Lake Yarinacocha is a lake in Peru located in the Ucayali Region, Coronel Portillo Province, Yarinacocha District. It is situated at 0.82 km at its widest point. Lake Yarinacocha lies northwest of Pucallpa. List of lakes in Peru
Pucallpa is a city in eastern Peru located on the banks of the Ucayali River, a major tributary of the Amazon River. It is the capital of the Coronel Portillo Province and the Calleria District; this city is categorized as the only metropolis in Ucayali, being the largest populated center of the region. According to the Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática, it is the tenth most populated city in Peru and in 2013 housed a population of 211,611 inhabitants. Although located in the district of Callería, in the 1980s it formed a conurbation with the towns of Puerto Callao and San Fernando. Most of the transport to Pucallpa is done through the Ucayali River, located in the central east of Peru and which contains the second most important river port in the Amazon; the Federico Basadrees highway is the main center of land transportation and connects the northwest of the city with the Captain Rolden International Airport, where flights are made to Brazil. The economy of Pucallpa is based on the timber industry and tourism.
Among the main attractions of the city include ecological tourism, such as the Parque Natural, or cultural tourism, in the case of shamanism. Its main economic activities are fishing, agriculture and timber extraction. In addition, a small oil refinery near the Pachitea River and a gas refinery in the Curimaná District supply fuel to the city and the center of the country; the first human inhabitants of the region were the Pano, who inhabited the entire length of the Ucayali River and its tributaries 3 millennia before being colonized. Pucallpa was founded in the 1840s by Franciscan missionaries who settled several families of the Shipibo-Conibo ethnic group. For several decades it remained a small settlement as it was isolated from the rest of the country by the Amazon Rainforest and the Andes mountain range. From the 1880s through the 1920s a railway project to connect Pucallpa with the rest of the country via the Ferrocarril Central Andino was started and dropped several times until it was abandoned.
Pucallpa's isolation ended in 1945 with the completion of a highway to Lima through Tingo Maria. The highway allowed the commercialization of regional products to the rest of the country, thus improving the economic outlook of the region and its capital, Pucallpa. However, the heavy rainfalls of the Amazon Rainforest remain a problem as they erode the highway and can undermine it by causing flash floods. Pucallpa is served by air through the Captain Rolden International Airport and by river through its port Pucallpillo near the center of the city. During the high water season, the floating ports of La Hoyada and Puerto Italia are used for riverine communications. Pucallpa is connected by road to Lima via the cities Cerro de Pasco; the San Lorenzo Megaport Project proposes to connect Lima with the Atlantic via a rail connection to Pucallpa and the Amazon. Tapiche Ohara's Reserve TANS Peru Flight 204 crash, 23 August 2005. LANSA Flight 508 crash, 24 December 1971. Yarinaqucha Pucallpa travel guide from Wikivoyage
Manantay District is one of the seven districts of the province Coronel Portillo in Peru
El Sira Communal Reserve
The El Sira Communal Reserve is a protected area in Peru created on 23 June 2001 and located in three regions: the Huánuco Region, the Pasco Region and the Ucayali Region. In 2010, UNESCO recognized the El Sira Communal Reserve as a Buffer Zone for the Oxapampa-Asháninka-Yánesha Biosphere Reserve. El Sira Communal Reserve is located in the east-central area of Peru, part of the Eastern Cordillera of the Andes, within the sub-Andean belt; the SCR presents an altitudinal gradient from 130 to 2250 meters above sea level and is influenced by the basins of the Ucayali and Pichis rivers. The average annual temperature is 25.5 °C. Average monthly temperatures fluctuate between 24.6 °C and 25.8 °C. The lowest temperatures occur in the highest in the last quarter. Extreme temperatures fluctuate between 15 °C and 33 °C, with 15 °C being the average oscillation between extreme maximum and minimum temperatures; the lower parts at less than 1000 masl are rainy. The highlands that exceed 1000 masl present a climate that varies from semi-dry to humid.
The last and first trimester of each year have the highest rainfall. The dry season corresponds to the second and third trimesters, reaching 107 mm of precipitation in August. On the western flank of the mountain range there are phenomena that favor greater condensation of cloud bodies, unlike the east side; the values recorded for Puerto Bermúdez indicate an annual total of 3312.9 mm, unlike the values recorded for Pucallpa and Atalaya, which do not exceed records of 2500 mm per year. In the south of the reserve the landscape known as Gran Pajonal is less hot and humid, with average temperature values of 18.5 °C. The Reserve is located in the upper or middle sectors of the tributaries of the Ucayali river basins and Pichis; the southern part of the reserve is located between the upper sectors of the tributaries of the Pichis and Unini rivers. The eastern sector of the buffer zone is made up of the Ucayali River; the Ucayali River, originating in the Peruvian Andes, borders the eastern part of the El Sira mountain range, with a south - north route.
It is characterized by being meandering with few lentic environments in the area adjacent to the aforementioned Cordillera. Its water course has a great lateral migratory activity, which causes the formation of lentic environments - locally known as "tipishcas"; these environments are the product of a meander, abandoned by the course of the river. The flow of the Ucayali river at the height of Pucallpa is 11,599 m3/s, at the height of Atalaya 6613 m3/s; the Pachitea River is a tributary of the Ucayali River, flowing into the left bank downstream of the village of Santa Rosa. Its waters come from the Peruvian Andes, it is formed from the union of the Palcazu rivers. In its south - north route it borders the western part of the northern sector of the El Sira mountain range, it is a meandering river with scarce lentic environments in the area adjacent to the aforementioned Cordillera. According to ONERN in 1980, the flow of the Pachitea River at its confluence with the Ucayali River is 2412 m3/s; the Pichis River, born in the Peruvian Andes, borders the western part of the center - south sector of the Cordillera El Sira with a south-north route.
It is a winding river with scarce lentic environments in the area adjacent to the aforementioned Cordillera. When uniting with the Palcazu it gives origin to the Pachitea river; the navigability of these rivers is an important factor that makes them the primary communication channel for the area. One of the main means of fluvial communication for the reserve is the Ucayali River; this river is navigable from the main port of Pucallpa to the confluence of the Tambo and Urubamba rivers, where the provincial capital of Atalaya is located. The Pichis and Pachitea rivers allow the navigation of boats with outboard motors from their confluence to Puerto Bermúdez. In general, navigability improves in rainy seasons; some 190 species have been collected, including 8 endangered species, such as tall or red cedar, quinilla, ceiba and palo rosa. In the high parts the vegetation consists of trees with thin stems and small crowns, with a high presence of epiphytes: Bromeliads, ferns, lichens and mosses. There are 44 registered orchid species.
Of the mammals in the El Sira Communal Reserve, 54 species are of special importance due to a threat category, such as: giant armadillo, river otter, Amazon river dolphin, bush dog, spider monkey and otter. In addition, 203 species of birds have been registered the Passeriformes with 63 species; the Sira is one of the greatest areas of bird endemism of the planet. Among the most representative endemic species of birds is the Paujil del Sira or Piurí, a subspecies of horned curas
Yarinacocha District is one of seven districts of the province Coronel Portillo in the region Ucayali, Peru. The capital of the district is the village of Puerto Callao; the first mayoral term began in 1965. The following people have served as mayors of the district: Official website
Peru the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America. It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, in the west by the Pacific Ocean. Peru is a megadiverse country with habitats ranging from the arid plains of the Pacific coastal region in the west to the peaks of the Andes mountains vertically extending from the north to the southeast of the country to the tropical Amazon Basin rainforest in the east with the Amazon river. Peruvian territory was home to several ancient cultures. Ranging from the Norte Chico civilization in the 32nd century BC, the oldest civilization in the Americas and one of the five cradles of civilization, to the Inca Empire, the largest state in pre-Columbian America, the territory now including Peru has one of the longest histories of civilization of any country, tracing its heritage back to the 4th millennia BCE; the Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century and established a viceroyalty that encompassed most of its South American colonies, with its capital in Lima.
Peru formally proclaimed independence in 1821, following the military campaigns of José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar, the decisive battle of Ayacucho, Peru secured independence in 1824. In the ensuing years, the country enjoyed relative economic and political stability, which ended shortly before the War of the Pacific with Chile. Throughout the 20th century, Peru endured armed territorial disputes, social unrest, internal conflicts, as well as periods of stability and economic upswing. Alberto Fujimori was elected to the presidency in 1990. Fujimori left the presidency in 2000 and was charged with human rights violations and imprisoned until his pardon by President Pedro Pablo Kuczynski in 2017. After the president's regime, Fujimori's followers, called Fujimoristas, have caused political turmoil for any opposing faction in power causing Pedro Pablo Kuczynski to resign in March 2018; the sovereign state of Peru is a representative democratic republic divided into 25 regions. It is classified as an emerging market with a high level of human development and an upper middle income level with a poverty rate around 19 percent.
It is one of the region's most prosperous economies with an average growth rate of 5.9% and it has one of the world's fastest industrial growth rates at an average of 9.6%. Its main economic activities include mining, manufacturing and fishing; the country forms part of The Pacific Pumas, a political and economic grouping of countries along Latin America's Pacific coast that share common trends of positive growth, stable macroeconomic foundations, improved governance and an openness to global integration. Peru ranks high in social freedom. Peru has a population of 32 million, which includes Amerindians, Europeans and Asians; the main spoken language is Spanish, although a significant number of Peruvians speak Quechua or other native languages. This mixture of cultural traditions has resulted in a wide diversity of expressions in fields such as art, cuisine and music; the name of the country may be derived from Birú, the name of a local ruler who lived near the Bay of San Miguel, Panama City, in the early 16th century.
When his possessions were visited by Spanish explorers in 1522, they were the southernmost part of the New World yet known to Europeans. Thus, when Francisco Pizarro explored the regions farther south, they came to be designated Birú or Perú. An alternative history is provided by the contemporary writer Inca Garcilaso de la Vega, son of an Inca princess and a conquistador, he said the name Birú was that of a common Indian happened upon by the crew of a ship on an exploratory mission for governor Pedro Arias de Ávila, went on to relate more instances of misunderstandings due to the lack of a common language. The Spanish Crown gave the name legal status with the 1529 Capitulación de Toledo, which designated the newly encountered Inca Empire as the province of Peru. Under Spanish rule, the country adopted the denomination Viceroyalty of Peru, which became Republic of Peru after independence; the earliest evidences of human presence in Peruvian territory have been dated to 9,000 BC. Andean societies were based on agriculture, terracing.
Organization relied on reciprocity and redistribution because these societies had no notion of market or money. The oldest known complex society in Peru, the Norte Chico civilization, flourished along the coast of the Pacific Ocean between 3,000 and 1,800 BC; these early developments were followed by archaeological cultures that developed around the coastal and Andean regions throughout Peru. The Cupisnique culture which flourished from around 1000 to 200 BC along what is now Peru's Pacific Coast was an example of early pre-Incan culture; the Chavín culture that developed from 1500 to 300 BC was more of a religious than a political phenomenon, with their religious centre in Chavín de Huantar. After the decline of the Chavin culture around the beginning of the 1st century AD, a series of localized and specialized cultures rose and fell
Geography is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features and phenomena of the Earth and planets. The first person to use the word γεωγραφία was Eratosthenes. Geography is an all-encompassing discipline that seeks an understanding of Earth and its human and natural complexities—not where objects are, but how they have changed and come to be. Geography is defined in terms of two branches: human geography and physical geography. Human geography deals with the study of people and their communities, cultures and interactions with the environment by studying their relations with and across space and place. Physical geography deals with the study of processes and patterns in the natural environment like the atmosphere, hydrosphere and geosphere; the four historical traditions in geographical research are: spatial analyses of natural and the human phenomena, area studies of places and regions, studies of human-land relationships, the Earth sciences. Geography has been called "the world discipline" and "the bridge between the human and the physical sciences".
Geography is a systematic study of its features. Traditionally, geography has been associated with place names. Although many geographers are trained in toponymy and cartology, this is not their main preoccupation. Geographers study the space and the temporal database distribution of phenomena and features as well as the interaction of humans and their environment; because space and place affect a variety of topics, such as economics, climate and animals, geography is interdisciplinary. The interdisciplinary nature of the geographical approach depends on an attentiveness to the relationship between physical and human phenomena and its spatial patterns. Names of places...are not geography...know by heart a whole gazetteer full of them would not, in itself, constitute anyone a geographer. Geography has higher aims than this: it seeks to classify phenomena, to compare, to generalize, to ascend from effects to causes, and, in doing so, to trace out the laws of nature and to mark their influences upon man.
This is ` a description of the world' --. In a word Geography is a Science—a thing not of mere names but of argument and reason, of cause and effect. Just as all phenomena exist in time and thus have a history, they exist in space and have a geography. Geography as a discipline can be split broadly into two main subsidiary fields: human geography and physical geography; the former focuses on the built environment and how humans create, view and influence space. The latter examines the natural environment, how organisms, soil and landforms produce and interact; the difference between these approaches led to a third field, environmental geography, which combines physical and human geography and concerns the interactions between the environment and humans. Physical geography focuses on geography as an Earth science, it aims to understand the physical problems and the issues of lithosphere, atmosphere and global flora and fauna patterns. Physical geography can be divided into many broad categories, including: Human geography is a branch of geography that focuses on the study of patterns and processes that shape the human society.
It encompasses the human, cultural and economic aspects. Human geography can be divided into many broad categories, such as: Various approaches to the study of human geography have arisen through time and include: Behavioral geography Feminist geography Culture theory Geosophy Environmental geography is concerned with the description of the spatial interactions between humans and the natural world, it requires an understanding of the traditional aspects of physical and human geography, as well as the ways that human societies conceptualize the environment. Environmental geography has emerged as a bridge between the human and the physical geography, as a result of the increasing specialisation of the two sub-fields. Furthermore, as human relationship with the environment has changed as a result of globalization and technological change, a new approach was needed to understand the changing and dynamic relationship. Examples of areas of research in the environmental geography include: emergency management, environmental management and political ecology.
Geomatics is concerned with the application of computers to the traditional spatial techniques used in cartography and topography. Geomatics emerged from the quantitative revolution in geography in the mid-1950s. Today, geomatics methods include spatial analysis, geographic information systems, remote sensing, global positioning systems. Geomatics has led to a revitalization of some geography departments in Northern America where the subject had a declining status during the 1950s. Regional geography is concerned with the description of the unique characteristics of a particular region such as its natural or human elements; the main aim is to understand, or define the uniqueness, or character of a particular region that consists of natural as well as human elements. Attention is paid to regionalization, which covers the proper techniques of space delimitation into regions. Urban planning, regional planning, spatial planning: Use the science of geography to assist in determining how to develop the land to meet particular criteria, such as safety, economic opportunities, the preservation of the built or natural heritage, so on.
The planning of towns, c