The Monastery of Notre-Dame-de-Prouille or Prouilhe, is the "cradle of the Dominicans", where the first Dominican house, a monastery of nuns, was founded in late 1206 or early 1207. It is located in a hamlet in Languedoc, lying between Fanjeaux and Bram, at the point where the road from Castelnaudary to Limoux crosses the road from Bram to Mirepoix. In the early 13th century, Prouille was a decayed village, a fortified enclosure with a few buildings surrounding a crumbling church attached to the parish of Fanjeaux. Diego de Acebo, Bishop of Osma, his canon, Dominic Gúzman, established themselves at Prouille, deep in Cathar country, in late 1206. Bishop Foulques of Toulouse allowed them to use the church, more important and Raymonde Claret of Prouille gave themselves and their cottage. On 17 April 1207 — the first certain date in the history of Notre-Dame-de-Prouille — Bérenger, the Bishop of Narbonne gave the new establishment the revenues of the Church of Saint-Martin at Limoux, though this gift was destined to be disputed by the Abbey of Saint-Hilaire.
In 1211 Foulques gave the revenues of Prouille itself, part of his own income as bishop, to the house. The most generous donor was Simon IV de Montfort, leader of the Albigensian Crusade, others followed his example; the house thus established was intended as a refuge for women who had lived in Cathar religious houses but had formally converted to Catholicism, the first established base of operations for Dominic and his followers. About twelve women, including Raymonde Claret, were the first nuns of Prouille, living under the Rule of St. Augustine: for several months some of them lodged at Fanjeaux in the house of the first prioress of Prouille, Guillelmine de Fanjeaux, because the buildings at Prouille were scarcely habitable; the house was governed, however, by men Dominic himself — the first procurator or prior — and Guillaume Claret. Dominic was succeeded as prior by Brother Noel and by Guillaume Claret. Other men lived there too, because the second purpose of Prouille was to serve as a base for the itinerant preachers who conducted the work of conversion of the Cathars begun by Diego and Dominic.
As such, the house is sometimes named the "Sacred Preaching", in early documents. It has many other names, "church", "abbey", or "the converted ladies living the religious life by the Church of Sainte-Marie of Prouille". Dominic himself placed a special importance on the enclosure of women, yet it was not until 1294, many years after his death, that Prouille became a enclosed house. From that date onwards its nuns are described in documents as sorores inclusae, "enclosed sisters"; the monastery was so razed during the French Revolution that only one arch keystone remains. Its triumphal rebuilding was a personal project of Henri-Dominique Lacordaire, the catalyst of the return of the banned Dominicans to France under the French Second Empire. Our Lady of the Rosary is the title received by the reported Marian apparition to Saint Dominic in 1208 in the Church of Prouille, in which the Virgin Mary gave the rosary to him. Cartulaire de Notre-Dame de Prouille ed. Jean Guiraud. Paris: Picard, 1907. M.-H.
Vicaire, Saint Dominic and his times. London: Darton and Todd, 1964. M.-H. Vicaire, "La naissance de Sainte-Marie de Prouille" in Pierre Mandonnet, Saint Dominique: l'idée, l'homme et l'oeuvre vol. 1 pp. 99–114
Oullins is a commune in the Metropolis of Lyon in Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in eastern France. It is a suburb of the city of Lyon, is adjacent to it on the southwest. Several Buses Subway Line B in December 2013. Jean-Bryan Boukaka, footballer François Boulliat, fencer Barbara Buatois - cyclist Paul Jules Deschanel, father of director Caleb and grandfather of actresses Zooey and Emily Patrice Garande, footballer Sabrina Palie - basketball athlete Pierre Saby, rugby player Joseph Marie Jacquard Lionel Bah - professional football player Féthi Harek - professional football player Patrick de Gayardon - skydiver Charles Le Gendre-American Civil War general & first foreign advisor in Japan Dora Jemaa-Amirouche--Athlete Clément Turpin-football referee Nürtingen, since 1962 Pescia, since 1994 Communes of the Metropolis of Lyon INSEE Official website
Michael Augustine Corrigan was an American prelate of the Roman Catholic Church who served as the third archbishop of New York from 1885 to 1902. Michael Augustine Corrigan was born August 13, 1839 in Newark, New Jersey, the fifth of nine children of Thomas and Mary English Corrigan, both of whom had emigrated from Ireland. Thomas Corrigan owned a retail grocery and liquor business in Newark, the family's well-to-do status allowed Michael to pursue his educational interests, he attended St. Mary's College in Wilmington, from 1853–1855, Mount Saint Mary's University in Emmitsburg, Maryland from 1855–1857, spent a year in Europe, received his bachelor's degree from Mount Saint Mary's in 1859, he became a member of the first class at the North American College in Rome, was ordained to the priesthood in September 1863 at the Basilica of St. John Lateran, received a doctorate of divinity in 1864. Corrigan returned to New Jersey in 1864, where he joined the faculty at Seton Hall College and the Immaculate Conception Seminary, both in South Orange, as professor of theology and history.
He soon achieved a reputation within the hierarchy for sound scholarship, he provided pastoral care to Catholics in the Seton Hall vicinity. When Bernard J. McQuaid left Seton Hall in 1869 to assume his duties as bishop of the Diocese of Rochester, Corrigan succeeded him as college president and became vicar general of the Diocese of Newark. Corrigan succeeded James Roosevelt Bayley as bishop of Newark, becoming the second ordinary of the diocese, he was consecrated bishop on May 4, 1873. The diocese encompassed the entire state of New Jersey during Corrigan's tenure, he administered diocesan affairs during a time of rapid population growth, Roman Catholic institutional development, immigration from Ireland and Germany, considerable urbanization in the northern part of the state. Corrigan was appointed Coadjutor Archbishop to John Cardinal McCloskey of New York on October 1, 1880, with the titular see of Petra, succeeded to the archbishopric on October 10, 1885, serving as archbishop until his death.
Corrigan's career in New York proved controversial on a number of levels. He aligned himself with his former mentor, Bernard J. McQuaid and has been considered one of the leaders of the "conservative" movement within the American Catholic hierarchy, he proved to be a strong supporter of national parishes and parochial schools, a vocal opponent of John Ireland, James Gibbons and other bishops who advocated "Americanization" within the Catholic Church. Within the American hierarchy, he was the closest supporter of Pope Leo XIII on Testem benevolentiae nostrae, he proved unpopular with many bishops for his involvement in backstage intrigue at the Vatican. Within the Archdiocese of New York his most serious controversy involved his conflict with Father Edward McGlynn. During the 1886 mayoral campaign in New York City, the outspoken McGlynn supported Henry George, the candidate of the United Labor Party who proved popular with labor organizers, radicals and Irish nationalists. Corrigan himself had been close to Tammany Hall and ordered McGlynn to refrain from politics.
McGlynn refused, continued to clash with the bishop, was removed as pastor of St. Stephen's Church in New York. McGlynn was summoned to Rome but refused on the grounds of ill health and was excommunicated in 1887; the censure was lifted in 1892. This public scandal took its toll on Corrigan and contributed to his poor relationships with an influential group of New York intellectual priests, his greatest accomplishment involved the building of a new seminary, St. Joseph's Seminary, Dunwoodie. In 1897, Edgardo Mortara preached in St. Patrick's Cathedral New York City, but the Archbishop of New York told the Holy See that he opposed Mortara's efforts to evangelize the Jews on the grounds that such efforts might embarrass the Church in the view of the United States government, he had invited Mother Cabrini to New York, but had to withdraw his invitation. By Mother Cabrini and her missionaries had embarked on their sea voyage to New York. Corrigan slipped and fell when inspecting the excavation of the seminary in 1902.
He died. He was interred in the crypt under the altar of St. Patrick's Cathedral. Archdiocese of New York#Ordinaries Joseph F. Mahoney and Peter J. Wosh, The Diocesan Journal of Michael Augustine Corrigan, Bishop of Newark, 1872–1880 Carl D. Hinrichsen, "The History of the Diocese of Newark, 1873–1901," Robert Emmet Curran, Michael Augustine Corrigan and the Shaping of Conservative Catholicism in America, 1878–1902 Thomas Shelley, The Archdiocese of New York: A Bicentennial History, 1808–2008 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Mooney, Joseph F.. "Michael Augustine Corrigan". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. 4. New York: Robert Appleton
A friar is a brother member of one of the mendicant orders founded in the twelfth or thirteenth century. The most significant orders of friars are the Dominicans, Franciscans and Carmelites. Friars are different from monks in that they are called to live the evangelical counsels in service to society, rather than through cloistered asceticism and devotion. Whereas monks live in a self-sufficient community, friars work among laypeople and are supported by donations or other charitable support. A monk or nun makes their commits to a particular community in a particular place. Friars commit to a community spread across a wider geographical area known as a province, so they will move around, spending time in different houses of the community within their province; the English term Friar is derived from the Norman French word frere, from the Latin frater, used in the Latin New Testament to refer to members of the Christian community. "Fray" is sometimes used in Spain and former Spanish colonies such as the Philippines or the American Southwest as a title, such as in Fray Juan de Torquemada.
In the Roman Catholic Church, there are two classes of orders known as friars, or mendicant orders: the four "great orders" and the so-called "lesser orders". The four great orders were mentioned by the Second Council of Lyons: The Carmelites, founded c. 1155. They are known as the "White Light Friars" because of the white halo which covers their brown skin, they received papal approval from Honorius III in 1226 and by Innocent IV in 1247. The Carmelites were founded as a purely contemplative order, but became mendicants in 1245. There are two types of Carmelites, those of the Ancient Observance and those of the Discalced Carmelites, founded by St. Teresa of Avila in the 16th century; the Franciscans, founded in 1209. They are known as the "Friars Minor"; the Franciscans were founded by St. Francis of Assisi and received oral papal approval by Innocent III in 1209 and formal papal confirmation by Honorius III in 1223. Today the Friars Minor is composed of three branches: the Order of Friars Minor, Order of Friars Minor Capuchin and the Order of Friars Minor Conventual wearing grey or black habits.
The Dominicans, founded c. 1216. They are known as the "Friar Preachers", or the "Black Friars", from the black mantle worn over their white habit; the Dominicans were founded by St. Dominic and received papal approval from Honorius III in 1216 as the "Ordo Praedicatorum" under the Rule of St. Augustine, they became a mendicant order in 1221. The Augustinians, founded in 1244 and enlarged in 1256, they are known as the "Hermits of St. Augustine", or the "Austin Friars", their rule is based on the writings of Augustine of Hippo. The Augustinians were assembled from various groups of hermits as a mendicant order by Pope Innocent IV in 1244. Additional groups were added by Alexander IV in 1256; some of the lesser orders are: the Trinitarians, established in 1198 the Mercedarians, established in 1218 the Servites, established in 1240 the Minims, established in 1474 the Third Order Regular of St. Francis, a branch of the Third Order of St. Francis, part of the Franciscan Order established in 1447 the Discalced Carmelites, established in 1568 the Order of Augustinian Recollects, established in 1598 through the Chapter of Toledo the Discalced Trinitarians, established in 1599 the Order of Penance, established in 1781 Orders of friars exist in other Christian traditions, including the Order of Lutheran Franciscans, the Order of Ecumenical Franciscans and the Order of Lesser Sisters and Brothers.
In the Anglican Communion there are a number of mendicant groups such as the Anglican Friars Preachers, the Society of Saint Francis and the Order of St Francis. Several high schools, as well as Providence College, use friars as their school mascot; the Major League Baseball team San Diego Padres have the Swinging Friar. The University of Michigan's oldest a cappella group is a male octet known as The Friars; the University of Pennsylvania has a senior honor society known as Friars. In the order of the Knights of Malta, the short form Fra is used when addressing members who have taken vows. Bhikkhu Brother Dervish Priesthood Sadhu
The Bronx is the northernmost of the five boroughs of New York City, in the U. S. state of New York. It is south of Westchester County. Since 1914, the borough has had the same boundaries as Bronx County, the third-most densely populated county in the United States; the Bronx has a land area of 42 square miles and a population of 1,471,160 in 2017. Of the five boroughs, it has the fourth-largest area, fourth-highest population, third-highest population density, it is the only borough predominantly on the U. S. mainland. The Bronx is divided by the Bronx River into a hillier section in the west, a flatter eastern section. East and west street names are divided by Jerome Avenue—the continuation of Manhattan's Fifth Avenue; the West Bronx was annexed to New York City in 1874, the areas east of the Bronx River in 1895. Bronx County was separated from New York County in 1914. About a quarter of the Bronx's area is open space, including Woodlawn Cemetery, Van Cortlandt Park, Pelham Bay Park, the New York Botanical Garden, the Bronx Zoo in the borough's north and center.
These open spaces are situated on land deliberately reserved in the late 19th century as urban development progressed north and east from Manhattan. The name "Bronx" originated with Jonas Bronck, who established the first settlement in the area as part of the New Netherland colony in 1639; the native Lenape were displaced after 1643 by settlers. In the 19th and 20th centuries, the Bronx received many immigrant and migrant groups as it was transformed into an urban community, first from various European countries and from the Caribbean region, as well as African American migrants from the southern United States; this cultural mix has made the Bronx a wellspring of hip hop and rock. The Bronx contains the poorest congressional district in the United States, the 15th, but its wide diversity includes affluent, upper-income, middle-income neighborhoods such as Riverdale, Spuyten Duyvil, Pelham Bay, Pelham Gardens, Morris Park, Country Club; the Bronx the South Bronx, saw a sharp decline in population, livable housing, the quality of life in the late 1960s and the 1970s, culminating in a wave of arson.
Since the communities have shown significant redevelopment starting in the late 1980s before picking up pace from the 1990s until today. The Bronx was called Rananchqua by the native Siwanoy band of Lenape, while other Native Americans knew the Bronx as Keskeskeck, it was divided by the Aquahung River. The origin of the person of Jonas Bronck is contested; some sources claim he was a Swedish born emigrant from Komstad, Norra Ljunga parish in Småland, who arrived in New Netherland during the spring of 1639. Bronck became the first recorded European settler in the area now known as the Bronx and built a farm named "Emmanus" close to what today is the corner of Willis Avenue and 132nd Street in Mott Haven, he leased land from the Dutch West India Company on the neck of the mainland north of the Dutch settlement in Harlem, bought additional tracts from the local tribes. He accumulated 500 acres between the Harlem River and the Aquahung, which became known as Bronck's River or the Bronx. Dutch and English settlers referred to the area as Bronck's Land.
The American poet William Bronk was a descendant of Pieter Bronck, either Jonas Bronck's son or his younger brother. The Bronx is referred to with the definite article as "The Bronx", both and colloquially; the County of Bronx does not place "The" before "Bronx" in formal references, unlike the coextensive Borough of the Bronx, nor does the United States Postal Service in its database of Bronx addresses. The region was named after the Bronx River and first appeared in the "Annexed District of The Bronx" created in 1874 out of part of Westchester County, it was continued in the "Borough of The Bronx", which included a larger annexation from Westchester County in 1898. The use of the definite article is attributed to the style of referring to rivers. Another explanation for the use of the definite article in the borough's name stems from the phrase "visiting the Broncks", referring to the settler's family; the capitalization of the borough's name is sometimes disputed. The definite article is lowercase in place names except in official references.
The definite article is capitalized at the beginning of a sentence or in any other situation when a lowercase word would be capitalized. However, some people and groups refer to the borough with a capital letter at all times, such as Lloyd Ultan, a historian for The Bronx County Historical Society, the Great and Glorious Grand Army of The Bronx, a Bronx-based organization; these people say. In particular, the Great and Glorious Grand Army of The Bronx is leading efforts to make the city refer to the borough with an uppercase definite article in all uses, comparing the lowercase article in the Bronx's name to "not capitalizing the's' in'Staten Island.'" European colonization of the Bronx began in 1639. The Bronx was part of Westchester County, but it was ceded to New York County in two major parts before it became Bronx County; the area was part of the Lenape's Lenapehoking territory inhabited by Siwanoy of the Wappinger Confederacy. Over
Saint Dominic known as Dominic of Osma and Dominic of Caleruega called Dominic de Guzmán and Domingo Félix de Guzmán, was a Castilian priest and founder of the Dominican Order. Dominic is the patron saint of astronomers. Dominic was born in Caleruega, halfway between Aranda de Duero in Old Castile, Spain, he was named after Saint Dominic of Silos. The Benedictine abbey of Santo Domingo de Silos lies a few miles north of Caleruega. In the earliest narrative source, by Jordan of Saxony, Dominic's parents are named Felix Guzman and Juanna of Aza; the story is told that before his birth his barren mother made a pilgrimage to the Abbey at Silos, dreamt that a dog leapt from her womb carrying a flaming torch in its mouth, "seemed to set the earth on fire." This story drew resonance from the fact that his order became known, after his name, as the Dominican order, Dominicanus in Latin which a play on words interpreted as Domini canis: "Dog of the Lord." Jordan adds that Dominic was brought up by his parents and a maternal uncle, an archbishop.
The failure to name his parents is not unusual, since Jordan wrote a history of the Order's early years, rather than a biography of Dominic. A source, still of the 13th century gives their names as Juana and Felix. Nearly a century after Dominic's birth, a local author asserted that Dominic's father was "vir venerabilis et dives in populo suo"; the travel narrative of Pero Tafur, written circa 1439, states that Dominic's father belonged to the family de Guzmán, that his mother belonged to the Aça or Aza family. Dominic's mother, Jane of Aza, was beatified by Pope Leo XII in 1828. Dominic was educated in the schools of Palencia where he devoted six years to the arts and four to theology. In 1191, when Spain was desolated by famine, young Dominic gave away his money and sold his clothes and precious manuscripts to feed the hungry. Dominic told his astonished fellow students, "Would you have me study off these dead skins, when men are dying of hunger?" In 1194, around age twenty-five, Dominic joined the Canons Regular in the canonry in the Cathedral of Osma, following the rule of Saint Augustine.
In 1203 or 1204 he accompanied Diego de Acebo, the Bishop of Osma, on a diplomatic mission for Alfonso VIII, King of Castile, to secure a bride in Denmark for crown prince Ferdinand. The envoys traveled to the south of France; the marriage negotiations ended but the princess died before leaving for Castile. Around 1205, along with Diego de Acebo, began a program in the south of France, to convert the Cathars, a Christian religious sect with gnostic and dualistic beliefs, which the Roman Catholic Church deemed heretical; as part of this, Catholic-Cathar public debates were held at Verfeil, Pamiers, Montréal and elsewhere. Dominic concluded that only preachers who displayed real sanctity and asceticism could win over convinced Cathar believers; however Dominic managed only a few converts among the Cathars. In 1215, Dominic established himself, with six followers, in a house given by Peter Seila, a rich resident of Toulouse. Dominic saw the need for a new type of organization to address the spiritual needs of the growing cities of the era, one that would combine dedication and systematic education, with more organizational flexibility than either monastic orders or the secular clergy.
He his companions to the monastic rules of prayer and penance. In the same year, the year of the Fourth Lateran Council and Foulques went to Rome to secure the approval of the Pope, Innocent III. Dominic returned to Rome a year and was granted written authority in December 1216 and January 1217 by the new pope, Honorius III for an order to be named "The Order of Preachers". Blessed Cecilia Caesarini, received by Dominic into his new order, in her old age described him as "...thin and of middle height. His face was somewhat fair, he had reddish hair and beard and beautiful eyes... His hands were long and fine and his voice pleasingly resonant, he never got bald, though he wore the full tonsure, mingled with a few grey hairs." Although he traveled extensively to maintain contact with his growing brotherhood of friars, Dominic made his headquarters in Rome. In 1219, Pope Honorius III invited Dominic and his companions to take up residence at the ancient Roman basilica of Santa Sabina, which they did by early 1220.
Before that time the friars had only a temporary residence in Rome at the convent of San Sisto Vecchio, which Honorius III had given to Dominic circa 1218, intending it to become a convent for a reformation of nuns at Rome under Dominic's guidance. The official foundation of the Dominican convent at Santa Sabina with its studium conventuale, the first Dominican studium in Rome, occurred with the legal transfer of property from Pope Honorius III to the Order of Preachers on 5 June 1222, though the brethren had taken up residence there in 1220; the studium at Santa Sabina was the forerunner of the studium generale at Santa Maria sopra Minerva. The latter would be transformed in the 16th century into the College of Saint Thomas, in the 20th century into the Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas, Angelicum sited at the convent of Saints Dominic and Sixtus. In the winter of 1216–1217, at the house of Ugolino de' Conti
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea