England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Christian Gobrecht was the third Chief Engraver of the United States Mint from 1840 until his death in 1844. He was responsible for designing the famous "Seated Liberty" designs, which were in turn the direct inspiration for the design of the Trade Dollar, he designed the Gobrecht Dollar, struck in small quantities from 1836 to 1838 and inspired the Flying Eagle cent. He designed the obverse sides for the Liberty head Quarter Eagle, Half Eagle, Eagle gold coins, as well as the "braided hair" type Half cent and Large cent coins. Gobrecht was born on December 23, 1785, in Hanover, Pennsylvania, to Reverend John C. Gobrecht, who came to America from Germany in 1755, Elizabeth Sands, with ancestry going back to 1642 in Plymouth Colony. After apprenticing in Manheim, Pennsylvania, he engraved ornamental clockworks in Baltimore, until he moved to Philadelphia in 1811 to join Murray, Draper and Company, an engraving firm, around 1816, he invented a medal ruling machine in 1810, which he improved upon in 1817.
In 1823, Mint Director Robert Patterson sought to engage Gobrecht as assistant director, but Gobrecht declined the position. Instead, in December, Gobrecht sought the position of chief engraver of the Mint, writing to President James Monroe. Instead, the position went to William Kneass. In addition to his professional activities, Gobrecht was an inventor, inventing the camera lucida, a talking doll, a kind of melodeon, the medal-ruling machine, which reproduces relief on a plain surface. There is extant documentation showing that Gobrecht worked for the Mint as early as 1823 upon the death of the first chief engraver Robert Scot; this was only a temporary appointment until a new chief engraver William Kneass was hired in January 1824. He engraved and sold letter and numeral punches to the Mint from this point forward and provided a pattern die to the United States Mint in 1826, he became not an assistant but a "Second" engraver in September 1835 after Kneass suffered a debilitating stroke on August 27 of that year.
After Kneass' stroke, most all pattern and die work was done by Gobrecht from on, including the Gobrecht Dollars, which were minted in small quantities from 1836 to 1839. Shortly after Kneass' death in 1840, Gobrecht was appointed Chief Engraver of the U. S. Mint on December 21, 1840. During his tenure as Chief Engraver of the Mint, Gobrecht produced what he is known for, the Seated Liberty dollar, based on sketches by Thomas Sully, Titian Peale; that design remained on U. S. coinage as late as 1891 Gobrecht died in July 1844. Longacre. Additionally to engraving for the Mint, he produced embossing plaque for bookbinding. Taxay, Don; the U. S. Mint and Coinage. New York, N. Y.: Sanford J. Durst Numismatic Publications. ISBN 0-915262-68-1
The Wreath cent was an American large cent. It was the second design type, following the Chain cent in 1793, it was produced only during that year. The obverse design consisted of a stylized Liberty head with flowing hair; the inscription "LIBERTY" appeared above the portrait. Below it was the date; the design of the Liberty head was modified somewhat from that of the Chain cent to address public criticism. The reverse's central design figure, for which the coin is named, was a wreath; the words "ONE CENT" appeared within the wreath, the corresponding fraction "1/100" appeared beneath it. Along the outer edge was inscribed "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA". A decorative beaded border was added along the rim. 63,353 Wreath cents were struck. Early specimens featured a stylized "vine/bars" design on the edges of the planchet, identical to that of the earlier Chain cent. On, this was changed to a lettered edge reading "ONE HUNDRED FOR A DOLLAR". Early American copper collectors categorize the coins still further into thirteen different varieties under the Sheldon system.
Most of these variations entail minor changes, require careful examination to discern. One variety, however, is far more recognizable: the "Strawberry Leaf". On these strikings, the trefoil sprig above the date took the form of a strawberry plant. Only four such specimens are known, all are circulated; the finest known Strawberry Leaf cent sold at auction for $414,000 in November 2004. The 1793 Wreath Cent is featured in the 2014 novel The Automation
A planchet English: is a round metal disk, ready to be struck as a coin. An older word for planchet is flan, they are referred to as blanks. The preparation of the flan or planchet has varied over the years. In ancient times, the flan was heated before striking because the metal that the coin dies were made of was not as hard as dies today, the dies would have worn faster and broken sooner had the flan not been heated to a high temperature to soften it. Today's dies are made from hardened steel, the presses use many thousands of pounds of force to strike coins. In addition, today's coins have much lower relief than ancient coins; because of this, the planchet no longer needs to be heated before striking, although it is annealed by heating and slow cooling which softens the coin. Preparation of the modern planchet involves several steps. First, the metal is rolled out into a large sheet of the correct thickness; this process is done by third parties, not by the mint itself. These flat rolls or sheets of metal are punched out into round blanks that are a little larger than the coin being struck.
The blanks are subjected to an annealing process that softens the metal through heating to 750 degrees Celsius and are slowly air cooled. They are washed to remove residue from the annealing process and dried; the blanks go through an upsetting mill that raises the rim on the edge of the coin. The planchet is struck. After striking, it is no longer a planchet. A planchet will escape the mint without having been struck; this is a blank planchet error, is worth a few dollars for modern coins. Blank planchets can be rare and valuable, such is the case for Morgan Dollar blank planchets, although authentication is recommended for such pieces as they would be easy to counterfeit. How coins are minted An extensive description of the minting process through the ages http://www.winsociety.org/newsletter/news_archive/rhart.html http://www.usmint.gov/faqs/circulating_coins/index.cfm?flash=yes&action=coins http://www.coinworld.com/NewCollector/MintingProcess.asp
Penny (United States coin)
The United States one-cent coin called the penny, is a unit of currency equaling one one-hundredth of a United States dollar. The cent's symbol is ¢, its obverse has featured the profile of President Abraham Lincoln since 1909, the centennial of his birth. From 1959 to 2008, the reverse featured the Lincoln Memorial. Four different reverse designs in 2009 honored Lincoln's 200th birthday and a new, "permanent" reverse – the Union Shield – was introduced in 2010; the coin is 0.75 inches in diameter and 0.0598 inches in thickness. Its weight has varied, depending upon the composition of metals used in its production; the U. S. Mint's official name for the coin is "cent" and the U. S. Treasury's official name is "one cent piece"; the colloquial term penny derives from the British coin of the same name, the pre-decimal version of which had a similar place in the British system. In American English, pennies is the plural form. In the early 2010s the price of metal used to make pennies rose to a noticeable cost to the mint which peaked at a $0.02 for $0.01 ratio.
This pushed the mint to look for alternative metals again for the coin, brought the penny debate into more focus. There are no firm plans to eliminate the penny as arguments for and against the coin continue to be debated. In honor of Lincoln's 200th anniversary, special 2009 cents were minted for collectors in the same composition as the 1909 coins; the isotope composition of early coins spanning the period 1828 to 1843 reflects the copper from Cornish ores from England, while coins after 1850 reflect the Keweenaw Peninsula, Michigan ores, a finding consistent with historical records. In 1943, at the peak of World War II, zinc-coated steel cents were made for a short time because of war demands for copper. A few copper cents from 1943 were produced from the 1942 planchets remaining in the bins; some 1944 steel cents have been confirmed. From 1944 to 1946, salvaged ammunition shells made their way into the minting process, it was not uncommon to see coins featuring streaks of brass or having a darker finish than other issues.
During the early 1970s, the price of copper rose to the point where the cent contained one cent's worth of copper. This led the Mint to test alternative metals, including aluminum and bronze-clad steel. Aluminum was chosen, over 1.5 million of these pennies were struck and ready for public release before being rejected. The proposed aluminum pennies were rejected for two reasons: vending machine owners complained the coins would cause mechanical problems. One aluminum cent was donated to the Smithsonian Institution; the cent's composition was changed in 1982 because the value of the copper in the coin started to rise above one cent. Some 1982 pennies used the 97.5% zinc composition, while others used the 95% copper composition. With the exception of 2009 bicentennial cents minted for collectors, United States cents minted after 1982 have been zinc with copper plating. In Fiscal Year 2013, the average one-cent piece minted cost the U. S. Mint 1.83 cents, down from 2.41 cents apiece in FY 2011. The bronze and copper cents can be distinguished from the newer zinc cents by dropping the coins on a solid surface.
The predominantly zinc coins make a lower-pitched "clunk", while the copper coins produce a higher-pitched ringing sound. In addition, a full 50-cent roll of pre-1982/3 coins weighs 5.4 oz compared to a post-1982–83 roll which weighs 4.4 oz. Mintage figures for the penny can be found at United States cent mintage figures; the coin has gone through several designs over its two-hundred-year time frame. Until 1857 it was about the size of the current U. S. dollar coins. The following types of cents have been produced: Large cents: Flowing Hair Chain 1793 Flowing Hair Wreath 1793 Liberty Cap 1793–1796 Draped bust 1796–1807 Classic Head 1808–1814 Coronet 1816–1839 Braided Hair 1839–1857, 1868 Small cents: Flying Eagle cent Indian Head cent Lincoln cent Lincoln Wheat Lincoln Memorial Lincoln Bicentennial 4 reverse designs Lincoln Union Shield Throughout its history, the Lincoln cent has featured several typefaces for the date, but most of the digits have been old-style numerals, except with the 4 and 8 neither ascending nor descending.
The only significant divergence is that the small 3 was non-descending in the early history, before switching to a descending, large 3 for just one year in 1934 and permanently in 1943. The digit 5 was small and non-descending up to 1945 from 1950 and on, it became a large descending 5. From 1959 until 2008, the Lincoln Memorial was shown on the reverse of the United States cent; because the Lincoln Memorial was shown in sufficient detail to discern the statue of Lincoln on the reverse of cent, Abraham Lincoln was at that time the only person to be depicted on both the obverse and reverse of the same United States coin. In 1999, the New Jersey state quarter was released, which depicts George Washington on both sides, crossing the Delaware River on the reverse side and in profile on the obverse. (The state quarter for South Dakota, released in 2006 features Washington on both sides: the typical profile on the obverse, Washington within Mount Rushmore on the re
The Chain cent was America's first large cent and the first circulating coin produced by the United States Mint. It was struck only during 1793; the obverse design consisted of a stylized Liberty head with flowing hair. The inscription "LIBERTY" appeared above the portrait, the date below; the design was rather empty compared to those that would come later. The reverse's central design figure, for which the coin is named, is an interlocking chain with 15 links, representing the 15 American states in existence at that time. Both the words "ONE CENT" and the fraction "1/100" appear within the chain. Along the outer edge is inscribed "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA". On the first working die, the engraver failed to allow adequate room for the entire inscription, it had to be abbreviated to "UNITED STATES OF AMERI.". These early dies were cut rather than being made from master hubs as is the practice today; the edge of these coins is decorated with vines with leaves. Chain cents were struck during late February and early March 1793.
However, the public reaction to the coins was unfavorable. One newspaper criticized the appearance of the Liberty head, saying that it appeared to be "in a fright". And, while the reverse chain had been intended to symbolize the unity of the newly formed Union, many commentators instead interpreted it as representative of slavery. By March, the Mint had run out of planchets. During this time, a new design – the Wreath cent – was prepared and approved; the First Cent Coinage Chain cent sold at auction
1792 half disme
The 1792 half disme was an American silver coin with a face value of five cents. Although it is subject to debate as to whether this was intended to be circulating coinage or instead an experimental issue, President George Washington referred to it as "a small beginning" and many of the coins were released into circulation, it is considered the first United States coinage struck under authority of the Mint Act of April 1792. When speaking to the House of Representatives in November 1792, President Washington mentioned the "want of small coins in circulation" and stated that he had begun work on establishing a U. S. Mint and that some half dismes had been produced already. At this point, most of the personnel had been hired, but the Mint's buildings and machinery were not yet ready; as a result, the half dismes, struck in or around July 1792, were produced using the private facilities of local craftsman John Harper, although under the auspices of official Mint personnel. In his personal log book, Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson recorded the receipt of 1,500 specimens on July 13.
Because of President Washington's connection with these early coins, numismatic folklore holds that the portrait on the obverse is that of First Lady Martha Washington and that some of the coins were struck using melted-down silverware from the Washington household. However, there is no solid evidence for either of these assertions. Although the exact number is not known, it is believed that between 2,000 and 3,500 specimens were produced. 10% of these survive today. An about uncirculated 1792 half disme was auctioned for $138,000 on July 24, 2004. A specimen strike from the Starr collection, graded MS67 by PCGS, sold for $1,322,500 on April 26, 2006; the highest numerically graded piece, an NGC MS68, sold for $1,500,000 by private treaty transaction in 2007. Although nearly all 1792 half dismes were produced in a silver alloy, a unique pattern piece in copper is known. Half dime Nickel Dime 1792 Half Disme Complete History CoinResource.com - Birch Half Disme 1792