diplomatic missions. He had no stated salary, but in reward of his services received from King Edward various grants of lands, on the accession of Queen Mary in 1553 Gresham fell out of favour at Court for a short time with Alderman William Dauntsey displacing him. His enterprises made him one of the richest men of his generation in England, in the Rialto there, called Saint Marks, tis but a bauble, if compared to this. The nearest, that which most resembles this, is the great Burse in Antwerp, yet no comparable either in height or wideness, oh my Lord Mayor, this Gresham hath much graced your City of London, his fame will long outlive him. In 1544 he married Anne Ferneley, widow of Sir William Read, by his wife he had an only son who predeceased him.
He had a daughter who married Sir Nathaniel Bacon, half-brother of Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St Albans, becoming Anne. Gresham died suddenly, apparently of apoplexy, on 21 November 1579 and was buried at St Helens Church, Gresham College, the first institution of higher learning in London, came to be established in 1597. Greshams Law takes its name from him because he urged Queen Elizabeth to restore the debased currency of England. However, Sir Thomas never formulated anything like Greshams Law, which was the 1857 conception of Henry Dunning Macleod, the Faneuil Hall at Boston, has borrowed this heraldic device. The Gresham coat of arms is blazoned, Argent, a Chevron Erminés between three Mullets pierced Sable, although a beautiful story, it is more likely that the grasshopper is simply a canting heraldic crest playing on the sound grassh- and Gresh-. The Gresham family uses as its motto Fiat Voluntas Tua, Gresham appears as a background figure in a series of fictional mystery novels by the British author Valerie Anand writing under the pen-name of Fiona Buckley.
The fictional heroine of the stories, Ursula Blanchard, lived in Antwerp with her first husband while he worked as one of Greshams agents, Gresham features as the central character of Herbert Strangs book On London River, A Story of the Days of Queen Elizabeth. List of multiple discoveries Titsey Place This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Hugh, ed. Gresham. The Life and Times of Sir Thomas Gresham by J. W. Burgon Sir Thomas Gresham by F. R. Salter Baynes, john William Burgon, The life and times of Sir Thomas Gresham comp. Chiefly from his correspondence preserved in Her Majestys state-paper office, including notices of many of his contemporaries, published 1839 by R. Jennings in London. John William Burgon The life and times of Sir Thomas Gresham Volume II, the Life and Times of Sir Thomas Gresham Gresham and Antwerp, Gresham College Magna Carta Ancestry, Douglas Richardson
St Michael, Cornhill
St Michael, Cornhill, is a medieval parish church in the City of London with pre-Norman Conquest parochial foundation. The medieval structure was lost in the Great Fire of London, the upper parts of the tower are by Nicholas Hawksmoor. The church was embellished by Sir George Gilbert Scott and Herbert Williams in the nineteenth century, the church of St Michael was in existence by 1133. The patronage was in the possession of the Abbot and convent of Evesham until 1503, a new tower was built in 1421, possibly after a fire. On the south side of the church was a churchyard with what Stow calls a proper cloister, with lodgings for choristers, and these were maintained by Sir John Rudstone, after whose death in 1530 the choir was dissolved and the cross fell into decay. There is a tale, dating from the early 16th-century. They fell unconscious, but discovered scratch marks in the masonry, for years afterwards these were pointed out as the Devils clawmarks. The medieval church, except for the tower, was destroyed in the Great Fire of London in 1666, the design is traditionally attributed to Sir Christopher Wren.
The new church was 83 feet long and 67 feet wide, divided into nave and aisles by Doric columns, there was an organ at the west end, and a reredos with paintings of Moses and Aaron at the east. The walls, George Godwin noted, did not form right-angles, the fifteenth-century tower, having proved unstable, was demolished in 1704 by order of the Archbishop. A 130-foot high replacement was completed in 1721, in contrast to the main body of the church, it was built in a Gothic style, in imitation of that of Magdalen College, Oxford. Construction had begun in 1715, with money from the coal fund, the designer of the lower stages was probably William Dickinson, working in Christopher Wrens office. Funds proved inadequate, and work stopped in 1717 with the half completed. The tower was completed in 1722 with the aid of a grant from the Commission for Building Fifty New Churches. Containing elaborately panelled turrets, Hawksmoors tower contains Kings Chapel terminations in the pinnacles, repairs were made in 1751,1775, and 1790, the last two of which were done under the survey of George Wyatt.
In the 1790 repairs, the aisle windows and the east window were made circular, as well as the addition of a new pulpit, altar rail, east window glass. Scott demolished a house that had stood against the tower, replacing it with a porch, built in the Franco-Italian Gothic style. It is decorated with carving by John Birnie Philip, which includes a high-relief tympanum sculpture depicting St Michael disputing with Satan, Scott inserted Gothic tracery to the circular clerestory windows, and into the plain round-headed windows on the south side of the church
History of London
London has a history going back over 2,000 years. In the main time, it has grown to one of the most significant financial and cultural capitals on Earth and it has experienced plague, devastating fire, civil war, aerial bombardment, terrorist attacks, and widespread rioting. The City of London is its core and today is its primary financial district. Trinovantes were the Iron Age tribe who inhabited the area prior to the Romans. Geoffrey provides prehistoric London with an array of legendary kings, such as Lud who, he claims, renamed the town Caer Ludein, from which London was derived. However, despite intensive excavations, archaeologists have found no evidence of a major settlement in the area. There have been scattered prehistoric finds, evidence of farming and traces of habitation and it is now considered unlikely that a pre-Roman city existed, but as some of the Roman city remains unexcavated, it is still just possible that some major settlement may yet be discovered. London was most likely an area with scattered settlement.
Some recent discoveries indicate probable very early settlements near the Thames in the London area, in 1999, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found, again on the foreshore south of Vauxhall Bridge. This bridge either crossed the Thames, or went to a now lost island in the river, dendrology dated the timbers to 1500BC. In 2001 a further dig found that the timbers were driven vertically into the ground on the bank of the Thames west of Vauxhall Bridge. In 2010 the foundations of a timber structure, dated to 4000BC, were found on the Thames foreshore. The function of the structure is not known. All these structures are on the bank at a natural crossing point where the River Effra flows into the Thames. Numerous finds have made of spear heads and weaponry from the Bronze and Iron Ages near the banks of the Thames in the London area. This suggests that the Thames was an important tribal boundary, Londinium was established as a civilian town by the Romans about seven years after the invasion of AD43.
London, like Rome, was founded on the point of the river where it was enough to bridge. Early Roman London occupied a small area, roughly equivalent to the size of Hyde Park
London /ˈlʌndən/ is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain and it was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium. Londons ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1. 12-square-mile medieval boundaries. London is a global city in the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism. It is crowned as the worlds largest financial centre and has the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world, London is a world cultural capital. It is the worlds most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the worlds largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic, London is the worlds leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. Londons universities form the largest concentration of education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted the modern Summer Olympic Games three times, London has a diverse range of people and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken in the region.
Its estimated mid-2015 municipal population was 8,673,713, the largest of any city in the European Union, Londons urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census. The citys metropolitan area is the most populous in the EU with 13,879,757 inhabitants, the city-region therefore has a similar land area and population to that of the New York metropolitan area. London was the worlds most populous city from around 1831 to 1925, Other famous landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Pauls Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square, and The Shard. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world, the etymology of London is uncertain. It is an ancient name, found in sources from the 2nd century and it is recorded c.121 as Londinium, which points to Romano-British origin, and hand-written Roman tablets recovered in the city originating from AD 65/70-80 include the word Londinio. The earliest attempted explanation, now disregarded, is attributed to Geoffrey of Monmouth in Historia Regum Britanniae and this had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had allegedly taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
From 1898, it was accepted that the name was of Celtic origin and meant place belonging to a man called *Londinos. The ultimate difficulty lies in reconciling the Latin form Londinium with the modern Welsh Llundain, which should demand a form *lōndinion, from earlier *loundiniom. The possibility cannot be ruled out that the Welsh name was borrowed back in from English at a date, and thus cannot be used as a basis from which to reconstruct the original name. Until 1889, the name London officially applied only to the City of London, two recent discoveries indicate probable very early settlements near the Thames in the London area
City of London Police
The City of London Police is the territorial police force responsible for law enforcement within the City of London, including the Middle and Inner Temples. The force responsible for law enforcement within the remainder of Greater London, outside of the City, is the Metropolitan Police Service, the City of London area has a resident population of around 9000. There is an influx of approximately 400,000 commuters into the City. The Commissioner since January 2016 is Ian Dyson, QPM, who was formerly the forces Assistant Commissioner, Policing in the City of London has existed since Roman times. Wood Street police station, headquarters of the City Police, is built on part of the site of a Roman fortress, which may have housed some of the first police in the City. Prior to 1839, the responsibility for policing in the City was divided, from the medieval period, responsibilities were shared with the Aldermans officers the Ward Beadles who are now purely ceremonial. It was these officers responsibility for ensuring the Night Watch was maintained, Policing during the day eventually came under the City Patrol, which evolved into the City Day Police, which was modelled on the Metropolitan Police.
In 1838, the Day Police and Night Watch were merged into a single organisation, the passing of the City of London Police Act 1839 gave statutory approval to the force as an independent police body, heading off attempts made to merge it with the Metropolitan Police. During 1842, the City Police moved its headquarters from Corporations Guildhall to 26 Old Jewry, a main challenge of policing in London prior to the 18th century was both gathering and transferring accurate information. Records were brought to court and often transferred between authorities, with one example being from the Guildhall bookhouse to Bridewell, the records were closely screened and had to otherwise remain in buildings like Guildhall bookhouse, to ensure the accuracy of the information being held. Aside from these records, information traveled between officials through word of mouth. Constables were an important part of police knowledge, within courtrooms, constables provided valuable information on specific criminals or neighborhoods.
Even so, many cases counted on the reliability of individuals with knowledge in London, development of sophisticated investigative techniques would come later. The Agas map can be used to display connections between early London buildings such as Guildhall bookhouse and Bridewell, tracking the total number of Londoners fell under pre-Victorian London policing duties. Beadles kept the names and surnames of householders in an effort to track this total and this allowed police to understand more about which areas of London were growing, the number of aliens in particular areas, and other valuable demographic information. In the twentieth century, after the Jack the Ripper murders in London, in 1902, Henry Jackson was the first British person to be convicted using fingerprinting techniques, a large change from knowledge gathering methods used centuries earlier. However, it was not until 1905 that fingerprinting began to hold as a procurement method. The Metropolitan Police has taken policing knowledge in London much further in modern times, when looking at formal policies on policing according to the Metropolitan Police, transference of knowledge, while easier, has become stricter
St Paul's Cathedral
St Pauls Cathedral, London, is an Anglican cathedral, the seat of the Bishop of London and the mother church of the Diocese of London. It sits on Ludgate Hill at the highest point of the City of London and is a Grade 1 listed building and its dedication to Paul the Apostle dates back to the original church on this site, founded in AD604. The present church, dating from the late 17th century, was designed in the English Baroque style by Sir Christopher Wren and its construction, completed in Wrens lifetime, was part of a major rebuilding programme in the City after the Great Fire of London. The cathedral is one of the most famous and most recognisable sights of London and its dome, framed by the spires of Wrens City churches, dominated the skyline for 300 years. At 365 feet high, it was the tallest building in London from 1710 to 1967, the dome is among the highest in the world. St Pauls is the second-largest church building in area in the United Kingdom after Liverpool Cathedral, St Pauls Cathedral occupies a significant place in the national identity.
It is the subject of much promotional material, as well as of images of the dome surrounded by the smoke. St Pauls Cathedral is a church with hourly prayer and daily services. The entry fee is £18 for adults, the location of Londiniums original cathedral is unknown. In 1995, however, a large and ornate 5th century building on Tower Hill was excavated, the Elizabethan antiquarian William Camden argued that a temple to the goddess Diana had stood during Roman times on the site occupied by the medieval St Pauls Cathedral. Wren reported that he had no trace of any such temple during the works to build the new cathedral after the Great Fire. Bede records that in AD604 St Augustine consecrated Mellitus as the first bishop to the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of the East Saxons and their king, Sæberht. Sæberhts uncle and overlord, Æthelberht, king of Kent, built a dedicated to St Paul in London. It is assumed, although unproven, that this first Anglo-Saxon cathedral stood on the site as the medieval. On the death of Sæberht in about 616, his sons expelled Mellitus from London.
The fate of the first cathedral building is unknown and this building, or a successor, was destroyed by fire in 962, but rebuilt in the same year. King Æthelred the Unready was buried in the cathedral on his death in 1016, the cathedral was burnt, with much of the city, in a fire in 1087, as recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. The fourth St Pauls, generally referred to as Old St Pauls, was begun by the Normans after the 1087 fire, a further fire in 1136 disrupted the work, and the new cathedral was not consecrated until 1240
London Bridge refers to several historical bridges that have spanned the River Thames between the City of London and Southwark, in central London. The current crossing, which opened to traffic in 1973, is a box girder bridge built from concrete and this replaced a 19th-century stone-arched bridge, which in turn superseded a 600-year-old medieval structure. This was preceded by a succession of bridges, the first built by the Roman founders of London. The current bridge stands at the end of the Pool of London but is positioned 30 metres upstream from previous alignments. The traditional ends of the bridge were marked by St Magnus-the-Martyr on the northern bank. Until Putney Bridge opened in 1729, London Bridge was the only road-crossing of the Thames downstream of Kingston-upon-Thames and its importance has been the subject of popular culture throughout the ages such as in the nursery rhyme London Bridge Is Falling Down and its inclusion within art and literature. The modern bridge is owned and maintained by Bridge House Estates and it carries the A3 road, which is maintained by the Greater London Authority.
The crossing delineates an area along the bank of the River Thames. The abutments of modern London Bridge rest several metres above natural embankments of gravel, between the embankments, the River Thames could have been crossed by ford when the tide was low, or ferry when it was high. There is archaeological evidence for scattered Neolithic, Bronze Age and Iron Age settlement nearby, two ancient fords were in use a few miles upstream, beyond the rivers upper tidal reach. They were aligned with the course of Watling Street and led into the heartlands of the Catuvellauni, some time before Claudius conquest of AD43, power shifted to the Trinovantes, who held the region northeast of the Thames estuary from a capital at Camulodunum. Claudius imposed a major colonia on Camulodunum, and made it the city of the new Roman province of Britannia. The first London Bridge was built by the Roman military as part of their road-building programme, around AD55, the temporary bridge over the Thames was replaced by a permanent timber piled bridge and guarded by a small garrison.
On the relatively high, dry ground at the end of the bridge, a small, opportunistic trading and shipping settlement took root. A smaller settlement developed at the end of the bridge. The bridge was destroyed along with the town in the Boudican revolt. Just downstream of the bridge were substantial quays and depots, convenient to seagoing trade between Britain and the rest of the Roman Empire, with the end of Roman rule in Britain in the early 5th century, Londinium was gradually abandoned and the bridge fell into disrepair. In the Saxon period, the became a boundary between the emergent, mutually hostile kingdoms of Mercia and Wessex
London Fire Brigade
The London Fire Brigade is the statutory fire and rescue service for London. It was formed by the Metropolitan Fire Brigade Act of 1865 under the leadership of superintendent Eyre Massey Shaw. Dany Cotton is the Commissioner for Fire and Emergency Planning, which includes the position of Chief Fire Officer, statutory responsibility for the running of the brigade lies with the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority. In 2013/14 the LFB handled 171,067999 emergency calls, of the calls it actually mobilised to,20,934 were fires, including 10,992 that were of a serious nature, making it one of the busiest fire brigades in the world. In the same 12-month period, it received 3,172 hoax calls, the highest number of any UK fire service, in 2015/16 the LFB received 171,488 emergency calls. These consisted of,20,773 fires,30,066 special service callouts and it conducts emergency planning and performs fire safety inspections and education. He introduced a uniform that, for the first time, included personal protection from the hazards of firefighting.
With 80 firefighters and 13 fire stations, the unit was still a private enterprise, funded by the insurance companies, in 1904 it was renamed as the London Fire Brigade. The LFB moved into a new headquarters built by Higgs and Hill on the Albert Embankment in Lambeth in 1937, during the Second World War the countrys brigades were amalgamated into a single National Fire Service. The separate London Fire Brigade for the County of London was re-established in 1948, in 1986 the Greater London Council was disbanded and a new statutory authority, the London Fire and Civil Defence Authority, was formed to take responsibility for the LFB. The LFCDA was replaced in 2000 by the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority, at the same time, the Greater London Authority was established to administer the LFEPA and coordinate emergency planning for London. Consisting of the Mayor of London and other elected members, the GLA takes responsibility for the Metropolitan Police Authority, Transport for London, in 2007 the LFB vacated its Lambeth headquarters and moved to a site in Union Street, Southwark.
In the same year, the Department for Communities and Local Government announced that LFB Commissioner Ken Knight had been appointed as the first Chief Fire, Knight was succeeded as Commissioner at that time by Ron Dobson, who served for almost ten years. Dany Cotton took over in 2017, becoming the brigades first female commissioner, dany Cotton is the current commissioner, having taken up the role on 1 January 2017. She holds the Queens Fire Service Medal, frank Jackson, CBE1938 to 1941, Cdr. Sir Aylmer Firebrace, CBE1933 to 1938, Maj. Cyril Morris 1918 to 1933, Arthur Reginald Dyer 1909 to 1918, sir Sampson Sladen 1903 to 1909, RAdm. James de Courcy Hamilton 1896 to 1903, lionel de Latour Wells 1891 to 1896, James Sexton Simmonds 1861 to 1891, Capt. Both divisions were divided into three districts, each under a Superintendent with his headquarters at a superintendent station, the superintendent stations themselves were commanded by District Officers, with the other stations under Station Officers