In phonetics, vowel roundedness refers to the amount of rounding in the lips during the articulation of a vowel. It is labialization of a vowel; when a rounded vowel is pronounced, the lips form a circular opening, unrounded vowels are pronounced with the lips relaxed. In most languages, front vowels tend to be unrounded, back vowels tend to be rounded. However, some languages, such as French and German, distinguish rounded and unrounded front vowels of the same height, Vietnamese distinguishes rounded and unrounded back vowels of the same height. Alekano has only unrounded vowels. In the International Phonetic Alphabet vowel chart, rounded vowels are the ones that appear on the right in each pair of vowels. There are diacritics, U+0339 ̹ COMBINING RIGHT HALF RING BELOW and U+031C ̜ COMBINING LEFT HALF RING BELOW, to indicate greater and lesser degrees of rounding, respectively. There are two types of vowel rounding: compression. In protruded rounding, the corners of the mouth are drawn together and the lips protrude like a tube, with their inner surface visible.
In compressed rounding, the corners of the mouth are drawn together, but the lips are drawn together horizontally and do not protrude, with only their outer surface visible. That is, in protruded vowels the inner surfaces of the lips form the opening, whereas in compressed vowels it is the margins of the lips which form the opening. Observes that back and central rounded vowels, such as German /o/ and /u/, are protruded, whereas front rounded vowels such as German /ø/ and /y/ are compressed. Back or central compressed vowels and front protruded vowels are uncommon, a contrast between the two types has been found to be phonemic in only one instance. There are no dedicated IPA diacritics to represent the distinction, but the superscript IPA letter ⟨◌ᵝ⟩ can be used for compression and ⟨◌ʷ⟩, ⟨◌ᶣ⟩ or ⟨◌̫⟩ for protrusion. Compressed vowels may be pronounced either with the corners of the mouth drawn in, by some definitions rounded, or with the corners spread and, by the same definitions, unrounded.
The distinction may be transcribed ⟨ɨᵝ ɯᵝ⟩ and ⟨ʉᵝ uᵝ⟩. The distinction between protruded and compressed holds for the semivowels and as well as labialization. In Akan, for example, the is compressed, as are labio-palatalized consonants as in Twi "Twi" and adwuma "work", whereas and labialized consonants are protruded. In Japanese, the /w/ is compressed rather than protruded, paralleling the Japanese /u/; the distinction applies marginally to other consonants. In Southern Teke, the sole language reported to have a phonemic /ɱ/, the labiodental sound is "accompanied by strong protrusion of both lips", whereas the found as an allophone of /m/ before /f, v/ in languages such as English is not protruded, as the lip contacts the teeth along its upper or outer edge. In at least one account of speech acquisition, a child's pronunciation of clown involves a lateral with the upper teeth contacting the upper-outer edge of the lip, but in crown, a non-lateral is pronounced with the teeth contacting the inner surface of the protruded lower lip.
Some vowels transcribed with rounded IPA letters may not be rounded at all. An example is /ɒ/, which in English has little if any rounding of the lips; the "throaty" sound of English /ɒ/ is instead accomplished with sulcalization, a furrowing of the back of the tongue found in non-rhotic /ɜː/. It is possible to mimic the acoustic effect of rounded vowels by narrowing the cheeks, so-called "cheek rounding", inherent in back protruded vowels; the technique is used by ventriloquists to mask the visible rounding of back vowels like. It is not clear; the central and the back have not been reported to occur in any language. The lip position of unrounded vowels may be classified into two groups: neutral. Front vowels are pronounced with the lips spread, the spreading becomes more significant as the height of the vowel increases. Open vowels are neutral, i.e. neither rounded nor spread, because the open jaw allows for limited rounding or spreading of the lips. This is reflected in the IPA's definition of the cardinal, unrounded yet not spread either.
Protruded rounding is the vocalic equivalent of consonantal labialization. Thus, rounded vowels and labialized consonants affect one another by phonetic assimilation: Rounded vowels labialize consonants, labialized consonants round vowels. In many languages, such effects are minor phonetic detail. For example, in Standard Chinese, the vowel /ɔ/ is pronounced after labial consonants, an allophonic effect, so important that it is encoded in pinyin transliteration: alveolar /tu̯ɔ˥˥/'many' vs. labial /pu̯ɔ˥˥/'wave'. In Vietnamese, the opposite assimilation takes place: velar codas /k/ and /ŋ/ are pronounced as labialized and or labial-velar and, after the rounded vowels /u/ and /o/. In the Northwest Caucasian languages of the Caucasus and the Sepik languages of Papua New Guinea rounded vowels have become unrounded, with the rounding being taken up by the consonant, thus and are phonemically /kwɨ/ and /kwə/. In the extinct Ubykh, were phonemically /kʷə/ and /kʷa/. A few ancient Indo-European languages like Latin had labiovelar consonants.
It is rare for accents of English to differentiate vowels only by their roundedness. Minimal pairs like this can be found in some British dialects (such as the Cardiff dialect, Geordie and P
International Phonetic Alphabet
The International Phonetic Alphabet is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based on the Latin alphabet. It was devised by the International Phonetic Association in the late 19th century as a standardized representation of the sounds of spoken language; the IPA is used by lexicographers, foreign language students and teachers, speech-language pathologists, actors, constructed language creators and translators. The IPA is designed to represent only those qualities of speech that are part of oral language: phones, phonemes and the separation of words and syllables. To represent additional qualities of speech, such as tooth gnashing and sounds made with a cleft lip and cleft palate, an extended set of symbols, the extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet, may be used. IPA symbols are composed of one or more elements of two basic types and diacritics. For example, the sound of the English letter ⟨t⟩ may be transcribed in IPA with a single letter, or with a letter plus diacritics, depending on how precise one wishes to be.
Slashes are used to signal broad or phonemic transcription. Letters or diacritics are added, removed or modified by the International Phonetic Association; as of the most recent change in 2005, there are 107 letters, 52 diacritics and four prosodic marks in the IPA. These are shown in the current IPA chart, posted below in this article and at the website of the IPA. In 1886, a group of French and British language teachers, led by the French linguist Paul Passy, formed what would come to be known from 1897 onwards as the International Phonetic Association, their original alphabet was based on a spelling reform for English known as the Romic alphabet, but in order to make it usable for other languages, the values of the symbols were allowed to vary from language to language. For example, the sound was represented with the letter ⟨c⟩ in English, but with the digraph ⟨ch⟩ in French. However, in 1888, the alphabet was revised so as to be uniform across languages, thus providing the base for all future revisions.
The idea of making the IPA was first suggested by Otto Jespersen in a letter to Paul Passy. It was developed by Alexander John Ellis, Henry Sweet, Daniel Jones, Passy. Since its creation, the IPA has undergone a number of revisions. After revisions and expansions from the 1890s to the 1940s, the IPA remained unchanged until the Kiel Convention in 1989. A minor revision took place in 1993 with the addition of four letters for mid central vowels and the removal of letters for voiceless implosives; the alphabet was last revised in May 2005 with the addition of a letter for a labiodental flap. Apart from the addition and removal of symbols, changes to the IPA have consisted of renaming symbols and categories and in modifying typefaces. Extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet for speech pathology were created in 1990 and adopted by the International Clinical Phonetics and Linguistics Association in 1994; the general principle of the IPA is to provide one letter for each distinctive sound, although this practice is not followed if the sound itself is complex.
This means that: It does not use combinations of letters to represent single sounds, the way English does with ⟨sh⟩, ⟨th⟩ and ⟨ng⟩, or single letters to represent multiple sounds the way ⟨x⟩ represents /ks/ or /ɡz/ in English. There are no letters that have context-dependent sound values, as do "hard" and "soft" ⟨c⟩ or ⟨g⟩ in several European languages; the IPA does not have separate letters for two sounds if no known language makes a distinction between them, a property known as "selectiveness". Among the symbols of the IPA, 107 letters represent consonants and vowels, 31 diacritics are used to modify these, 19 additional signs indicate suprasegmental qualities such as length, tone and intonation; these are organized into a chart. The letters chosen for the IPA are meant to harmonize with the Latin alphabet. For this reason, most letters modifications thereof; some letters are neither: for example, the letter denoting the glottal stop, ⟨ʔ⟩, has the form of a dotless question mark, derives from an apostrophe.
A few letters, such as that of the voiced pharyngeal fricative, ⟨ʕ⟩, were inspired by other writing systems. Despite its preference for harmonizing with the Latin script, the International Phonetic Association has admitted other letters. For example, before 1989, the IPA letters for click consonants were ⟨ʘ⟩, ⟨ʇ⟩, ⟨ʗ⟩, ⟨ʖ⟩, all of which were derived either from existing IPA letters, or from Latin and Greek letters. However, except for ⟨ʘ⟩, none of these letters were used among Khoisanists or Bantuists, as a result they were replaced by the more widespread symbols ⟨ʘ⟩, ⟨ǀ⟩, ⟨ǃ⟩, ⟨ǂ⟩, ⟨ǁ⟩ at the IPA Kiel Convention in 1989. Although the IPA diacritics are featural, there is little systemicity in the letter forms. A retroflex articulation is indicated with a right-swinging tail, as in ⟨ɖ ʂ ɳ⟩, implosion by a top hook, ⟨ɓ ɗ ɠ⟩, but other pseudo-featural elements are due to haphazard derivation and coincidence. For example, all nasal consonants but uvular ⟨ɴ⟩ are based on the form ⟨n⟩: ⟨m ɱ n ɳ ɲ ŋ⟩.
However, the similarity between ⟨m⟩ and ⟨n⟩ is a historical accident. Some of the new letters were ordinary Latin letters tu
In linguistics articulatory phonetics, tongue shape describes the shape that the tongue assumes when it makes a sound. Because the sibilant sounds have such a high perceptual prominence, tongue shape is important. For non-sibilant sounds, the relevant variations in tongue shape can be adequately described by the concept of secondary articulation, in particular palatalization and pharyngealization. Only one secondary articulation can occur for a given sound. In addition, the acoustic quality of velarization and pharyngealization is similar so no language contrasts the two; the following varieties of tongue shapes are defined for sibilants, from sharpest and highest-pitched to dullest and lowest-pitched: Grooved like: with a groove running down the centerline of the tongue. The groove channels a high-velocity jet of air into the teeth, which results in a high-pitched, piercing "hissing" sound; because of the prominence of the sounds, they are the most common and most stable of sibilants cross-linguistically.
They are denoted with a s or z, as in soon or zone. Grooved palatalized like: Combination of grooved shape with palatalization, the raising/bowing of the middle of the tongue. Alveolo-palatal like, or "flat" palatalized: with a convex, V-shaped tongue and palatalized. Palato-alveolar like, or "domed:" with a "domed" tongue and moderately palatalized; such sounds occur in English and are denoted with sh, ch, g, j, or si, as in shin, chin and vision. Retroflex like: with a flat or concave tongue and no palatalization; such sounds occur in a large number of varieties, some of which go by other names such as "flat postalveolar" or "apico-alveolar." The subapical palatal, or "true retroflex," sounds are the dullest and lowest-pitched of all the sibilants, they have the greatest amount of concavity of the tongue. The last three types of sounds are known as "hushing" sounds because of their quality, as opposed to the "hissing" grooved sounds. Palatalization is an inherent part of the definition of the above varieties and cannot be varied independently.
Ladefoged, Peter. The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-19814-8
Labialization is a secondary articulatory feature of sounds in some languages. Labialized sounds involve the lips; the term is restricted to consonants. When vowels involve the lips, they are called rounded; the most common labialized consonants are labialized velars. Most other labialized sounds have simultaneous velarization, the process may be more called labio-velarization. In phonology, labialization may refer to a type of assimilation process. Labialization is the most widespread secondary articulation in the world's languages, it is phonemically contrastive in Northwest Caucasian and Salishan language families, among others. This contrast is reconstructed for Proto-Indo-European, the common ancestor of the Indo-European languages. American English has three degrees of labialization: tight rounded, slight rounded, unrounded, which in vowels is sometimes called'spread'; these secondary articulations are not universal. For example, French shares the English slight rounding of /ʃ/, /ʒ/ while Russian does not have slight rounding in its postalveolar fricatives.
A few languages, including Arrernte and Mba, have contrastive labialized forms for all of their consonants. Out of 706 language inventories surveyed by Ruhlen, labialization occurred most with velar and uvular segments and least with dental and alveolar segments. With non-dorsal consonants, labialization may include velarization as well. Labialization is not restricted to lip-rounding; the following articulations have either been described as labialization, or been found as allophonic realizations of prototypical labialization: Labiodental frication, found in Abkhaz Complete bilabial closure, found in Abkhaz and Ubykh "Labialization" without noticeable rounding of the lips, found in the Iroquoian languages. It may be. Rounding without velarization, found in Shona and in the Bzyb dialect of Abkhaz. Eastern Arrernte has labialization at all manners of articulation. Marshallese has labialization at all places of articulation except for coronal obstruents. In North America, languages from a number of families have sounds that sound labialized without participation of the lips.
See Tillamook language for an example. In the International Phonetic Alphabet, labialization of velar consonants is indicated with a raised w modifier, as in /kʷ/. There are diacritics to indicate greater or lesser degrees of rounding; these are used with vowels, but may occur with consonants. For example, in the Athabaskan language Hupa, voiceless velar fricatives distinguish three degrees of labialization, transcribed either /x/, /x̹/, /xʷ/ or /x/, /x̜ʷ/, /xʷ/; the extensions to the IPA has two additional symbols for degrees of rounding: Spread and open-rounded. It has a symbol for labiodentalized sounds. If precision is desired, the Abkhaz and Ubykh articulations may be transcribed with the appropriate fricative or trill raised as a diacritic:. For simple labialization, Ladefoged & Maddieson resurrected an old IPA symbol, which would be placed above a letter with a descender such as ɡ. However, their chief example is Shona sv and zv, which they transcribe /s̫/ and /z̫/ but which seem to be whistled sibilants, without being labialized.
Another possibility is to use the IPA diacritic for rounding, distinguishing for example the labialization in English soon and swoon. The open rounding of English /ʃ/ is unvelarized. Labialization refers to a specific type of assimilatory process where a given sound become labialized due to the influence of neighboring labial sounds. For example, /k/ may become /kʷ/ in the environment of /o/, or /a/ may become /o/ in the environment of /p/ or /kʷ/. In the Northwest Caucasian languages as well as some Australian languages rounding has shifted from the vowels to the consonants, producing a wide range of labialized consonants and leaving in some cases only two phonemic vowels; this appears to have been the case in Eastern Arrernte, for example. The labial vowel sounds still remain, but only as allophones next to the now-labial consonant sounds. Labialized voiceless alveolar stop labialized voiced alveolar stop labialized voiceless velar stop labialized voiced velar stop ( labialized voiceless uvular stop ( labialized pharyngealized voiceless uvular stop labialized voiced uvular stop ( labialized glottal stop ( labialized voiceless bilabial stop ( labialized voiced bilabial stop ( labialized prenasalized voiced bilabial plosive (in Tamamb
Linguolabials or apicolabials are consonants articulated by placing the tongue tip or blade against the upper lip, drawn downward to meet the tongue. They represent one extreme of a coronal articulatory continuum which extends from linguolabial to subapical palatal places of articulation. Cross-linguistically, linguolabial consonants are rare, but they do not represent a exotic combination of articulatory configurations, unlike click consonants or ejectives, they are found in a cluster of languages in Vanuatu, in the Kajoko dialect of Bijago in Guinea-Bissau, in Umotína, Hawaiian Creole English and as paralinguistic sounds elsewhere. They are relatively common in disordered speech, the diacritic is provided for in the extensions to the IPA. Linguolabial consonants are transcribed in the International Phonetic Alphabet by adding the "seagull" diacritic, U+033C ̼ COMBINING SEAGULL BELOW, to the corresponding alveolar consonant, or with the apical diacritic, U+033A ̺ COMBINING INVERTED BRIDGE BELOW, on the corresponding bilabial consonant.
Linguolabials are produced by constricting the airflow between the upper lip. They are attested in a number of manners of articulation including stops and fricatives, can be produced with the tip of the tongue, blade of the tongue, or the bottom of the tongue. Acoustically they are more similar to alveolars than bilabials. Linguolabials can be distinguished from bilabials and alveolars acoustically by formant transitions and nasal resonances. In Vanuatu, some of the Santo–Malekula languages have shifted from labial to dental consonants via an intermediate linguolabial stage, which remains in other Santo and Malekula languages. In Nese, for example, labials have become linguolabial before nonrounded vowels. Place of articulation List of phonetics topics Ladefoged, Peter; the Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-19814-8. Maddieson, Ian. "Linguo-labials". In Harlow, Ray. VICAL 1: Oceanic Languages: Papers from the Fifth International Conference on Austronesian Linguistics: Part Two.
Auckland: Linguistic Society of New Zealand. Pp. 349–375. Olson, Kenneth. "The voiced linguolabial plosive in Kajoko". Proceedings of the Chicago Linguistic Society. 45: 519–530