A database is an organized collection of data stored and accessed electronically from a computer system. Where databases are more complex they are developed using formal design and modeling techniques; the database management system is the software that interacts with end users and the database itself to capture and analyze the data. The DBMS software additionally encompasses; the sum total of the database, the DBMS and the associated applications can be referred to as a "database system". The term "database" is used to loosely refer to any of the DBMS, the database system or an application associated with the database. Computer scientists may classify database-management systems according to the database models that they support. Relational databases became dominant in the 1980s; these model data as rows and columns in a series of tables, the vast majority use SQL for writing and querying data. In the 2000s, non-relational databases became popular, referred to as NoSQL because they use different query languages.
Formally, a "database" refers to the way it is organized. Access to this data is provided by a "database management system" consisting of an integrated set of computer software that allows users to interact with one or more databases and provides access to all of the data contained in the database; the DBMS provides various functions that allow entry and retrieval of large quantities of information and provides ways to manage how that information is organized. Because of the close relationship between them, the term "database" is used casually to refer to both a database and the DBMS used to manipulate it. Outside the world of professional information technology, the term database is used to refer to any collection of related data as size and usage requirements necessitate use of a database management system. Existing DBMSs provide various functions that allow management of a database and its data which can be classified into four main functional groups: Data definition – Creation and removal of definitions that define the organization of the data.
Update – Insertion and deletion of the actual data. Retrieval – Providing information in a form directly usable or for further processing by other applications; the retrieved data may be made available in a form the same as it is stored in the database or in a new form obtained by altering or combining existing data from the database. Administration – Registering and monitoring users, enforcing data security, monitoring performance, maintaining data integrity, dealing with concurrency control, recovering information, corrupted by some event such as an unexpected system failure. Both a database and its DBMS conform to the principles of a particular database model. "Database system" refers collectively to the database model, database management system, database. Physically, database servers are dedicated computers that hold the actual databases and run only the DBMS and related software. Database servers are multiprocessor computers, with generous memory and RAID disk arrays used for stable storage.
RAID is used for recovery of data. Hardware database accelerators, connected to one or more servers via a high-speed channel, are used in large volume transaction processing environments. DBMSs are found at the heart of most database applications. DBMSs may be built around a custom multitasking kernel with built-in networking support, but modern DBMSs rely on a standard operating system to provide these functions. Since DBMSs comprise a significant market and storage vendors take into account DBMS requirements in their own development plans. Databases and DBMSs can be categorized according to the database model that they support, the type of computer they run on, the query language used to access the database, their internal engineering, which affects performance, scalability and security; the sizes and performance of databases and their respective DBMSs have grown in orders of magnitude. These performance increases were enabled by the technology progress in the areas of processors, computer memory, computer storage, computer networks.
The development of database technology can be divided into three eras based on data model or structure: navigational, SQL/relational, post-relational. The two main early navigational data models were the hierarchical model and the CODASYL model The relational model, first proposed in 1970 by Edgar F. Codd, departed from this tradition by insisting that applications should search for data by content, rather than by following links; the relational model employs sets of ledger-style tables, each used for a different type of entity. Only in the mid-1980s did computing hardware become powerful enough to allow the wide deployment of relational systems. By the early 1990s, relational systems dominated in all large-scale data processing applications, as of 2018 they remain dominant: IBM DB2, Oracle, MySQL, Microsoft SQL Server are the most searched DBMS; the dominant database language, standardised SQL for the relational model, has influenced database languages for other data models. Object databases were developed in the 1980s to overcome the inconvenience of object-relational impedance mismatch, which led to the coining of the term "post-relational" and the development of hybrid object-relational databas
Royal Irish Academy
The Royal Irish Academy, based in Dublin, is an all-Ireland, independent academic body that promotes study and excellence in the sciences and social sciences. It is one of Ireland's premier learned societies and cultural institutions, has around 501 members including Honorary Members, elected in recognition of their academic achievements; the Academy was established in 1785 and granted a royal charter in 1786. Until the late 19th century the Royal Irish Academy was the owner of the main national collection of Irish antiquities, it presented its collection of archaeological artefacts and similar items, which included such famous pieces as the Tara Brooch, the Cross of Cong and the Ardagh Chalice to what is now the National Museum of Ireland, but retains its significant collection of manuscripts including the famous Cathach of Colmcille, the Lebor na hUidre, the medieval Leabhar Breac, the Book of Ballymote, the Annals of the Four Masters. The Academy defines itself as Ireland's leading body of experts in the sciences and humanities, its mission statement says "The Academy champions Irish academic research.
One of it principal roles is to recognise Ireland's world-class researchers. It supports excellent scholarship and promotes awareness of how science and the humanities enrich our lives and benefit society." The Academy is an all-island independent forum of peer-elected experts, which draws on Members' expertise to contribute to public debate and policy formation on issues in science and culture. In doing this it aims to bring together academia and industry to address issues of mutual interest, it leads national research projects in areas relating to Ireland and its heritage; the RIA represents Irish learning internationally, operates a major research library, is an academic publisher. Election to Membership of the Royal Irish Academy is a public recognition of academic excellence and is sometimes held to be the highest academic honour in Ireland; those elected are entitled to use the designation "MRIA" after their name. The criterion for election to Membership is a significant contribution to scholarly research as shown in the candidate's published academic work.
However some of those elected to membership are not academics at all but receive the accolade in recognition of other contributions to society - these include former public servants, leaders in political and business life, others. To be elected, a candidate has to be proposed and recommended by five Members, selection is made by a rotating committee of existing Members, their names not made known outside the Academy. Presently, up to 24 Members are elected each year divided between the sciences and humanities. Membership is open only to those resident in Ireland. Honorary Membership can be awarded to persons who have made outstanding contribution to their academic discipline, but who are resident outside the island of Ireland. At least two existing Members must recommend a candidate for Honorary Membership. Honorary members are entitled to use the designation "Hon. MRIA" after their name; the Academy is one of the longest-established publishers in Ireland, having commenced in 1787. The Academy publishes six journals: Ériu, Irish Studies in International Affairs, Mathematical Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy Section C, Irish Journal of Earth Sciences and Biology and Environment.
The Academy's research projects regularly publish the Irish Historic Towns Atlas series, the Documents on Irish Foreign Policy, Foclóir na nua-Ghaeilge, the Dictionary of Medieval Latin from Celtic Sources, the New Survey of Clare Island. In 2014 the Academy published the five-volume Architecture of Ireland; the Academy is committed to publishing work which not only influences scholarship, but the wider community, for example Flashes of Brilliance by Dick Ahlstrom, Judging Dev by Diarmaid Ferriter. Both of these publications have been accompanied by either a radio series. During the 1950s the Academy began forming national committees, each relating to a specific discipline. Today the main focus of the Academy committees is to serve as a strategic vehicle for the disciplines they represent, to act as a national forum, providing input into policy, research priorities and issues of public concern, such as climate change, they organise public outreach activities, such as lectures and public interviews, award grants for research and travel.
The Academy committees are made up of both Members and non-Members, including representatives from universities, research institutions, government agencies and, where appropriate, industry. Science Committees: Climate Change and Environmental Sciences. Standing Committees - Standing Committee for Archaeology. Built in c.1750, the building has some fine decorative plasterwork and a handsome meeting room designed in 1854 by Frederick Clarendon a
Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press is the largest university press in the world, the second oldest after Cambridge University Press. It is a department of the University of Oxford and is governed by a group of 15 academics appointed by the vice-chancellor known as the delegates of the press, they are headed by the secretary to the delegates, who serves as OUP's chief executive and as its major representative on other university bodies. Oxford University has used a similar system to oversee OUP since the 17th century; the Press is located on opposite Somerville College, in the suburb Jericho. The Oxford University Press Museum is located on Oxford. Visits are led by a member of the archive staff. Displays include a 19th-century printing press, the OUP buildings, the printing and history of the Oxford Almanack, Alice in Wonderland and the Oxford English Dictionary; the university became involved in the print trade around 1480, grew into a major printer of Bibles, prayer books, scholarly works. OUP took on the project that became the Oxford English Dictionary in the late 19th century, expanded to meet the ever-rising costs of the work.
As a result, the last hundred years has seen Oxford publish children's books, school text books, journals, the World's Classics series, a range of English language teaching texts. Moves into international markets led to OUP opening its own offices outside the United Kingdom, beginning with New York City in 1896. With the advent of computer technology and harsh trading conditions, the Press's printing house at Oxford was closed in 1989, its former paper mill at Wolvercote was demolished in 2004. By contracting out its printing and binding operations, the modern OUP publishes some 6,000 new titles around the world each year; the first printer associated with Oxford University was Theoderic Rood. A business associate of William Caxton, Rood seems to have brought his own wooden printing press to Oxford from Cologne as a speculative venture, to have worked in the city between around 1480 and 1483; the first book printed in Oxford, in 1478, an edition of Rufinus's Expositio in symbolum apostolorum, was printed by another, printer.
Famously, this was mis-dated in Roman numerals as "1468", thus pre-dating Caxton. Rood's printing included John Ankywyll's Compendium totius grammaticae, which set new standards for teaching of Latin grammar. After Rood, printing connected with the university remained sporadic for over half a century. Records or surviving work are few, Oxford did not put its printing on a firm footing until the 1580s. In response to constraints on printing outside London imposed by the Crown and the Stationers' Company, Oxford petitioned Elizabeth I of England for the formal right to operate a press at the university; the chancellor, Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester, pleaded Oxford's case. Some royal assent was obtained, since the printer Joseph Barnes began work, a decree of Star Chamber noted the legal existence of a press at "the universitie of Oxforde" in 1586. Oxford's chancellor, Archbishop William Laud, consolidated the legal status of the university's printing in the 1630s. Laud envisaged a unified press of world repute.
Oxford would establish it on university property, govern its operations, employ its staff, determine its printed work, benefit from its proceeds. To that end, he petitioned Charles I for rights that would enable Oxford to compete with the Stationers' Company and the King's Printer, obtained a succession of royal grants to aid it; these were brought together in Oxford's "Great Charter" in 1636, which gave the university the right to print "all manner of books". Laud obtained the "privilege" from the Crown of printing the King James or Authorized Version of Scripture at Oxford; this "privilege" created substantial returns in the next 250 years, although it was held in abeyance. The Stationers' Company was alarmed by the threat to its trade and lost little time in establishing a "Covenant of Forbearance" with Oxford. Under this, the Stationers paid an annual rent for the university not to exercise its full printing rights – money Oxford used to purchase new printing equipment for smaller purposes.
Laud made progress with internal organization of the Press. Besides establishing the system of Delegates, he created the wide-ranging supervisory post of "Architypographus": an academic who would have responsibility for every function of the business, from print shop management to proofreading; the post was more an ideal than a workable reality, but it survived in the loosely structured Press until the 18th century. In practice, Oxford's Warehouse-Keeper dealt with sales and the hiring and firing of print shop staff. Laud's plans, hit terrible obstacles, both personal and political. Falling foul of political intrigue, he was executed in 1645, by which time the English Civil War had broken out. Oxford became a Royalist stronghold during the conflict, many printers in the city concentrated on producing political pamphlets or sermons; some outstanding mathematical and Orientalist works emerged at this time—notably, texts edited by Edward Pococke, the Regius Professor of Hebrew—but no university press on Laud's model was possible before the Restoration of the Monarchy in 1660.
It was established by the vice-chancellor, John Fell, Dean of Christ Church, Bishop of Oxford, Secretary to the Delegates. Fell regarded Laud as a martyr, was determined to honour his vision of the Press. Using the provisions of the Great Charter, Fell persuaded Oxford to refuse any further payments from the Stationers and drew
University College Cork
University College Cork – National University of Ireland, Cork is a constituent university of the National University of Ireland, located in Cork. The university was founded in 1845 as one of three Queen’s Colleges located in Belfast and Galway, it became University College, under the Irish Universities Act of 1908. The Universities Act 1997 renamed the university as National University of Ireland, a Ministerial Order of 1998 renamed the university as University College Cork – National University of Ireland, though it continues to be universally known as University College Cork. Amongst other rankings and awards, the university was named Irish University of the Year by the Sunday Times on five occasions. In 2015, UCC was named as top performing university by the European Commission funded U-Multirank system, based on obtaining the highest number of "A" scores among a field of 1200 partaking universities. UCC became the first university to achieve the ISO 50001 standard in energy management in 2011.
Queen's College, was founded by the provisions of an act which enabled Queen Victoria to endow new colleges for the "Advancement of Learning in Ireland". Under the powers of this act, the three colleges of Belfast and Galway were incorporated on 30 December 1845; the college opened in 1849 with 181 students. A year the college became part of the Queen's University of Ireland; the original site chosen for the college was considered appropriate as it was believed to have had a connection with the patron saint of Cork, Saint Finbarr. His monastery and school of learning were close by at Gill Abbey Rock and the mill attached to the monastery is thought to have stood on the bank of the south channel of the River Lee, which runs through the College lower grounds; this association is reflected in the College motto "Where Finbarr Taught, Let Munster Learn", the university motto. Adjacent to Gillabbey and overlooking the valley of the river Lee, the site was selected in 1846; the Tudor Gothic quadrangle and early campus buildings were designed and built by Sir Thomas Deane and Benjamin Woodward.
Queen's College Cork opened its doors in 1849, with further buildings added including the Medical/Windle Building in the 1860s. In the following century, the Irish Universities Act formed the National University of Ireland, consisting of the three constituent colleges of Dublin and Galway, the college was given the status of a university college as University College, Cork; the Universities Act, 1997, made the university college a constituent university of the National University and made the constituent university a full university for all purposes except the awarding of degrees and diplomas which remains the sole remit of the National University. As of 2016, University College Cork had 21,000 students; these included 15,000 in undergraduate programmes, 4,400 in postgraduate study and research, 2,800 in adult continuing education across undergraduate and short courses. The student base is supported by 2,800 academic and administrative staff; as of 2017, UCC had 150,000 alumni worldwide. Student numbers, at over 21,000 in 2016, increased from the late 1980s, precipitating the expansion of the campus by the acquisition of adjacent buildings and lands.
This expansion continued with the opening of the Alfred O'Rahilly building in the late 1990s, the Cavanagh Pharmacy building, the Brookfield Health Sciences centre, the extended Áras na MacLéinn, the Lewis Glucksman Gallery in 2004, Experience UCC and an extension to the Boole Library – named for the first professor of mathematics at UCC, George Boole, who developed the algebra that would make computer programming possible. The University completed the Western Gateway Building in 2009 on the site of the former Cork Greyhound track on the Western Road as well as refurbishment to the Tyndall institute buildings at the Lee Maltings Complex. In 2016, UCC acquired the Cork Savings Bank building on Lapps Quay in the centre of Cork city; as of 2017, the university is rolling out a programme to increase the space across its campuses, with part of this development involving the creation of a'student hub' to support academic strategy, to add 600 new student accommodation spaces, to develop an outdoor sports facility.
In 2006, the University re-opened the Crawford Observatory, a structure built in 1880 on the grounds of the university by Sir Howard Grubb. Grubb, son of the Grubb telescope building family in Dublin, designed the observatory and built the astronomical instruments for the structure; the University paid for an extensive restoration and conservation of the building and the three main telescopes, the Equatorial, the Transit Circle and Sidereostatic telescopes. In November 2009, a number of UCC buildings were damaged by flooding; the floods affected other parts of Cork City, with many students being evacuated from accommodation. The college authorities postponed academic activities for a week, indicated that it would take until 2010 before all flood damaged property would be repaired. Impacted was the newly opened Western Gateway Building, with the main lecture theatre requiring a total refit just months after opening for classes; the university is one of Ireland’s leading research institutes, with among the highest research income in the state.
In 2016, UCC secured research funding of over €96 million, a 21% increase over a five-year period and a high for the university. The university had seven faculties: Arts and Celtic Studies, Commer
History of Ireland
The first evidence of human presence in Ireland dates to about 12,500 years ago, shortly after the receding of the ice after the younger Dryas cold phase of the Quaternary ended around 9700 BC, heralds the beginning of Prehistoric Ireland, which includes the archaeological periods known as the Mesolithic, the Neolithic from about 4000 BC, the Copper and Bronze Age from about 2300 BC and Iron Age beginning about 600 BC. Ireland's prehistory ends with the emergence of "protohistoric" Gaelic Ireland in the 2nd and 3rd centuries BC. By the late 4th century AD Catholicism had begun to subsume or replace the earlier Celtic polytheism. By the end of the 6th century it had introduced writing along with a predominantly monastic Celtic Christian church, profoundly altering Irish society. Viking raids and settlement from the late 8th century AD resulted in extensive cultural interchange, as well as innovation in military and transport technology. Many of Ireland's towns were founded at this time as Viking trading posts and coinage made its first appearance.
Viking penetration was limited and concentrated along coasts and rivers, ceased to be a major threat to Gaelic culture after the Battle of Clontarf in 1014. The Norman invasion in 1169 resulted again in a partial conquest of the island and marked the beginning of more than 800 years of English political and military involvement in Ireland. Successful, Norman gains were rolled back over succeeding centuries as a Gaelic resurgence reestablished Gaelic cultural preeminence over most of the country, apart from the walled towns and the area around Dublin known as The Pale. Reduced to the control of small pockets, the English Crown did not make another attempt to conquer the island until after the end of the Wars of the Roses; this released resources and manpower beginning in the early 16th century. The European discovery of America by Christopher Columbus in 1492 meant that Ireland now occupied a position of great importance west of Britain, therefore controlled the routes from Britain into the Atlantic, America.
However, the nature of Ireland's decentralised political organisation into small territories, martial traditions, difficult terrain and climate and lack of urban infrastructure, meant that attempts to assert Crown authority were slow and expensive. Attempts to impose the new Protestant faith were successfully resisted by both the Gaelic and Norman-Irish; the new policy fomented the rebellion of the Hiberno-Norman Earl of Kildare Silken Thomas in 1534, keen to defend his traditional autonomy and Catholicism, marked the beginning of the prolonged Tudor conquest of Ireland lasting from 1534 to 1603. Henry VIII proclaimed himself King of Ireland in 1541 to facilitate the project. With the failure of the English Reformation, Ireland became a battleground in the wars between Catholic Counter-Reformation and Protestant Reformation Europe for control of the north Atlantic sea routes to America. England's attempts to either conquer or assimilate both the Hiberno-Norman lordships and the Gaelic territories into the Kingdom of Ireland provided the impetus for ongoing warfare, notable examples being the 1st Desmond Rebellion, the 2nd Desmond Rebellion and the Nine Years War.
This period was marked by the Crown policies of, at first and regrant, plantation, involving the arrival of thousands of English and Scottish Protestant settlers, the displacement of both the Hiberno-Normans and the native Catholic landholders. Gaelic Ireland was defeated at the battle of Kinsale in 1601 which marked the collapse of the Gaelic system and the beginning of Ireland's history as part of the British Empire. During the 17th century, this division between a Protestant landholding minority and a dispossessed Catholic majority, divided not only by religion but by cultural origin, was intensified and conflict between them was to became a recurrent theme in Irish history. Protestant domination of Ireland under a Protestant Ascendancy was reinforced after two periods of religious war, the Irish Confederate Wars in 1641-52 and the Williamite war in 1689-91. Political power thereafter rested exclusively in the hands of a minority Protestant Ascendancy, while Catholics and members of dissenting Protestant denominations suffered severe political and economic privations under the Penal Laws.
On 1 January 1801, in the wake of the republican United Irishmen Rebellion, the Irish Parliament was abolished and Ireland became part of a new United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland formed by the Acts of Union 1800. Catholics were not granted full rights until Catholic Emancipation in 1829, achieved by Daniel O’Connell; the catastrophe of the Great Famine struck Ireland in 1845 resulting in over a million deaths from starvation and disease and in a million refugees fleeing the country to America. Irish attempts to break away continued with Parnells Irish Parliamentary Party which strove from the 1880s to attain Home Rule through the parliamentary constitutional movement winning the Home Rule Act 1914, although this Act was suspended at the outbreak of World War I. In 1916 the Easter Rising organised by the IRB and carried out by members of the Irish Volunteers, the socialist Irish Citizen Army of James Connolly and 200 women from Cumann na mBan succeeded in turning public opinion against the British establishment after the execution of the leaders by British authorities.
It eclipsed the home rule movement by bringing physical force republicanism back to the forefront of Irish politics. In 1922, after the Irish War of Independence most of Ireland seceded from the United Kingdom to become the independent Irish Free State but under the Anglo-Irish Treaty the six northea
Culture of Ireland
The culture of Ireland includes customs and traditions, music, literature, folklore and sports associated with Ireland and the Irish people. For most of its recorded history, Ireland's culture has been Gaelic, it has been influenced by Anglo-Norman and Scottish culture. The Anglo-Normans invaded Ireland in the 12th century, while the 16th/17th century conquest and colonization of Ireland saw the emergence of the Anglo-Irish and Scots-Irish. Today, there are notable cultural differences between those of Catholic and Protestant background, between travellers and the settled population. Due to large-scale emigration from Ireland, Irish culture has a global reach and festivals such as Saint Patrick's Day and Halloween are celebrated all over the world. Irish culture has to some degree been inherited and modified by the Irish diaspora, which in turn has influenced the home country. Though there are many unique aspects of Irish culture, it shares substantial traits with those of Britain, other English-speaking countries, other predominantly Catholic European countries, the other Celtic nations.
From the wider European perspective, many aspects of Irish culture were found on the continent, but had died out elsewhere when cultural markers came to be written down and codified in the 1700-1800s. The evidence is that dances like the jig, instruments like bagpipes, speaking a celtic language and brewing stout, had all been introduced into Ireland from other parts of Europe, came to be seen as Irish because they had survived there last. Use of the Brehon law into the 1500s continued long after similar systems had been ended by the Roman Empire; this makes the culture important to those studying past European cultures. As archaeological evidence from sites such as the Céide Fields in County Mayo and Lough Gur in County Limerick demonstrates, the farm in Ireland is an activity that goes back to the Neolithic, about 6,000 years ago. Before this, the first settlers of the island of Ireland after the last Ice Age were a new wave of cavemen and the Mesolithic period. In historic times, texts such as the Táin Bó Cúailinge show a society in which cows were represented a primary source of wealth and status.
Little of this had changed by the time of the Norman invasion of Ireland in the 12th century. Giraldus Cambrensis portrayed a Gaelic society in which cattle farming and transhumance was the norm; the Normans replaced traditional clan land management with the manorial system of land tenure and social organisation. This led to the imposition of the village and county over the native system of townlands. In general, a parish was a civil and religious unit with a manor, a village and a church at its centre; each parish incorporated more existing townlands into its boundaries. With the gradual extension of English feudalism over the island, the Irish county structure came into existence and was completed in 1610; these structures are still of vital importance in the daily life of Irish communities. Apart from the religious significance of the parish, most rural postal addresses consist of house and townland names; the village and parish are key focal points around which sporting rivalries and other forms of local identity are built and most people feel a strong sense of loyalty to their native county, a loyalty which often has its clearest expression on the sports field.
With the Elizabethan English conquest, the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland, the organised plantations of English and Scottish settlers, the patterns of land ownership in Ireland were altered greatly. The old order of transhumance and open range cattle breeding died out to be replaced by a structure of great landed estates, small tenant farmers with more or less precarious hold on their leases, a mass of landless labourers; this situation continued up to the end of the 19th century, when the agitation of the Land League began to bring about land reform. In this process of reform, the former tenants and labourers became land owners, with the great estates being broken up into small- and medium-sized farms and smallholdings; the process continued well into the 20th century with the work of the Irish Land Commission. This contrasted with Britain. One consequence of this is the recognised cultural phenomenon of "land hunger" amongst the new class of Irish farmer. In general, this means that farming families will do anything to retain land ownership within the family unit, with the greatest ambition possible being the acquisition of additional land.
Another is that hillwalkers in Ireland today are more constrained than their counterparts in Britain, as it is more difficult to agree rights of way with so many small farmers involved on a given route, rather than with just one landowner. The majority of the Irish calendar today still reflects the old pagan customs, with Christian traditions having significant influences. Christmas in Ireland has some in no way connected with Christianity. On 26 December, there is a custom of "Wrenboys" who call door to door with an arrangement of assorted material to represent a dead wren "caught in the furze", as their rhyme goes; the national holiday in the Republic of Ireland is Saint Patrick's Day, that falls on the date 17 March and is marked by parades and festivals in cities and towns across the island of Ireland, by the Irish diaspora around the world. The festival is in remembrance to the patron saint of Ireland. Pious legend credits Patrick with the banishing of the snakes from the island, the legend credits Patrick with teaching the Iris