Altarnun is a village and civil parish in Cornwall, United Kingdom. It is located on the north-eastern edge of Bodmin Moor at grid reference SX 223 811; the parish of Altarnun includes the village of Fivelanes and the hamlets of Bolventor and Trewint, had a population of 976 according to the 2001 census. This increased to 1,084 according to the 2011 census. Other hamlets in the parish are Bowithick, South Carne, Lower Tregunnon, Tredaule; the area of the parish is the largest in Cornwall. By the time of the 2011 census the figures for the ward of Altarnun were provided; this ward contained 48 locations in the area and gave a population of 4,038. The moorland area of the parish is large and lies west of the village towards Rough Tor and southwards towards Dozmary Pool. There is a large conifer plantation at Wilsey Down Forest; the village is in the valley of the Penpont Water and the parish is divided by the A30 trunk road which passes through Fivelanes, once an important stopping place for stage coaches.
A Norman church was built in Altarnun in the 12th century, but the present church was built in the 15th century from unquarried stone from Bodmin Moor. The church is dedicated to mother of St David. A Celtic cross from the time of St Nonna is located by the church gate; this cross consists of a cross head resting on a stone base. Another cross is located at Two-gates by the road about half a mile north of the church. Other crosses are known as Sanctuary Cross, Halvana Cross, Occasiney Cross, Trekennick Cross, Tresmeak Cross and St Vincent's Mine Cross; as the largest parish church on Bodmin Moor, the Church of St Nonna is known as the Cathedral of the Moor. It was built in the 15th century in the Perpendicular style, with its bell tower standing 109 ft high, it is notable for a fine Norman font and old woodwork, including the screen, bench-ends and communion rails which date to 1684. The screen is one of the finest 15th century examples in Cornwall. John Wesley visited Trewint, lodging in Digory Isbell's home, now a museum of Wesley and Methodism.
Altarnun features in the novel Jamaica Inn by Daphne du Maurier set in the parish's former coaching house by the same name. The village was the birthplace of sculptor Neville Northey Burnard, it was surveyed for the Survey of English Dialects. Cornish bagpipes Gueltas, a Breton commune twinned with Altarnun Shaw, Thomas Trewint in its Historical Setting Altarnun Pipes Genuki: Altarnun
Cornish wrestling is a form of wrestling, established in Cornwall for several centuries. It is similar to the Breton Gouren wrestling style; the referee is known as a'stickler', it is claimed that the popular meaning of the word as a'pedant' originates from this usage. It is colloquially known as "wrasslin" in the Cornish dialect; the wrestlers in the Cornish style both wear tough jackets enabling them to gain better grip on their opponent. All holds are taken upon the other wrestler's jacket, grabbing of the wrists or fingers is forbidden as well as any holding below the waist. Although all holds are to be taken upon the jacket, the flat of the hand is allowed to be used to push or deflect an opponent; the objective of Cornish wrestling is to throw your opponent and make him land as flat as possible on his back. Three sticklers watch and control each bout whilst recording down the score of points achieved in play. Four pins are located on the back of a wrestler, two at the back of each shoulder and two either side just above the buttocks.
If a wrestler manages to throw his opponent flat onto his back scoring with all 4 pins they score four points in that single throw and this is called a "Back" to which the bout is finished and the throwing wrestler is the winner. The sticklers will each raise their sticks. If two sticklers raise their sticks but one does not a back is still awarded; the Cornish Wrestling Association was formed in 1923 to standardize the rules and to promote Cornish Wrestling throughout Cornwall and indeed Worldwide. Cornish wrestling has a long history, Geoffrey of Monmouth suggests Historia Regum Britanniae, of c. 1139 that Corineus wrestled a Cornish giant, Gogmagog or Goemagot upon the cliff top known as Lamm Goemagot. The earliest written evidence for wrestling in the West Country comes from a 1590 poem entitled "Poly-Olbion" by Michael Drayton, concerning the Battle of Agincourt in 1415, it states that the Cornish men who accompanied Henry V into battle held a banner of two Cornish wrestlers in a hitch.
Cornish and Breton wrestlers have long taken part in inter-Celtic matches since at least 1402 and these still continue. In early times Cornish and Devonian wrestlers had matches against each other though the rules they followed were not the same. One of these was the notable match between the Devonian Jordan. In the 17th century, historian Richard Carew wrote of Cornish wrestling... "Wrastling is as full of manliness, more delightful and less dangerous.... for you shall hardly find an assembly of boyes in Devon and Cornwall, where the most untowardly amongst them will not as give you a muster of this exercise as you are prone to require it."Sir Thomas Parkyns, known as the Wrestling Baronet, was a devotee of wrestling and organised an annual wrestling match in Bunny Park. These matches continued until 1810, his book on the subject The Inn-Play: or, the Cornish Hugg-Wrestler was published in 1713 and reprinted many times. A contest at Bodmin in 1811 attracted 4,000 spectators; the Cornish Wrestling Association was formed in 1923.
In 1927 William Tregonning Hooper agreed with the Breton Dr. Cottonac of Quimper that there should be annual wrestling tournaments in which both Cornish and Breton wrestlers would compete. In the 1970s Truro Cathedral School was teaching Cornish wrestling as part of its physical education programme and was the only school in Cornwall to do so. Ashley Cawley is the current Heavyweight Champion of Cornwall. Ashley Cawley defended his title for the first time in 2006; the tournament was hosted at Lostwithiel on the 16th of July and the final of the tournament was a monumental bout between Ashley and Darrin Richardson lasting an hour long. The following Sunday an Interceltic Tournament took place at Wadebridge, where a team of wrestlers from Brittany came over to Cornwall to challenge the Cornish Champions in relevant classes. Just a week on Ashley Cawley, still bearing injuries from the Heavyweight Tournament, took on his opponent from Brittany and won, becoming the Interceltic and Heavyweight Champion of 2006.
The Cornish Wrestling Association still features annually at the Royal Cornwall Agricultural Show. The Cornish wrestling tent can be found in the Countryside area near to the west entrance. In the Cornish wrestling tent you will find an impressive display of Cornish wrestling trophies, history, books and DVDs; the wrestlers perform demonstrations of their style in the Countryside ring twice a day for each of the three days of the show. The demonstrations feature most of the throws and moves of the Cornish style and feature demonstration bouts with a variety of wrestlers from youngsters, girls and heavyweights. Cornish wrestling is Cornwall's oldest sport and as Cornwall's native tradition it has travelled the world to places like Victoria and Grass Valley, California following the miners and gold rushes. In the city of Grass Valley, the tradition of singing Cornish carols lives on and St Piran's Day celebrations are held every year, which along with carol singing, includes a flag raising ceremony, games involving the Cornish pasty, Cornish wrestling competitions.
List of topics related to Cornwall Collar-and-elbow Devon wrestling Gouren Francis Gregory James Polkinghorne Richard Parkyn The Official Cornish Wrestling Association About Cornish Wrestling An article on early Cornish Wrestling from the Jour
Many different symbols are associated with Cornwall, a region which has disputed constitutional status within the United Kingdom. Saint Piran's Flag, a white cross on a black background is seen in Cornwall; the Duchy of Cornwall shield of 15 gold bezants on a black field is used. Because of these two symbols black and gold are considered colours symbolic of Cornwall. Saint Piran's Flag is the flag of Cornwall, it was first described as the Standard of Cornwall in 1838. It has since been used by Cornish people as a symbol of identity; the chough is used as a symbol of Cornwall. In Cornish poetry the chough is used to symbolise the spirit of Cornwall. There is a Cornish belief that King Arthur lives in the form of a chough. "Chough" was used as a nickname for Cornish people. An anvil is sometimes used to symbolise Cornish nationalism in its more extreme forms; this is a reference to'Michael An Gof','the smith', a leader of the Cornish Rebellion of 1497. Fish and copper together are used as they show the'traditional' three main industries of Cornwall.
Tin has a special place in the Cornish culture, the'Stannary Parliament' and'Cornish pennies' are a testament to the former power of the Cornish tin industry. Cornish tin is prized for jewellery of mine engines or Celtic designs. Several flowers and plants have been described as the Cornish national flower; these include broom, furze and Cornish heath. Although Cornwall has no official flower many people favour the Cornish heath. In recent years daffodils have been popular on the annual Saint Piran's day march on Perran sands although they are donated by a local daffodil grower and it is considered to be the National flower of Wales; as part of a 2002 marketing campaign, the plant conservation charity Plantlife chose Thrift as the "county flower" of the Isles of Scilly. The Cornish national tree is the sessile oak, known in Cornwall as the Cornish oak; the Cornish national dish is the Cornish pasty. The arms of the Diocese of Truro include a saltire gules on which are a crossed sword and key: below this is a fleur de lys sable, all surrounded by a border sable charged with 15 bezants or.
The saltire is the cross of St Patrick, taken to be the emblem of the Celtic church. The border is derived from the arms of the Duchy of Cornwall, they were designed by the College of Heralds in 1877 and are blazoned thus: "Argent, on a saltire gules, a key, ward upward, in bend, surmounted by a sword, hilt upward, in bend sinister, both or. In base, a fleur de lys sable; the whole within a bordure sable, fifteen bezants. Ensigned with a mitre." The original settlement of colonial Cornwall was established in 1784, by disbanded Loyalist soldiers, their families and other United Empire Loyalists--primarily from New York-- following the 1776 American Revolution. The settlement they founded was renamed Cornwall after the Duke of Cornwall, Prince George, became one of the first incorporated municipalities in the British colony of Upper Canada in 1834. "Black and Gold" List of Cornish flags
Erica vagans is a species of flowering plant in the family Ericaceae, native to Ireland, western France and Spain. It is a vigorous, evergreen heather reaching 75 cm tall and wide, with pink flowers borne in racemes 14 cm long in summer and autumn; the Latin specific epithet vagans means "wandering". In Great Britain it is only found on the Lizard peninsula in Cornwall, where the unusual geology gives rise to the alkaline soils that it favours, it was voted the County flower of Cornwall in 2002 following a poll by the wild flora conservation charity Plantlife. It is considered the Cornish national flower. According to one story this is because when Joseph of Arimathea first arrived in Cornwall looking for tin he had nowhere to stay, so he spent his first night on a bed of Cornish heather. In thankfulness he blessed the plant and so it is a blessed plant since. Numerous cultivars have been developed with a range of flower colours in white, pink and purple; the following cultivars have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit:- E. vagans ‘Mrs D.
F. Maxwell’ E. vagans f. alba'Cornish Cream' E. vagans f. alba'Kevernensis Alba' E. vagans f. aureifolia'Valerie Proudley'
Culture of Cornwall
The culture of Cornwall forms part of the culture of the United Kingdom, but has distinct customs and peculiarities. Cornwall has many strong local traditions. After many years of decline, Cornish culture has undergone a strong revival, many groups exist to promote Cornwall's culture and language today; the Cornish language is a Celtic language related to Breton and less so to Welsh. All of these are directly descended from the British language spoken throughout most of Britain; the language went into decline following the introduction of the English Book of Common Prayer and by the turn of the 19th century had ceased to be used as a community language, During the 19th century researchers began to study the language from any remaining isolated speakers and in 1904 Henry Jenner published A Handbook in the Cornish Language which started the revival proper. Although less than 1% of Cornwall's population speak the language and'mother tongue' speakers are in their hundreds rather than thousands, the language continues to play a significant part in the culture of Cornwall.
Some events will use Cornish, in short phrases, greetings or names. There is a healthy tradition of music in the language, which can be enjoyed by non-speakers; the vast majority of place names in Cornwall are derived from the language, many people who live in Cornwall know a few words or phrases, e.g.'Kernow bys vyken!'. Many Cornish houses, children and boats are named in the language, thus it has use as an "official community language" and any Cornish speaker will be asked to provide translations. A sign of this role is that two of Cornwall's five MPs once swore their oaths to the Queen in Cornish; the ancient Brythonic country shares much of its cultural history with neighbouring Devon and Somerset in England and Wales and Brittany further afield. Historic records of authentic Cornish mythology or history are hard to verify but the earliest Cornish language marks the separation of Primitive Cornish from Old Welsh dated to the Battle of Deorham in 577. Due to language erosion and possible suppression caused by the dominant English language and culture in the medieval period, many works of Cornish language are thought to have been lost at the time of the dissolution of the religious houses of, which were regarded as repertories of'Welsh' conservatism by the English.
Cornish grievances against the policies of the English government led to the unsuccessful uprisings of the Cornish Rebellion of 1497 and the Prayer Book Rebellion of 1549. However, significant portions of the'Matter of Britain' relate to the people of Cornwall and Brittany as they do to the modern'Welsh'--this extends from Geoffrey of Monmouth to the Mabinogion and the Breton-derived tales of King Arthur which make frequent and explicit reference to the geography of the early Brythonic nation, such as his capital at'Kelliwic in Cerniw' and the legendary sea fortress of King Mergh at Tintagel. By the Shakespearean period, these ancient texts still maintained a currency demonstrated by King Lear based on the ancient tale of Leir of Britain which names Corineus the eponymous founder of the Cornish nation; the earliest Cornish literature is in the Cornish language and Cornwall produced a substantial number of passion plays during the Middle Ages. Many are still extant, provide valuable information about the language: they were performed in round'plen a gwary' open-air theatres.
There is much traditional folklore in Cornwall tales of giants, piskies or the'pobel vean' These are still popular today, with many events hosting a'droll teller' to tell the stories: such myths and stories have found much publishing success in children's books. Writing in the Cornish dialect has been overshadowed by the Cornish language. However, from the 19th century onwards poems and short stories have been published with a Cornish humour; some Cornish newspapers have featured a column written in Cornish dialect. E.g. The Cornish & Devon Post. There are literary works in standard English including conversations between dialect speakers. Cornish World, a colour magazine produced in Cornwall and covering all aspects of Cornish life has proved popular with the descendants of Cornish emigrants as well as Cornish residents, it includes a column in the Cornish language. Charles Causley was born in Launceston and is the best known of Cornish poets; the Nobel-prizewinning novelist William Golding, born in St Columb Minor in 1911, returned to live near Truro from 1985 until his death in 1993.
Other notable Cornish writers include Arthur Quiller-Couch, alias "Q", novelist and literary critic, Jack Clemo, deaf-blind poet, Ronald Bottrall, modernist poet, Robert Stephen Hawker, eccentric Victorian poet and priest, Geoffrey Grigson and critic, Silas Hocking, a prolific novelist, D. M. Thomas and poet; the late Poet Laureate Sir John Betjeman was famously fond of Cornwall and it featured prominently in his poetry. He is buried in the churchyard at Trebetherick; the poet Laurence Binyon wrote For the Fallen while sitting on the cliffs between Pentire Point and The Rumps and a stone plaque was erected in 2001 to commemorate the fact. The plaque bears the inscription For The Fallen Composed on these cliffs 1914 Th
Cornwall is a county in South West England in the United Kingdom. The county is bordered to the north and west by the Celtic Sea, to the south by the English Channel, to the east by the county of Devon, over the River Tamar which forms most of the border between them. Cornwall forms the westernmost part of the South West Peninsula of the island of Great Britain; the furthest southwestern point of Great Britain is Land's End. Cornwall has a population of 563,600 and covers an area of 3,563 km2; the county has been administered since 2009 by Cornwall Council. The ceremonial county of Cornwall includes the Isles of Scilly, which are administered separately; the administrative centre of Cornwall, its only city, is Truro. Cornwall is the homeland of the Cornish people and the cultural and ethnic origin of the Cornish diaspora, it retains a distinct cultural identity that reflects its history, is recognised as one of the Celtic nations. It was a Brythonic kingdom and subsequently a royal duchy; the Cornish nationalist movement contests the present constitutional status of Cornwall and seeks greater autonomy within the United Kingdom in the form of a devolved legislative Cornish Assembly with powers similar to those in Wales and Scotland.
In 2014, Cornish people were granted minority status under the European Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities, giving them recognition as a distinct ethnic group. First inhabited in the Palaeolithic and Mesolithic periods, Cornwall continued to be occupied by Neolithic and Bronze Age peoples, by Brythons with strong ethnic, linguistic and cultural links to Wales and Brittany the latter of, settled by Britons from the region. Mining in Cornwall and Devon in the south-west of England began in the early Bronze Age. Few Roman remains have been found in Cornwall, there is little evidence that the Romans settled or had much military presence there. After the collapse of the Roman Empire, Cornwall was a part of the Brittonic kingdom of Dumnonia, ruled by chieftains of the Cornovii who may have included figures regarded as semi-historical or legendary, such as King Mark of Cornwall and King Arthur, evidenced by folklore traditions derived from the Historia Regum Britanniae.
The Cornovii division of the Dumnonii tribe were separated from their fellow Brythons of Wales after the Battle of Deorham in 577 AD, came into conflict with the expanding English kingdom of Wessex. The regions of Dumnonia outside of Cornwall had been annexed by the English by 838 AD. King Athelstan in 936 AD set the boundary between the English and Cornish at the high water mark of the eastern bank of the River Tamar. From the early Middle Ages and culture were shared by Brythons trading across both sides of the Channel, resulting in the corresponding high medieval Breton kingdoms of Domnonée and Cornouaille and the Celtic Christianity common to both areas. Tin mining was important in the Cornish economy. In the mid-19th century, the tin and copper mines entered a period of decline. Subsequently, china clay extraction became more important, metal mining had ended by the 1990s. Traditionally and agriculture were the other important sectors of the economy. Railways led to a growth of tourism in the 20th century.
Cornwall is noted for coastal scenery. A large part of the Cornubian batholith is within Cornwall; the north coast has many cliffs. The area is noted for its wild moorland landscapes, its long and varied coastline, its attractive villages, its many place-names derived from the Cornish language, its mild climate. Extensive stretches of Cornwall's coastline, Bodmin Moor, are protected as an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty; the modern English name Cornwall is a compound of two ancient demonyms coming from two different language groups: Corn- originates from the Brythonic tribe, the Cornovii. The Celtic word "kernou" is cognate with the English word "horn". -wall derives from the Old English exonym walh, meaning "foreigner" or "Roman". In the Cornish language, Cornwall is known as Kernow which stems from a similar linguistic background; the present human history of Cornwall begins with the reoccupation of Britain after the last Ice Age. The area now known as Cornwall was first inhabited in the Mesolithic periods.
It continued to be occupied by Neolithic and Bronze Age people. According to John T. Koch and others, Cornwall in the Late Bronze Age was part of a maritime trading-networked culture called the Atlantic Bronze Age, in modern-day Ireland, Wales, France and Portugal. During the British Iron Age, like all of Britain, was inhabited by a Celtic people known as the Britons with distinctive cultural relations to neighbouring Brittany; the Common Brittonic spoken at the time developed into several distinct tongues, including Cornish, Breton and Pictish. The first account of Cornwall comes from the 1st-century BC Sicilian Greek historian Diodorus Siculus quoting or paraphrasing the 4th-century BCE geographer P
Tavistock is an ancient stannary and market town within West Devon, England. It is situated on the River Tavy. At the 2011 census the three electoral wards had a population of 13,028, it traces its recorded history back to at least 961 when Tavistock Abbey, whose ruins lie in the centre of the town, was founded. Its most famous son is Sir Francis Drake; the area around Tavistock, where the River Tavy runs wide and shallow allowing it to be crossed, near the secure high ground of Dartmoor, was inhabited long before historical records. The surrounding area is littered with archaeological remains from the Bronze and Iron Ages and it is believed a hamlet existed on the site of the present town long before the town's official history began, with the founding of the Abbey; the abbey of Saint Mary and Saint Rumon was founded in 961 by Earl of Devon. After destruction by Danish raiders in 997 it was restored, among its famous abbots was Aldred, who crowned Harold II and William I, died Archbishop of York.
In 1105 a Royal Charter was granted by Henry I to the monks of Tavistock to run a weekly "Pannier Market" on a Friday, which still takes place today. In 1116 a three-day fair was granted to mark the feast of Saint Rumon, another tradition, still maintained in the shape of the annual "Goosey" fair on the second Wednesday in October. By 1185 Tavistock had achieved borough status, in 1295 it became a parliamentary borough, sending two members to parliament; the abbey church was rebuilt in 1285. In 1305, with the growing importance of the area as one of Europe's richest sources of tin, Tavistock was one of the four stannary towns appointed by charter of Edward I, where tin was stamped and weighed and monthly courts were held for the regulation of mining affairs; the church of Saint Eustachius was dedicated by Bishop Stapledon in 1318 though there are few remains of that building today. It was rebuilt and enlarged into its current form between 1350 and 1450, at which time the Clothworkers' Aisle was included, an indication of the growing importance of the textile industry to the local economy—the trade was protected by a 1467 statute.
The whole consists of a nave and chancel. It possesses a lofty tower supported on four open arches, one of, reputedly added to accommodate the 19th-century "tinners" or tin miners. Within are monuments to the Glanville and Bourchier families, besides some fine stained glass, one window being the work of William Morris and another of Charles Eamer Kempe, it has a roof boss featuring one of the so-called'Tinners' Hares', a trio of rabbits/hares joined at and sharing three ears between them. The font dates from the 15th century; the greater part of the abbey was rebuilt in 1457-58. In 1552 two fairs on 23 April and 28 November were granted by Edward VI to the Earl of Bedford lord of the manor. In the 17th century great quantities of cloth were sold at the Friday market, four fairs were held at the feasts of Saint Michael, Saint Mark, the Decollation of John the Baptist; the charter of Charles II instituted a Tuesday market, fairs on the Thursday after Whitsunday and at the feast of Saint Swithin.
The town continued to prosper in the charge of the abbots, acquiring one of England's first printing presses in 1525. Tavistock remained an important centre of both trade and religion until the Dissolution of the Monasteries—the abbey was demolished in 1539, leaving the ruins still to be seen around the centre of the town. From that time on, the dominant force in the town became the Russell family and Dukes of Bedford, who took over much of the land following the Dissolution. Tavistock is tied from late medieval times with the Russells, the family name of the Earls of Bedford and since 1694, the Dukes of Bedford; this is seen from the history of the town. The second title of the Duke of Bedford is the Marquess of Tavistock, taken as the courtesy title of the eldest son and heir to the dukedom, illustrates the importance of this Devon town, its hinterland and the minerals beneath it to the family's fortunes, it is believed. Most Robin, the short-lived 14th Duke, as Marquess of Tavistock, was a frequent visitor to the town along with his wife, Henrietta.
Andrew Russell is the 15th Duke of Marquess of Tavistock. It is this Russell family connection through the Bedford Estates which gives the name by ownership to Russell Square and Tavistock Square in London, famously home to the Tavistock Clinic, the bus-bombing of 7 July 2005. Around 1540, Sir Francis Drake was born at Crowndale Farm, just to the west of what is now Tavistock College. A Blue Plaque is mounted on the current farmhouse, behind which Drake is believed to have been born, the original farmhouse having been dismantled and the stone transported for use in Lew Trenchard, he became a prominent figure of his age, a champion of Queen Elizabeth, the first Englishman to circumnavigate the world from 1577 to 1580 and one of the English commanders in the famously decisive victory against the Spanish Armada in 1588. The famous statue of Drake on Plymouth Hoe is a copy of that on a roundabout on the A386 at the western end of the town, with panels not replicated on the Hoe copy. Drake made his home at Buckland Abbey, about eight miles away towards Plymouth, jointly owned/run by Plymouth City Council and the National Trust, now a m