Chetumal Bay is a large bay of the western Caribbean Sea on the southern coast of the Yucatán Peninsula. It is located in southeastern Mexico; the mouth of Chetumal Bay is directed southward and buffered by the large Belizean island of Ambergris Caye. Corozal Bay is a smaller inland inlet, that extends to the southwest in the upper region of Chetumal Bay, it is named after the town of Corozal on it. Chetumal is a major city on the bay, located in the Mexican state of Quintana Roo. Bays of the Caribbean Bays of the Gulf of Mexico
Corozal Town is a town in Belize, capital of Corozal District. Corozal Town is located about 84 miles north of Belize City, 9 miles from the border with Mexico; the population of Corozal Town, according to the main results of the 2010 census, is 9,871. Corozal was a private estate before becoming a town in the 1840s settled by Maya Mestizo refugees from the Caste War of Yucatán. Much of the town was built over an ancient Maya city, sometimes known as Santa Rita. Corozal Town was badly damaged by Hurricane Janet in 1955, was rebuilt afterwards. Corozal, the northmost town in Belize, was founded in 1848 by refugees from the Maya Indian uprising against the Spanish in neighbouring Yucatán; this uprising, known as the Caste War of Yucatán, began as a war against the Spaniards, but it became a war against the Mestizos. The Mestizos, half Spanish and half Indian, had proved to be formidable allies of the Spaniards, were thus mortal enemies of the Maya Indians. A massacre at Bacalar, Mexico — a Mestizo stronghold about thirty miles north of Corozal Town — led to the exodus of thousands of Mestizos from Bacalar and the surrounding area.
Between 1848 and 1856 more than 10,000 refugees crossed the Rio Hondo, the river that now serves as a boundary between Belize and Mexico. These immigrants sought refuge in northern Belize, increased the population of Corozal Town to 4500. Mr. James Blake, a magistrate, let them settle on lands in the Corozal District and helped them to establish the new crop — sugar cane; the Mestizo refugees were far from safe in Corozal Town as the Maya Indians from the Mexican base in Santa Cruz Bravo — today Carrillo Puerto — made several incursions in Corozal Town. In defense, Corozal became a garrison town and Fort Barlee was built here in 1870. Today, the brick corner supports of the fort surround the post office complex of the buildings across from the central town square; the immigrants brought with them Maya Mestizo culture: Spanish and Yucatec Maya language and Maya folklore, the use of alcalde, their family structure and way of life. Soon, there emerged a local replication of the society of the Yucatán within the boundaries of a country ruled by English expatriates.
Across the bay from Corozal Town are the mounds of Cerros, the first Maya coastal trading centre. Cerros is considered one of the most important late preclassic Maya sites because it represented the first experiment with kingship in the Maya world; the remains include a number of temples, ballcourts and minor structures. The most interesting artifacts so far discovered are the five jade head pendants. Within Corozal itself can be found another Maya ruin from the fourteenth century AD. Known as Santa Rita, the pyramid site sits atop the remains of a Maya city that dominated the area for more, than 2000 years. Burial sites rich in jewelry and artifacts have been unearthed here. Santa Rita was part of ancient Chactumal, the Maya capital of the area at the time of the first Spanish attempt to conquer the Yucatec Mayas in the early 16th century; the ruins of Santa Rita is located near the town's Hospital and is surrounded by the villages of San Andres, San Antonio, Paraiso, by walking distances. An estimated 90% of the town was destroyed by Hurricane Janet in 1955, most of the present structures post-date that hurricane.
The town is served by Corozal Hospital. According to the 2010 Population and Housing Census the town of Corozal has a total population of 9,871; the total number of households is 2,672 and the average household size is 3.7. Travel Belize – Corozal Corozal.com Corozal Town at Belize.com http://www.simplybelize.org/episode01.html Que Pasa Corozal
Cerros is an Eastern Lowland Maya archaeological site in northern Belize that functioned from the Late Preclassic to the Postclassic period. The site reached its apogee during the Mesoamerican Late Preclassic and at its peak, it held a population of 1,089 people; the site is strategically located on a peninsula at the mouth of the New River where it empties into Chetumal Bay on the Caribbean coast. As such, the site had access to and served as an intermediary link between the coastal trade route that circumnavigated the Yucatán Peninsula and inland communities; the inhabitants of Cerros constructed an extensive canal system and utilized raised-field agriculture. The core of the site abuts the bay and consists of several large structures and stepped pyramids, an acropolis complex, two ballcourts. Bounding the southern side of the site is a crescent-shaped canal network that encloses the central portion of the site and encloses several raised-fields. Residential structures continue outside of the canal radiating southwest and southeast.
From the time of its inception in the Late Preclassic Era, around 400BC, the site of Cerros was a small village of farmers and traders. They made use of its fertile soils and easy access to the sea, while producing and trading product amongst the other Maya in the area. Around 50 BC, as their economy grew and they began to experiment with the idea of kingship, the inhabitants of Cerros initiated a great urban renewal program, burying their homes to make way for a group of temples and plazas; the first of the new constructions was the Structure 5C-2nd, which has become the most famous piece of architecture at the site. Aligned with its back at the edge of Chetumal Bay, it marked the northernmost point of the sacred north-south axis of the site, complemented by a ballcourt which lies at the southernmost point; as kings died, others came along and new temples were constructed in their honor. The last of the substantial constructions at the site occurred around AD 100, many of the other structures appear to have been abandoned before then.
During the Protoclassic, Cerros ceased to function as a locus of elitist activity but continued as a location for mundane domestic activity. From on, any new construction was limited to the outer residential area, as the population began to decline severely. Apart from a small occupation at the end of the Late Classic period as a village community, Cerros has been abandoned since AD 400; this once glorious site was left for ruin and remained unnoticed until Thomas Gann made reference to "lookout" mounds along the coast in 1900, drawing interest to the site. Archaeological work began at Cerros around 1973 when the site was purchased by the Metroplex Corporation of Dallas, who intended to build a tourist resort around the ceremonial center, to donate the archaeological site to the Government of Belize for a National Park, they contacted Dr. Ira R. Abrams, teaching in Dallas in the Anthropology Department of Southern Methodist University, had extensive experience working with the Maya in that part of what was British Honduras.
Abrams worked with Metroplex President John Love, their employee John Favro and local arts patron Stanley Marcus create the Cerro Maya Foundation to fund excavations and the partial restoration of the site, through the Department of Anthropology at SMU. To accomplish this, Abrams became Director of the Cerro Maya Project and Member of the Board of the Cerro Maya Foundation, hired archaeologist Dr. David Freidel to supervise the excavations. Abrams made initial arrangements with Dr. Joseph Palacio, the Archaeology Commissioner of British Honduras for a permit to excavate the site and hired workers from Xaibe Village to work at the site; when plans for the proposed resort failed, the site was given to the government of Belize as promised. In 1974, archaeologist David Freidel and his team uncovered evidence that suggested that the site was of the Late Preclassic period. In 1975, when a dedicatory offering cache was uncovered at Structure 6, further evidence was provided that Cerros was indeed a Late Preclassic site.
Throughout the 1970s, research was allowed to continue when the National Science Foundation funded further excavations. The original team completed their excavations in 1981. In the 1990s, Debra Walker and a team of archaeologists began a series of new excavations to investigate the site's demise at the end of the Late Preclassic Era. In addition to the research done at the site, Walker's team had radiocarbon dates run on newly found artifacts, they recalibrated several dates from the original research in order to establish a tighter chronological sequence. The northernmost structural complex, located at the edge of Chetumal Bay, is referred to as Structure 5C-2nd, which contains a modest size temple. Estimated to have been built around 50BC, the two-tiered south facing platform pyramid had wall stubs atop it for what would have been a perishable superstructure. Having the entire settlement facing the south allowed the whole community the ability to witness rituals on its staircase. In Maya cosmology, north is associated with the direction of the sky, where the celestial gods hold domain, while the south is the direction of the underworld.
This placement associated the primary temple both physically and symbolically with the celestial domain. Of importance are four huge painted plaster mask reliefs placed against the platform’s stepped walls which flank either side of the stairway depicting the forces of the cosmos. Linda Schele and David Freidel have identified the two lower masks as represent
Belize is a country located on the eastern coast of Central America. Belize is bordered on the northwest by Mexico, on the east by the Caribbean Sea, on the south and west by Guatemala, it has an area of 22,970 square kilometres and a population of 387,879. Its mainland is 68 mi wide, it has the lowest population density in Central America. The country's population growth rate of 1.87% per year is the second highest in the region and one of the highest in the Western Hemisphere. The Mayan civilization spread into the area of Belize between 1500 B. C. and 300 A. D. and flourished until about 1200. European exploration campaigns began in 1502 when Christopher Columbus sailed along the Gulf of Honduras. European settlement was begun by English settlers in 1638; this period was marked by Spain and Britain both laying claim to the land until Britain defeated the Spanish in the Battle of St. George's Caye, it became a British colony in 1840, known as British Honduras, a Crown colony in 1862. Independence was achieved from the United Kingdom on 21 September 1981.
Belize has a diverse society, composed of many cultures and languages that reflect its rich history. English is the official language of Belize. Over half the population is multilingual, with Spanish being the second most common spoken language, it is known for its extensive barrier reef coral reefs and punta music. Belize's abundance of terrestrial and marine species and its diversity of ecosystems give it a key place in the globally significant Mesoamerican Biological Corridor, it is considered a Central American and Caribbean nation with strong ties to both the American and Caribbean regions. It is a member of the Caribbean Community, the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States, the Central American Integration System, the only country to hold full membership in all three regional organisations. Belize is a Commonwealth realm, with Queen Elizabeth II as its head of state; the earliest known record of the name "Belize" appears in the journal of the Dominican priest Fray José Delgado, dating to 1677.
Delgado recorded the names of three major rivers that he crossed while travelling north along the Caribbean coast: Rio Soyte, Rio Xibum and Rio Balis. The names of these waterways, which correspond to the Sittee River, Sibun River and Belize River, were provided to Delgado by his translator, it is that Delgado's "Balis" was the Mayan word belix, meaning "muddy-watered". Some have suggested that the name derives from a Spanish pronunciation of the name of the Scottish buccaneer Peter Wallace, who established a settlement at the mouth of the Belize River in 1638. There is no proof that Wallace settled in this area and some scholars have characterized this claim as a myth. Writers and historians have suggested several other possible etymologies, including postulated French and African origins; the Maya civilization emerged at least three millennia ago in the lowland area of the Yucatán Peninsula and the highlands to the south, in the area of present-day southeastern Mexico, Belize and western Honduras.
Many aspects of this culture persist in the area despite nearly 500 years of European domination. Prior to about 2500 BC, some hunting and foraging bands settled in small farming villages. A profusion of languages and subcultures developed within the Maya core culture. Between about 2500 BC and 250 AD, the basic institutions of Maya civilization emerged; the peak of this civilization occurred during the classic period, which began about 250 AD. The Maya civilization spread across what is now Belize around 1500 BC, flourished there until about AD 900; the recorded history of the middle and southern regions is dominated by Caracol, an urban political centre that may have supported over 140,000 people. North of the Maya Mountains, the most important political centre was Lamanai. In the late Classic Era of Maya civilisation, as many as one million people may have lived in the area, now Belize; when Spanish explorers arrived in the 16th century, the area, now Belize included three distinct Maya territories: Chetumal province, which encompassed the area around Corozal Bay.
Spanish conquistadors explored the land and declared it a Spanish colony but chose not to settle and develop because of its lack of resources and the hostile Indian tribes of the Yucatán. English and Scottish settlers and pirates known as the Baymen entered the area from the 17th century, with Baymen first settling on the coast of what is now Belize in 1638, seeking a sheltered region from which they could attack Spanish ships; the settlers established a trade colony and port in what became the Belize District, during the 18th century, established a system using black slaves to cut logwood trees. This yielded a valuable fixing agent for clothing dyes, was one of the first ways to achieve a fast black before the advent of artificial dyes; the Spanish granted the British settlers the right to occupy the area and cut logwood in exchange for their help suppressing piracy. The British first appointed a superintendent over the Belize area in 1786. Before the British government had not recognized the settlement as a colony for fear of provoking a Spanish attack.
The delay in governm
New River (Belize)
The New River Rio Nuevo, is a river in northern Belize. As the longest river, confined to Belize, it drains the eastern part of the Orange Walk District during its north-northeasterly course and empties into the Chetumal Bay; the river forms the New River Lagoon, the largest body of fresh water in Belize, just east of the Maya temples of Lamanai. The New River is a habitat for numerous types of birds, as well as crocodiles. Boat tours are available from several sources. Tours of Lamanai use the river as transportation to reach the site