Personal finance is the financial management which an individual or a family unit performs to budget and spend monetary resources over time, taking into account various financial risks and future life events. When planning personal finances, the individual would consider the suitability to his or her needs of a range of banking products or investment private equity, insurance products or participation and monitoring of and- or employer-sponsored retirement plans, social security benefits, income tax management. Before a specialty in personal finance was developed, various disciplines which are related to it, such as family economics, consumer economics were taught in various colleges as part of home economics for over 100 years; the earliest known research in personal finance was done in 1920 by Hazel Kyrk. Her dissertation at University of Chicago laid the foundation of consumer economics and family economics. Margaret Reid, a professor of Home Economics at the same university, is recognized as one of the pioneers in the study of consumer behavior and Household behavior.
In 1947, Herbert A. Simon, a Nobel laureate, suggested that a decision maker did not always make the best financial decision because of limited educational resources and personal inclinations. In 2009, Dan Ariely suggested the 2008 financial crisis showed that human beings do not always make rational financial decisions, the market is not self-regulating and corrective of any imbalances in the economy. Therefore, personal finance education is needed to help an individual or a family make rational financial decisions throughout their life. Before 1990, mainstream economists and business faculty paid little attention to personal finance. However, several American universities such as Brigham Young University, Iowa State University, San Francisco State University have started to offer financial educational programmes in both undergraduate and graduate programmes in the last 30 years; these institutions have published several works in journals such as The Journal of Financial Counseling and Planning and the Journal of Personal Finance.
Research into personal finance is based on several theories such as social exchange theory and andragogy. Professional bodies such as American Association of Family and Consumer Sciences and American Council on Consumer Interests started to play an important role in the development of this field from the 1950s to 1970s; the establishment of the Association for Financial Counseling and Planning Education in 1984 at Iowa State University and the Academy of Financial Services in 1985 marked an important milestone in personal finance history. Attendances of the two societies come from faculty and graduates from business and home economics colleges. AFCPE has since offered several certifications for professionals in this field such as Accredited Financial Counselor and Certified Housing Counselors. Meanwhile, AFS cooperates with Certified Financial Planner; as the concerns about consumers' financial capability have increased in recent years, a variety of education programmes has emerged, catering to a broad audience or to a specific group of people such as youth and women.
The educational programmes are known as "financial literacy". However, there was no standardised curriculum for personal finance education until after the 2008 financial crisis; the United States President’s Advisory Council on Financial Capability was set up in 2008 in order to encourage financial literacy among the American people. It stressed the importance of developing a standard in the field of financial education; the key component of personal finance is financial planning, a dynamic process that requires regular monitoring and re-evaluation. In general, it involves five steps: Assessment: A person's financial situation is assessed by compiling simplified versions of financial statements including balance sheets and income statements. A personal balance sheet lists the values of personal assets, along with personal liabilities. A personal income statement lists expenses. Goal setting: Having multiple goals is common, including a mix of short- and long-term goals. For example, a long-term goal would be to "retire at age 65 with a personal net worth of $1,000,000," while a short-term goal would be to "save up for a new computer in the next month."
Setting financial goals helps to direct financial planning. Goal setting is done with an objective to meet specific financial requirements. Plan creation: The financial plan details how to accomplish the goals, it could include, for example, reducing unnecessary expenses, increasing the employment income, or investing in the stock market. Execution: Execution of a financial plan requires discipline and perseverance. Many people obtain assistance from professionals such as accountants, financial planners, investment advisers, lawyers. Monitoring and reassessment: As time passes, the financial plan is monitored for possible adjustments or reassessments. Typical goals that most adults and young adults have are paying off credit card/student loan/housing/car loan debt, investing for retirement, investing for college costs for children, paying medical expenses. Personal circumstances differ with respect to patterns of income and consumption needs. Tax and finance laws differ from country to country, market conditions vary geographically and over time.
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A security is a tradable financial asset. The term refers to any form of financial instrument, but its legal definition varies by jurisdiction. In some jurisdictions the term excludes financial instruments other than equities and fixed income instruments. In some jurisdictions it includes some instruments that are close to equities and fixed income, e.g. equity warrants. In some countries and languages the term "security" is used in day-to-day parlance to mean any form of financial instrument though the underlying legal and regulatory regime may not have such a broad definition. In the United Kingdom, the national competent authority for financial markets regulation is the Financial Conduct Authority. In the United States, a security is a tradable financial asset of any kind. Securities are broadly categorized into: debt securities equity securities derivatives; the company or other entity issuing the security is called the issuer. A country's regulatory structure determines. For example, private investment pools may have some features of securities, but they may not be registered or regulated as such if they meet various restrictions.
Securities may be represented by a certificate or, more "non-certificated", in electronic or "book entry" only form. Certificates may be bearer, meaning they entitle the holder to rights under the security by holding the security, or registered, meaning they entitle the holder to rights only if he or she appears on a security register maintained by the issuer or an intermediary, they include shares of corporate stock or mutual funds, bonds issued by corporations or governmental agencies, stock options or other options, limited partnership units, various other formal investment instruments that are negotiable and fungible. Securities may be classified according to many categories or classification systems: Currency of denomination Ownership rights Terms to maturity Degree of liquidity Income payments Tax treatment Credit rating Industrial sector or "industry". Region or country Market capitalization State Securities are the traditional way that commercial enterprises raise new capital; these may be an attractive alternative to bank loans depending on their pricing and market demand for particular characteristics.
Another disadvantage of bank loans as a source of financing is that the bank may seek a measure of protection against default by the borrower via extensive financial covenants. Through securities, capital is provided by investors who purchase the securities upon their initial issuance. In a similar way, a government may issue securities too. Investors in securities may be retail, i.e. members of the public investing other than by way of business. The greatest part of investment, in terms of volume, is wholesale, i.e. by financial institutions acting on their own account, or on behalf of clients. Important institutional investors include investment banks, insurance companies, pension funds and other managed funds; the traditional economic function of the purchase of securities is investment, with the view to receiving income or achieving capital gain. Debt securities offer a higher rate of interest than bank deposits, equities may offer the prospect of capital growth. Equity investment may offer control of the business of the issuer.
Debt holdings may offer some measure of control to the investor if the company is a fledgling start-up or an old giant undergoing'restructuring'. In these cases, if interest payments are missed, the creditors may take control of the company and liquidate it to recover some of their investment; the last decade has seen an enormous growth in the use of securities as collateral. Purchasing securities with borrowed money secured by other securities or cash itself is called "buying on margin". Where A is owed a debt or other obligation by B, A may require B to deliver property rights in securities to A, either at inception or only in default. For institutional loans, property rights are not transferred but enable A to satisfy its claims in the event that B fails to make good on its obligations to A or otherwise becomes insolvent. Collateral arrangements are divided into two broad categories, namely security interests and outright collateral transfers. Commercial banks, investment banks, government agencies and other institutional investors such as mutual funds are significant collateral takers as well as providers.
In addition, private parties may utilize stocks or other securities as collateral for portfolio loans in securities lending scenarios. On the consumer level, loans against securities have grown into three distinct groups over the last decade: 1) Standard Institutional Loans offering low loan-to-value with
A coupon payment on a bond is the annual interest payment that the bondholder receives from the bond's issue date until it matures. Coupons are described in terms of the coupon rate, calculated by adding the sum of coupons paid per year and dividing it by the bond's face value. For example, if a bond has a face value of $1,000 and a coupon rate of 5% it pays total coupons of $50 per year; this will consist of two semi-annual payments of $25 each. The origin of the term "coupon" is that bonds were issued in the form of bearer certificates. Physical possession of the certificate was proof of ownership. Several coupons, one for each scheduled interest payment, were printed on the certificate. At the date the coupon was due, the owner would present it for payment; the certificate also contained a document called a talon, which could be detached and presented in exchange for a block of further coupons. Not all bonds have coupons. Zero-coupon bonds are those that pay no coupons and thus have a coupon rate of 0%.
Such bonds make only one payment: the payment of the face value on the maturity date. To compensate the bondholder for the time value of money, the price of a zero-coupon bond will always be less than its face value on any date before the maturity date. During the European sovereign-debt crisis, some zero-coupon sovereign bonds traded above their face value as investors were willing to pay a premium for the perceived safe-haven status these investments hold; the difference between the price and the face value provides the bondholder with the positive return that makes purchasing the bond worthwhile. Between a bond's issue date and its maturity date, the bond's price is determined by taking into account several factors, including: The face value. Credit Credit spread TED spread Yield curve
Public finance is the study of the role of the government in the economy. It is the branch of economics which assesses the government revenue and government expenditure of the public authorities and the adjustment of one or the other to achieve desirable effects and avoid undesirable ones; the purview of public finance is considered to be threefold: governmental effects on efficient allocation of resources, distribution of income, macroeconomic stabilization. The proper role of government provides a starting point for the analysis of public finance. In theory, under certain circumstances, private markets will allocate goods and services among individuals efficiently. If private markets were able to provide efficient outcomes and if the distribution of income were acceptable there would be little or no scope for government. In many cases, conditions for private market efficiency are violated. For example, if many people can enjoy the same good at the same time private markets may supply too little of that good.
National defense is one example of non-rival consumption, or of a public good."Market failure" occurs when private markets do not allocate goods or services efficiently. The existence of market failure provides an efficiency-based rationale for collective or governmental provision of goods and services. Externalities, public goods, informational advantages, strong economies of scale, network effects can cause market failures. Public provision via a government or a voluntary association, however, is subject to other inefficiencies, termed "government failure." Under broad assumptions, government decisions about the efficient scope and level of activities can be efficiently separated from decisions about the design of taxation systems. In this view, public sector programs should be designed to maximize social benefits minus costs, revenues needed to pay for those expenditures should be raised through a taxation system that creates the fewest efficiency losses caused by distortion of economic activity as possible.
In practice, government budgeting or public budgeting is more complicated and results in inefficient practices. Government can pay for spending by borrowing, although borrowing is a method of distributing tax burdens through time rather than a replacement for taxes. A deficit is the difference between government spending and revenues; the accumulation of deficits over time is the total public debt. Deficit finance allows governments to smooth tax burdens over time, gives governments an important fiscal policy tool. Deficits can narrow the options of successor governments. Public finance is connected to issues of income distribution and social equity. Governments can reallocate income through transfer payments or by designing tax systems that treat high-income and low-income households differently; the public choice approach to public finance seeks to explain how self-interested voters and bureaucrats operate, rather than how they should operate. Collection of sufficient resources from the economy in an appropriate manner along with allocating and use of these resources efficiently and constitute good financial management.
Resource generation, resource allocation and expenditure management are the essential components of a public financial management system. The following subdivisions form the subject matter of public finance. Public expenditure Public revenue Public debt Financial administration Federal finance Economists classify government expenditures into three main types. Government purchases of goods and services for current use are classed as government consumption. Government purchases of goods and services intended to create future benefits – such as infrastructure investment or research spending – are classed as government investment. Government expenditures that are not purchases of goods and services, instead just represent transfers of money – such as social security payments – are called transfer payments. Government operations are those activities involved in the running of a state or a functional equivalent of a state for the purpose of producing value for the citizens. Government operations have the power to make, the authority to enforce rules and laws within a civil, religious, academic, or other organization or group.
Income distribution – Some forms of government expenditure are intended to transfer income from some groups to others. For example, governments sometimes transfer income to people that have suffered a loss due to natural disaster. Public pension programs transfer wealth from the young to the old. Other forms of government expenditure which represent purchases of goods and services have the effect of changing the income distribution. For example, engaging in a war may transfer wealth to certain sectors of society. Public education transfers wealth to families with children in these schools. Public road construction transfers wealth from people that do not use the roads to those people that do. Income Security Employment insurance Health Care Public financing of campaigns Government expenditures are financed in three ways: Government revenue Taxes Non-tax revenue Government borrowing Money
Finance is a field, concerned with the allocation of assets and liabilities over space and time under conditions of risk or uncertainty. Finance can be defined as the art of money management. Participants in the market aim to price assets based on their risk level, fundamental value, their expected rate of return. Finance can be split into three sub-categories: public finance, corporate finance and personal finance. Matters in personal finance revolve around: Protection against unforeseen personal events, as well as events in the wider economies Transference of family wealth across generations Effects of tax policies management of personal finances Effects of credit on individual financial standing Development of a savings plan or financing for large purchases Planning a secure financial future in an environment of economic instability Pursuing a checking and/or a savings account Personal finance may involve paying for education, financing durable goods such as real estate and cars, buying insurance, e.g. health and property insurance and saving for retirement.
Personal finance may involve paying for a loan, or debt obligations. The six key areas of personal financial planning, as suggested by the Financial Planning Standards Board, are: Financial position: is concerned with understanding the personal resources available by examining net worth and household cash flows. Net worth is a person's balance sheet, calculated by adding up all assets under that person's control, minus all liabilities of the household, at one point in time. Household cash flows total up all from the expected sources of income within a year, minus all expected expenses within the same year. From this analysis, the financial planner can determine to what degree and in what time the personal goals can be accomplished. Adequate protection: the analysis of how to protect a household from unforeseen risks; these risks can be divided into the following: liability, death, disability and long term care. Some of these risks may be self-insurable, while most will require the purchase of an insurance contract.
Determining how much insurance to get, at the most cost effective terms requires knowledge of the market for personal insurance. Business owners, professionals and entertainers require specialized insurance professionals to adequately protect themselves. Since insurance enjoys some tax benefits, utilizing insurance investment products may be a critical piece of the overall investment planning. Tax planning: the income tax is the single largest expense in a household. Managing taxes is not a question of if you will pay taxes, but when and how much. Government gives many incentives in the form of tax deductions and credits, which can be used to reduce the lifetime tax burden. Most modern governments use a progressive tax; as one's income grows, a higher marginal rate of tax must be paid. Understanding how to take advantage of the myriad tax breaks when planning one's personal finances can make a significant impact in which can save you money in the long term. Investment and accumulation goals: planning how to accumulate enough money – for large purchases and life events – is what most people consider to be financial planning.
Major reasons to accumulate assets include purchasing a house or car, starting a business, paying for education expenses, saving for retirement. Achieving these goals requires projecting what they will cost, when you need to withdraw funds that will be necessary to be able to achieve these goals. A major risk to the household in achieving their accumulation goal is the rate of price increases over time, or inflation. Using net present value calculators, the financial planner will suggest a combination of asset earmarking and regular savings to be invested in a variety of investments. In order to overcome the rate of inflation, the investment portfolio has to get a higher rate of return, which will subject the portfolio to a number of risks. Managing these portfolio risks is most accomplished using asset allocation, which seeks to diversify investment risk and opportunity; this asset allocation will prescribe a percentage allocation to be invested in stocks, bonds and alternative investments.
The allocation should take into consideration the personal risk profile of every investor, since risk attitudes vary from person to person. Retirement planning is the process of understanding how much it costs to live at retirement, coming up with a plan to distribute assets to meet any income shortfall. Methods for retirement plans include taking advantage of government allowed structures to manage tax liability including: individual structures, or employer sponsored retirement plans and life insurance products. Estate planning involves planning for the disposition of one's assets after death. There is a tax due to the state or federal government at one's death. Avoiding these taxes means that more of one's assets will be distributed to one's heirs. One can leave one's assets to friends or charitable groups. Corporate finance deals with the sources of funding and the capital structure of corporations, the actions that managers take to increase the value of the firm to the shareholders, the tools and analysis used to allocate financial resources.
Although it is in principle different from managerial finance which studies the financial management of all firms, rather than corporations alone, the main concepts in the study of corporate finance are applicable to the financial problems of all kinds of firms. Corporate f
Real estate is "property consisting of land and the buildings on it, along with its natural resources such as crops, minerals or water. Also: the business of real estate, it is a legal term used in jurisdictions whose legal system is derived from English common law, such as India, Wales, Northern Ireland, United States, Pakistan and New Zealand. Residential real estate may contain either a single family or multifamily structure, available for occupation or for non-business purposes. Residences can be classified by. Different types of housing tenure can be used for the same physical type. For example, connected residences might be owned by a single entity and leased out, or owned separately with an agreement covering the relationship between units and common areas and concerns. Major categoriesAttached / multi-unit dwellings Apartment or Flat – An individual unit in a multi-unit building; the boundaries of the apartment are defined by a perimeter of locked or lockable doors. Seen in multi-story apartment buildings.
Multi-family house – Often seen in multi-story detached buildings, where each floor is a separate apartment or unit. Terraced house – A number of single or multi-unit buildings in a continuous row with shared walls and no intervening space. Condominium – A building or complex, similar to apartments, owned by individuals. Common grounds and common areas within the complex are shared jointly. In North America, there are rowhouse style condominiums as well; the British equivalent is a block of flats. Cooperative – A type of multiple ownership in which the residents of a multi-unit housing complex own shares in the cooperative corporation that owns the property, giving each resident the right to occupy a specific apartment or unit. Semi-detached dwellings Duplex – Two units with one shared wall. Detached dwellings Detached house or single-family detached house Portable dwellings Mobile homes or residential caravans – A full-time residence that can be movable on wheels. Houseboats – A floating home Tents – Usually temporary, with roof and walls consisting only of fabric-like material.
The size of an apartment or house can be described in square meters. In the United States, this includes the area of "living space", excluding the garage and other non-living spaces; the "square meters" figure of a house in Europe may report the total area of the walls enclosing the home, thus including any attached garage and non-living spaces, which makes it important to inquire what kind of surface area definition has been used. It can be described more by the number of rooms. A studio apartment has a single bedroom with no living room. A one-bedroom apartment has a dining room separate from the bedroom. Two bedroom, three bedroom, larger units are common. Other categoriesChawls Villas HavelisThe size of these is measured in Gaz, Marla and acre. See List of house types for a complete listing of housing types and layouts, real estate trends for shifts in the market, house or home for more general information, it is common practice for an intermediary to provide real estate owners with dedicated sales and marketing support in exchange for commission.
In North America, this intermediary is referred to as a real estate broker, or a real estate agent in everyday conversation, whilst in the United Kingdom, the intermediary would be referred to as an estate agent. In Australia the intermediary is referred to as a real estate agent or real estate representative or the agent
In finance, a credit derivative refers to any one of "various instruments and techniques designed to separate and transfer the credit risk" or the risk of an event of default of a corporate or sovereign borrower, transferring it to an entity other than the lender or debtholder. An unfunded credit derivative is one where credit protection is bought and sold between bilateral counterparties without the protection seller having to put up money upfront or at any given time during the life of the deal unless an event of default occurs; these contracts are traded pursuant to an International Swaps and Derivatives Association master agreement. Most credit derivatives of this sort are credit default swaps. If the credit derivative is entered into by a financial institution or a special purpose vehicle and payments under the credit derivative are funded using securitization techniques, such that a debt obligation is issued by the financial institution or SPV to support these obligations, this is known as a funded credit derivative.
This synthetic securitization process has become popular over the last decade, with the simple versions of these structures being known as synthetic collateralized debt obligations, credit-linked notes or single-tranche CDOs. In funded credit derivatives, transactions are rated by rating agencies, which allows investors to take different slices of credit risk according to their risk appetite; the market in credit derivatives started from nothing in 1993 after having been pioneered by J. P. Morgan's Peter Hancock. By 1996 there was around $40 billion of outstanding transactions, half of which involved the debt of developing countries. Credit default products are the most traded credit derivative product and include unfunded products such as credit default swaps and funded products such as collateralized debt obligations. On May 15, 2007, in a speech concerning credit derivatives and liquidity risk, Geithner stated: “Financial innovation has improved the capacity to measure and manage risk.” Credit market participants and courts are using credit derivative pricing to help inform decisions about loan pricing, risk management, capital requirements, legal liability.
The ISDA reported in April 2007 that total notional amount on outstanding credit derivatives was $35.1 trillion with a gross market value of $948 billion. As reported in The Times on September 15, 2008, the "Worldwide credit derivatives market is valued at $62 trillion". Although the credit derivatives market is a global one, London has a market share of about 40%, with the rest of Europe having about 10%; the main market participants are banks, hedge funds, insurance companies, pension funds, other corporates. Credit derivatives are fundamentally divided into two categories: funded credit derivatives and unfunded credit derivatives. An unfunded credit derivative is a bilateral contract between two counterparties, where each party is responsible for making its payments under the contract itself without recourse to other assets. A funded credit derivative involves the protection seller making an initial payment, used to settle any potential credit events. Unfunded credit derivative products include the following products: Credit default swap Total return swap Constant maturity credit default swap First to Default Credit Default Swap Portfolio Credit Default Swap Secured Loan Credit Default Swap Credit Default Swap on Asset Backed Securities Credit default swaption Recovery lock transaction Credit Spread Option CDS index productsFunded credit derivative products include the following products: Credit-linked note Synthetic collateralized debt obligation Constant Proportion Debt Obligation Synthetic constant proportion portfolio insurance The credit default swap or CDS has become the cornerstone product of the credit derivatives market.
This product represents over thirty percent of the credit derivatives market. The product has many variations, including where there is a basket or portfolio of reference entities, although fundamentally, the principles remain the same. A powerful recent variation has been gathering market share of late: credit default swaps which relate to asset-backed securities. A credit linked note is a note whose cash flow depends upon an event, which may be a default, change in credit spread, or rating change; the definition of the relevant credit events must be negotiated by the parties to the note. A CLN in effect combines a credit-default swap with a regular note. Given its note-like features, a CLN is an on-balance-sheet asset, in contrast to a CDS. An investment fund manager will purchase such a note to hedge against possible down grades, or loan defaults. Numerous different types of credit linked notes have been structured and placed in the past few years. Here we are going to provide an overview rather than a detailed account of these instruments.
The most basic CLN consists of a bond, issued by a well-rated borrower, packaged with a credit default swap on a less creditworthy risk. For example, a bank may sell some of its exposure to a particular emerging country by issuing a bond linked to that country's default or convertibility risk. From the bank's point of view, this achieves the purpose of reducing its exposure to that risk, as it will not need to reimburse all or part of the note if a credit event occurs. However, from the point of view of investors, the risk profile is different f