The koala is an arboreal herbivorous marsupial native to Australia. It is the only extant representative of the family Phascolarctidae and its closest living relatives are the wombats, which comprise the family Vombatidae.. The koala is found in coastal areas of the mainland's eastern and southern regions, inhabiting Queensland, New South Wales and South Australia, it is recognisable by its stout, tailless body and large head with round, fluffy ears and large, spoon-shaped nose. The koala weighs 4 -- 15 kg. Pelage colour ranges from silver grey to chocolate brown. Koalas from the northern populations are smaller and lighter in colour than their counterparts further south; these populations are separate subspecies, but this is disputed. Koalas inhabit open eucalypt woodlands, the leaves of these trees make up most of their diet; because this eucalypt diet has limited nutritional and caloric content, koalas are sedentary and sleep up to 20 hours a day. They are asocial animals, bonding exists only between mothers and dependent offspring.
Adult males attract mates. Males mark their presence with secretions from scent glands located on their chests. Being marsupials, koalas give birth to underdeveloped young that crawl into their mothers' pouches, where they stay for the first six to seven months of their lives; these young koalas, known as joeys, are weaned around a year old. Koalas have few natural predators and parasites, but are threatened by various pathogens, such as Chlamydiaceae bacteria and the koala retrovirus, as well as by bushfires and droughts. Koalas were depicted in myths and cave art for millennia; the first recorded encounter between a European and a koala was in 1798, an image of the animal was published in 1810 by naturalist George Perry. Botanist Robert Brown wrote the first detailed scientific description of the koala in 1814, although his work remained unpublished for 180 years. Popular artist John Gould illustrated and described the koala, introducing the species to the general British public. Further details about the animal's biology were revealed in the 19th century by several English scientists.
Because of its distinctive appearance, the koala is recognised worldwide as a symbol of Australia. Koalas are listed as Vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature; the Australian government lists specific populations in Queensland and New South Wales as Vulnerable. The animal was hunted in the early 20th century for its fur, large-scale cullings in Queensland resulted in a public outcry that initiated a movement to protect the species. Sanctuaries were established, translocation efforts moved to new regions koalas whose habitat had become fragmented or reduced; the biggest threat to their existence is habitat destruction caused by urbanisation. The word koala comes from the Dharug gula. Although the vowel'u' was written in the English orthography as "oo", it was changed to "oa" in error; because of the koala's supposed resemblance to a bear, it was miscalled the koala bear by early settlers. The generic name, Phascolarctos, is derived from the Greek words phaskolos "pouch" and arktos "bear".
The specific name, cinereus, is Latin for "ash coloured". The koala was given its generic name Phascolarctos in 1816 by French zoologist Henri Marie Ducrotay de Blainville, who would not give it a specific name until further review. In 1819, German zoologist Georg August Goldfuss gave it the binomial Lipurus cinereus; because Phascolarctos was published first, according to the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, it has priority as the official name of the genus. French naturalist Anselme Gaëtan Desmarest proposed the name Phascolartos fuscus in 1820, suggesting that the brown-coloured versions were a different species than the grey ones. Other names suggested by European authors included Marodactylus cinereus by Goldfuss in 1820, P. flindersii by René Primevère Lesson in 1827, P. koala by John Edward Gray in 1827. The koala is classified with wombats and several extinct families in the suborder Vombatiformes within the order Diprotodontia; the Vombatiformes are a sister group to a clade that includes possums.
The ancestors of vombatiforms were arboreal, the koala's lineage was the first to branch off around 40 million years ago during the Eocene. The modern koala is the only extant member of Phascolarctidae, a family that once included several genera and species. During the Oligocene and Miocene, koalas had less specialised diets; some species, such as the Riversleigh rainforest koala and some species of Perikoala, were around the same size as the modern koala, while others, such as species of Litokoala, were one-half to two-thirds its size. Like the modern species, prehistoric koalas had well developed ear structures which suggests that long-distance vocalising and sedentism developed early. During the Miocene, the Australian continent began drying out, leading to the decline of rainforests and the spread of open Eucalyptus woodlands; the genus Phascolarctos split from Litokoala in the late Miocene and had several adaptations that allowed it to live on a specialised eucalyptus diet: a shifting of the palate towards the front of the skull.
During the Pliocene an
Bahrs Scrub, Queensland
Bahrs Scrub is a suburb of Logan City, Australia. As the name suggests, the area was scrub land; the origin of the name is less clear. It has been attributed to Carl Wilhelm Bahr and his son, Wilhelm Bahr; the earliest references to the location call it Jimmybark Scrub and the nearby hill Bark Hill, so the current names may be a corruption of these. Windaroo Valley State High School opened on 1 January 1994, it consists predominantly of acreage blocks although recent developments have seen suburbia encroach on the otherwise serene suburb. In the 2011 census, Bahrs Scrub recorded a population of 1,512 people, 48.2 % male. The median age of the Bahrs Scrub population was 32 years, 5 years below the national median of 37. 73.9% of people living in Bahrs Scrub were born in Australia. The other top responses for country of birth were New Zealand 6.3%, England 5.1%, South Africa 1.1%, Netherlands 1%, Zimbabwe 0.7%. 88.9% of people spoke only English at home. University of Queensland: Queensland Places: Bahrs Scrub Logan City map
Bethania is a suburb of Logan City, Australia. It lies south of the Logan River; the lower lying areas near the river suffer floods. A separate branch railway runs to Beaudesert, it has been out of commission since August 2004. In the 2011 census, Bethania recorded a population of 4,590 people, 46.7 % male. The median age of the Bethania population was 41 years, 4 years above the national median of 37. 68.7% of people living in Bethania were born in Australia. The other top responses for country of birth were England 6.6%, New Zealand 6%, Scotland 1.4%, Philippines 0.9%, Germany 0.9%. 86.9% of people spoke only English at home. Bethania is home to many different nationalities. By 1866 a small township had developed, it is believed the name is derived from the biblical village in Israel. A Lutheran church was built in 1864 made from slabs on. A cemetery was established beside the church with graves from 1866. In 1872 the present church was built close to the first church; the road to the church became known as Church Road.
The first railway bridge was destroyed by flood in 1887. A new concrete and timber bridge lasted until 1972 when it was replaced by a pre-stressed concrete bridge; the suburb was affected badly by the 1974 Brisbane flood. Duck Island became part of the suburb. Sand and gravel has been mined from the alluvial deposits in recent years. Bethania has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Church Road: Bethania Lutheran Church Bethania has one school, Bethania Lutheran Primary School, which opened on 27 January 1976. Bethania railway station provides access to regular Queensland Rail City network services to Brisbane and Beenleigh. Bethania: Queensland Places Bethania Lutheran cemetery
Mount Cotton, Queensland
Mount Cotton is a locality in the City of Redland, Australia. The area was settled by Germans in the late 1860s. In the 20th century, poultry farms were established and in recent years the number of residential sub-developments has expanded. Mount Cotton is named for the mountain, in the area, it was named by a surveyor in the colony of Queensland. He named it after the commandant of Major Sydney Cotton. In 1933, the first chicken farm in the area was established; until the Shire of Tingalpa was abolished in 1949, Mount Cotton hosted its council chambers. Sirromet Wines winery on Mount Cotton Road opened in 2000; the vineyards are located on the Granite Belt. Mount Cotton is a koala conservation area. In the west, the Venman Bushland National Park preserves a section of bushland along Tingalpa Creek. To the east, a wildlife corridor goes from the mountain towards Eprapah scout environmental site and Victoria Point, along Eprapah Creek. Several poultry farms are located in Mount Cotton. A Hillview Road chicken farm is developing a biomass power plant, expected to provide renewable energy to the electrical grid.
The project has faced opposition from local residents and delays as the plant was re-designed to encompass improvements in technology. Developers Cleveland Power claim the power plant will be able to supply electricity to 7500 homes annually. In the 2011 census, Mount Cotton recorded a population of 4,804 people, 49.2 % male. The median age of the Mount Cotton population was 32 years, 5 years below the national median of 37. 76.8% of people living in Mount Cotton were born in Australia. The other top responses for country of birth were England 7.8%, New Zealand 4.1%, South Africa 2.4%, Scotland 0.7%, Ireland 0.5%. 93.7% of people spoke only English at home. The Redland City Council operates a mobile library service which visits the Mount Cotton Community Park at Bohemia Court. Mount Cotton Hillclimb University of Queensland: Queensland Places: Mount Cotton Mount Cotton - a brief history by Mary Howell
Cedar Grove, Queensland
Cedar Grove is a locality in the Logan City, Australia. In the 2011 census, Cedar Grove had a population of 2,020; the western and part of the northern boundary of Cedar Grove follows the Logan River. On the northern boundary is the Cedar Grove Weir which began operations in 2008; when the railway line to Beaudesert was built in 1888, the station in the area was called Cedar Pocket. Cedar Grove State School opened in 1923 and closed in 1965. In the Shire of Beaudesert, Cedar Grove became part of Logan City following the local government amalgamations in March 2008. "Cedar Grove and Cedar Vale". Queensland Places. Centre for the Government of Queensland, University of Queensland
Electorates of the Australian states and territories
A State Electoral District is an electorate within the Lower House or Legislative Assembly of Australian states and territories. Most state electoral districts send a single member to a state or territory's parliament using the preferential method of voting; the area of a state electoral district is dependent upon the Electoral Acts in the various states and vary in area between them. At present, there are 409 state electoral districts in Australia. State electoral districts do not apply to the Upper House, or Legislative Council, in those states that have one. In New South Wales and South Australia, MLCs represent the entire state, in Tasmania they represent single-member districts, in Victoria and Western Australia they represent a region formed by grouping electoral districts together. There are five electorates for the Legislative Assembly, each with five members each, making up 25 members in total. There are 93 electoral districts in New South Wales. There are 25 single-member electoral divisions in the Northern Territory, 17 former divisions.
There are 93 electoral districts in Queensland, for the Legislative Assembly of Queensland. Information about the QLD electoral districts for the 2006 elections can be obtained from the Electoral Commission of Queensland website. There are 47 single-member electoral districts in South Australia, for the South Australian House of Assembly. There are 15 electoral divisions in Tasmania for the upper house Legislative Council. In the lower house the five federal divisions are used, but electing 5 members each There are 88 electoral districts in Victoria, for the Victorian Legislative Assembly. There are 59 single-member electoral districts in Western Australia for the Western Australian Legislative Assembly. 42 are in the Perth metropolitan area and 17 are in the rest of the state. Divisions of the Australian House of Representatives Local government in Australia Parliaments of the Australian states and territories
South East Queensland
South East Queensland is a bio-geographical and administrative region of the state of Queensland in Australia, which contains 3.5 million people out of the state's population of 4.8 million. The area covered by South East Queensland varies, depending on the definition of the region, though it tends to include Queensland's three largest cities: the capital city Brisbane, its most common use is for political purposes, covers 22,420 square kilometres and incorporates 11 local government areas, extending 240 kilometres from Noosa in the north to the Gold Coast and New South Wales border in the south, 140 kilometres west to Toowoomba. South East Queensland was the first part of Queensland to be explored by Europeans. Settlements arose in the Brisbane and Ipswich areas with activity by European immigrants spreading in all directions from there. Various industries such as timber cutting and agriculture developed at locations around the region from the 1840s onwards. Transport links have been shaped by the range of terrains found in South East Queensland.
The economy of South East Queensland supports and relies on a wide diversity of agricultural manufacturing industries and tourism. The region has TransLink. South East Queensland, classified as an interim Australian bioregion, comprises 7,804,921 hectares and includes the Moreton Basin, South Burnett, the Scenic Rim along with ten other biogeographic subregions; the term South East Queensland has no equivalent political representation. The area covers many lower house seats at the federal and state levels; as Queensland has no upper house, there are no Legislative Council provinces or regions to bear the name either. South East Queensland was home to around 20,000 Aboriginals prior to British occupation; the local tribes of the area were the Yuggurapul of the Central Brisbane area. According to history researchers the Aboriginal population declined to around 10,000 over the next 60 years. Early explorers in the area including Matthew Flinders, Allan Cunningham, John Oxley and Patrick Logan. Around 1839, European settlers were able to move into the region.
Logging was the first industry to develop. The first railway built in Queensland linked Grandchester to Ipswich in 1865 along a narrow 1067 mm gauge. Major floods were experienced in 1893, 1974 and 2011. In 2005, the region suffered its worst drought in recorded history. Queensland's third highest peak, Mount Barney, is located in the south of the region; the Cunningham Highway passes southwest to the Darling Downs via Cunninghams Gap. Several highways including the Bruce Highway, Warrego Highway and the Pacific Motorway link to the adjoining regions; the region is mountainous. McPherson Range, Teviot Range, D'Aguilar Range, Little Liverpool Range, Blackall Range as well as the Springbrook Plateau and Tamborine Mountain Plateau. Isolated volcanic peaks are found at the Glass House Mountains. Along the coast are several large islands including Bribie Island, Moreton Island and North Stradbroke Island with many smaller islands in Moreton Bay. Several major water supply and flood mitigation dams have been constructed here.
The Western Corridor Recycled Water Scheme and Gold Coast Desalination Plant were built to counter the effects of drought in South East Queensland. South East Queensland consists of the following regions, each of, a local government area: Brisbane – the capital and largest city of Queensland; the Brisbane metropolitan area consists of the City of Brisbane, as well as the following local governments: Ipswich City – an outer-suburban city with an industrial and mining heritage west of Brisbane. Logan City – a residential area between Brisbane and the Gold Coast. Moreton Bay Region – a residential area between Brisbane and the Sunshine Coast. Redland City – a residential and agricultural area on the shores of Moreton Bay to the south-east of Brisbane. City of Gold Coast – a major tourist and retirement destination to the south of Brisbane, the largest non-capital city in Australia. Sunshine Coast Region – a coastal tourist and agricultural region to the north of Brisbane; the Glass House Mountains are a symbol of this region.
West Moreton, a rural area in the Great Dividing Range consisting of: Toowoomba City – the Toowoomba city is included in both the South East Queensland region and within Western Downs region due to its importance to both regions as a gateway city providing access to the west of the state. Lockyer Valley Region – an agricultural area west of Ipswich, known for its fruit and vegetable production. Scenic Rim Region – a pastoral area inland from the Gold Coast known for its scenic mountains and villages. Somerset Region – a pastoral area north west of Brisbane and location of two major dams supplying South East Queensland with water; this area is known as the Brisbane Valley. The Tweed Shire is within NSW but is included in planning processes for SEQ. While not part of the