click links in text for more info


Cornouaille is a historic region on the west coast of Brittany in western France. The name is cognate with Cornwall in neighbouring Great Britain; this can be explained by settlement of Cornouaille by migrant princes from Cornwall creating an independent principality founded by Rivelen Mor Marthou, the founding of the Bishopric of Cornouaille by ancient saints from Cornwall. The two regions spoke a similar Brythonic language, which evolved into Cornish in Cornwall and the related Breton across the English Channel in Brittany; the toponym Cornouaille was established in the early Middle Ages in the southwest of the Breton peninsula. Prior to this, following the withdrawal of Rome from Britain, other British migrants from what is now modern Devon had established the region of Domnonea or Domnonée in the north of the peninsula, taken from the Latin Dumnonia; the region was first mentioned in surviving records by a Cornouaille-related name between 852 and 857, when Anaweten, bishop of Saint-Corentin at Quimper Cathedral, took over Cornugallensis under the order of Nominoe, Duke of Brittany and Tad ar Vro.

The names Cornwall and Cornouaille, like the surname Cornwallis, are from Corn-wealas. The first element is from the name of a Brythonic tribe Latinized as Cornovii, meaning'peninsula people', from the Celtic kernou,'horn, headland', it is a cognate of the English word horn, both being from PIE *ker-'uppermost part of the body, horn, summit'. The second element is the Anglo-Saxon suffix -wealas, from walh, a word used by the Germanic speakers for'a non-Germanic foreigner' Celtic speakers but sometimes used for Romance-language speakers. Walh is an element found in the words and names walnut, Wales, Wallace and Walsh. A Corn-/Kern- name was used in reference to the resettling of the new wave Celts from Great Britain in Dumnonian-seized lands; this is related to the difference between Grande-Bretagne and Bretagne in French, with Brittany having been thought of a British colony. In Breton, Cornouaille is known as Kernev or Bro-Gernev, in Latin as Cornugallia or Cornubia. In Cornish, Kernev is written Kernow.

Strong contacts between Armorica and southern Britain had been noted by Julius Caesar. Native British troops were hired to support the usurpation of Magnus Maximus, said to have settled them in Armorica. Settlements expanded. Strong links existed in the 6th century between the Armorican territories. Legends about King Arthur and the Matter of Britain make frequent reference to the maritime connections between the peoples of Wales, southern Ireland, Cornwall in southwestern Britain and the early kingdoms of Brittany, cf. the tale of Tristan and Iseult. The existence of an ancient district in Anjou called "la Cornuaille" has led to the hypothesis that Cornouaille may have been a geographical or military label for all of southern Brittany as far as the northern shore of Domnonée in the 6th or 7th century. At the origin of this feudal county, the reigning dynasty acceded to a dukedom of the region, which passed to the Ancient Lord-Bishop of Quimper; the name Cornouaille signifies the diocese of Quimper.

The diocese covered more than half of the south of Finistère, extended over part of Morbihan and the Côtes-d'Armor. There were one for Cornouaille and one for Poher. There were a cantor, a treasurer, a theologian and twelve canons; this episcopal division was the poorest in Brittany. After the French Revolution, the new constitution created a diocese of Finistère, erasing that of the diocese of Kerne. Rivelen Mor Marthou Congar Daniel Drem Rud Melar Budic II Macliau Judicael - the county of Cornouaille is not yet defined, its leaders represent the interests of "western Brittany" and join the King of Brittany in fights against the Vikings. Riwallon Gourmaëlon Alan II Alain Canhiart Hoel of Cornouaille, who ruled Brittany as Duke jure uxoris. Alan IV

Joseph Davidson

Joseph Davidson was an English cricketer who played for Derbyshire between 1871 and 1874. He was a member of the team that played Derbyshire's first match in May 1871. Davidson was born in Brimington and became a coal miner, he played as a lower-order batsman in Derbyshire's first match as a county side in the 1871 season, an innings defeat of Lancashire. He played no part in the 1872 season, but played two matches for Derbyshire against Lancashire in the 1873 season and one match against Lancashire in the 1874 season. Davidson was a right-arm off-break bowler and took six first-class wickets, being overshadowed by Derbyshire's trio of Mycroft and Hickton, he was a right-handed batsman and played six innings in four first-class matches with an average of 4.66 and a top score of 8. Davidson's sons Frank and George both played for Derbyshire in the late 19th century, they lived at Brimington Common in 1881 where he died two years after his son George

Elchingen Abbey

Elchingen Abbey was a Benedictine monastery in Oberelchingen in Bavaria, Germany, in the diocese of Augsburg. For much of its history, Elchingen was one of the 40-odd self-ruling imperial abbeys of the Holy Roman Empire and, as such, was a independent state that contained several villages aside from the monastery itself. At the time of its secularisation in 1802, the abbey covered 112 square kilometers and had 4000-4200 subjects. Dedicated to the Virgin Mary and Saints Peter and Paul, the monastery was founded by the Counts of Dillingen; the abbey was one of the few that enjoyed Imperial immediacy. The abbot sat in the Reichstag of the Holy Roman Empire. Like all the other imperial abbeys, Elchingen lost its independence in the course of the secularisation process in 1802-1803 and the monastery was dissolved. By 1840 the buildings had been entirely demolished. In 1921 the Missionary Oblates of Mary Immaculate settled on the site. Brenner, Bernhard, 2003. Das ehemalige Reichsstift Elchingen/Oberelchingen.

In: Klosterland Bayerisch Schwaben Werner Schiedermair, pp216–219. Lindenberg Fink. ISBN 3-89870-127-1. Dirr, Albert, 1926. Die Reichsabtei Elchingen von der Mitte des 15. Bis zur Mitte des 16. Jahrhunderts. Augsburg Konrad, Anton H. 1965. Die Reichsabtei Elchingen. Ihr Bild im Wandel der Jahrhunderte. Weissenhorn: Konrad. Kramer, Ferdinand Kramer, 1991. "Wissenschaft und Streben nach'Wahrer Aufklärung'. Ein Beitrag zur Aufklärung im ostschwäbischen Benediktinerkloster Elchingen", in: Zeitschrift für bayerische Landesgeschichte, 54 / 1991, 1:269-286 Records of Elchingen Abbey Klöster in Bayern

Togiak National Wildlife Refuge

Dominated by the Ahklun Mountains in the north and the cold waters of Bristol Bay to the south, Togiak National Wildlife Refuge confronts the traveler with a kaleidoscope of landscapes. The natural forces that have shaped this land range from the violent and powerful to the geologically patient. Earthquakes and volcanoes filled the former role, their marks can still be found, but it was the gradual advance and retreat of glacial ice that carved many of the physical features of this refuge; the refuge has a surface area of 4,102,537 acres. It is the fourth-largest National Wildlife Refuge in the United States as well as the state of Alaska, which has all eleven of the largest NWRs, it is bordered in the southeast by Wood-Tikchik State Park, the largest state park in the United States. The refuge is home to 48 mammal species, 31 of which are 17 marine. More than 150,000 caribou from two herds, the Nushagak Peninsula and the Mulchatna, make use of refuge lands, which they share with wolf packs, moose and black bear, Canadian lynx, Arctic fox, wolverine, red fox, beaver, two species of otter, porcupine, among other land mammals.

Seals, sea lions and whales are found at various times of year along the refuge's 600 miles of coastline. Within the refuge, the waters produce over 3 million Chinook, coho and chum salmon. Not including the five species of salmon that inhabit the region, there are 27 species found in the waters, including Dolly Varden, Arctic grayling, rainbow trout; the region's salmon are a primary subsistence source for locals, provide a important commercial and recreational fishery. Some 201 species of birds have been sighted on Togiak Refuge. Threatened species can be found here, including Steller's and spectacled eiders. Several arctic goose species frequent the refuge, along with murres, seven species of owls, peregrine falcons, Lapland longspurs and a rich variety of other seabirds, shorebirds and raptors. Refuge staff and volunteers have documented more than 500 species of plants, demonstrating a high degree of biodiversity for a sub-arctic area. Ahklun Mountains List of largest National Wildlife Refuges Refuge profile Refuge website This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service

Self-blame (psychology)

Self-blame is a cognitive process in which an individual attributes the occurrence of a stressful event to oneself. The direction of blame has implications for individuals’ emotions and behaviors during and following stressful situations. Self-blame is a common reaction to stressful events and has certain effects on how individuals adapt. Types of self-blame are hypothesized to contribute to depression, self-blame is a component of self-directed emotions like guilt and self-disgust; because of self-blame's commonality in response to stress and its role in emotion, self-blame should be examined using psychology's perspectives on stress and coping. This article will attempt to give an overview of the contemporary study on self-blame in psychology. While conceptualizations of stress have differed, the most dominant accounts in current psychology are appraisal-based models of stress; these models define stress as a reaction to a certain type of subjective appraisal, done by an individual, of the circumstances he or she is in.

Stress occurs when an individual decides that a factor in the environment puts demands on the individual beyond his or her current ability to deal with it. The process of rating situations as demanding or nondemanding is called appraisal, this process can occur and without conscious awareness. Appraisal models of stress are sometimes called “interactional” because the occurrence of stress depends on an interaction between characteristics of the person goals, the environmental situation. Only if the individual perceives a situation to threaten his or her goals does stress occur; this structure explains the fact that individuals differ in their emotional and stress responses when they are presented with similar situations. Stress does not come from events themselves, but from the conflict of the event with an individual's goals. While researchers disagree about the time-course of appraisals, how appraisals are made, the degree to which individuals differ in their appraisals, appraisal-models of stress are dominant in psychology.

Appraisals may occur without conscious awareness. Stress itself is a systemic psychological state that includes a subjective “feel” and a motivational-component. Once this appraisal has occurred, actions taken to reduce stress constitute coping processes. Coping can involve changes to the situation-environment relationship, reducing the emotional consequences of a stress appraisal, or avoiding thinking about the stressful situation. Categorizations of types of coping vary between researchers. Coping strategies differ in their effects on subjective well-being. Coping behaviors constitute the moderating factor between events and circumstances on one hand and psychological outcomes, like well-being or mental disorders, on the other. Causal attributions of the event are a way to deal with the stress of an event, so self-blame is a type of coping. During and after traumatic events, individuals’ appraisals affect how stressful the event is, their beliefs on what caused the event, meanings they may derive from the event, changes they make in their future behavior.

A classification of self-blame into characterological and behavioral types has been proposed to distinguish whether individuals are putting blame on changeable or unchangeable causes. This division, first proposed by Janoff-Bulman, defines behavioral self-blame as causal attribution of an event's occurrence to specific, controllable actions that the individual took. Characterological self-blame, on the other hand, is attribution of blame to factors of the self that are uncontrollable and stable over time. CSB attributions are harder to change than behavioral attributions of blame; the development of these categories comes from observation of depressed individuals. From an outside perspective, it would seem that blaming one's actions implies that the individual can choose better in the future. However, if this blame is towards uncontrollable characteristics, not choosable actions, the factors resulting in a negative outcome were uncontrollable. BSB and CSB are thus proposed to be activities that, while related, are distinct and differ in their effects when used as coping processes.

Empirical findings support the existence of the behavioral/characterological distinction in self-blame. For one, BSB is much more common than CSB Tilghman-Osbourne, 2008) A factor analyses of individuals’ attributions of blame and their ability to predict psychological symptoms have identified two clusters of self-blame: a factor of blame for the type of victim, correlated with self-contempt and self-disgust; these factors correspond to CSB and BSB definitions, so the study provides some theoretical support that individuals assign self-blame differently to unchoosable characteristics and choices they have made. Research has compared CSB and BSB to moral emotions that individuals have, such as guilt and shame. CSB and shame had convergent validity to predict depressive symptoms in adolescents. On the other hand, guilt and BSB did

Virna Sheard

Virginia Sheard was a Canadian poet and novelist. She wrote under the name Stanton Sheard. Sheard was born in Cobourg, the daughter of Elizabeth Butler and Eldridge Stanton, a photographer. Eldridge was a descendant of United Empire Loyalists; the family moved soon after to Toronto. Her brother Eldridge Stanton Jr. and his wife both died at Niagara Falls, in the Ice Bridge Disaster of 1912. Sheard began publishing her poems and stories in magazines around 1898, she wrote her first books, Trevelyan's Little Daughters and A Maid of Many Moods to entertain her sons. Her adult fiction was written in the romance genre and included, By the Queen's Grace, The Man at Lone Lake, The Golden Apple Tree, Below the Salt, Leaves in the Wind. Below the Salt is a melodramatic story of a wealthy Ontario farmer, she wrote five volumes of poetry with religious themes. Some of these included The Miracle and Other Poems, Carry On!, The Ballad of the Quest, Candle Flame, Fairy Doors. She collected, her poem "The Young Knights", which opens with the lines "Now they remain to us forever young / Who with such splendour gave their youth away", is cited among Canadian women's literary responses to World War I.

Of her novel By the Queen's Grace, one reviewer wrote: "It is romantic and improbable, readers of 17 or 70 will find it to their taste." Trevelyan's Little Daughters, A Maid Of Many Moods, By The Queen's Grace, The Man At Lone Lake, The Miracle And Other Poems, Carry On!, The Golden Apple Tree, The Ballad Of The Quest, Candle Flame, Fortune Turns Her Wheel, Fairy Doors, Below The Salt, Leaves In The Wind, Source: She married Dr. Charles Sheard in 1884, her husband's father had been mayor of Toronto, her husband was Toronto's first Chief Medical Officer. Virna and Charles Sheard had four sons, Paul and Terence. Sheard was widowed in 1929, died in 1943, aged 81 years, her papers were destroyed by her family after her death because they disapproved of her literary work. The Sheard family's Toronto house, where Virna Sheard lived for much of her adulthood, was destroyed in a fire in 2016. Works by Virna Sheard at Faded Page Works by Virna Sheard at Project Gutenberg Works by Virna Sheard at LibriVox