Septimius Udaynath, Latinized as Odaenathus, was the founder king of the Palmyrene Kingdom centered at Palmyra, Syria. He lifted his city from the position of a regional center subordinate to Rome into the power in the East. Odaenathus was born into an aristocratic Palmyrene family who had received Roman citizenship in the 190s under the Severan dynasty and he was the son of Hairan the descendant of Nasor. The defeat and captivity of emperor Valerian at the hands of the Persian Sassanian monarch Shapur I in 260 left the eastern Roman provinces largely at the mercy of the Persians. Then, Odaenathus took the side of emperor Gallienus, the son and successor of Valerian, the rebel declared his sons emperors, leaving one in Syria and taking the other with him to Europe. Odaenathus attacked the remaining usurper and quelled the rebellion and he was rewarded many exceptional titles by the emperor who formalized his self-established position in the East. In reality, the emperor could have little but to accept the declared nominal loyalty of Odaenathus.
In a series of rapid and successful campaigns starting in 262, he crossed the Euphrates and recovered Carrhae and he took the offensive to the heartland of Persia, and arrived at the walls of its capital Ctesiphon. The city withstood the siege but Odaenathus reclaimed the entirety of Roman lands occupied by the Persians since the beginning of their invasions in 252. Odaenathus celebrated his victories and declared himself King of Kings, crowning his son Hairan I as co-king, by 263, Odaenathus was in effective control of the Levant and Anatolias eastern region. Odaenathus observed all due formalities towards the emperor, but in practice ruled as an independent monarch. In 266, the king launched an invasion of Persia but had to abandon the campaign. He was assassinated in 267 during or immediately after the Anatolian campaign, the identities of the perpetrator or the instigator are unknown and many stories and speculations exist in ancient sources. He was succeeded by his son Vaballathus under the regency of his widow Zenobia, the origin of the family is Aramean, while the king himself appears to be of mixed Aramean and Arab descent, his name is Arabic, while the names of his ancestors are Aramaic.
Zosimus asserted that Odaenathus descended from illustrious forebears, but the position of the family in Palmyra is debated, the family may have belonged to the tribal leadership who amassed a fortune as landowners and patrons of the Palmyrene caravans. Nasor father of Maliko mentioned in the Dura-Europos inscription could therefore be Odaenathus great-great-great grandfather, Odaenathus is the Roman version of the kings name, he was born Septimius Udaynath c. Written in Palmyrene as Sptmyws Dynt, Udaynath is the personal name. Traditional scholarship believed the builder to be an ancestor of the king, in an inscription dated to 251, the name of the Ras of Palmyra Hairan son of Odaenathus is written, and he was thought to be the son of Odaenathus I
Strategos or Strategus, plural strategoi, is used in Greek to mean military general. In the Hellenistic world and the Byzantine Empire the term was used to describe a military governor. In the modern Hellenic Army it is the highest officer rank, the ten were of equal status, and replaced the polemarchos, who had hitherto been the senior military commander. At Marathon in 490 BC they decided strategy by majority vote, at this date the polemarchos had a casting vote, and one view is that he was the commander-in-chief, but from 486 onwards the polemarchos, like the other archontes, was appointed by lot. The annual election of the strategoi was held in the spring, if a strategos died or was dismissed from office, a by-election might be held to replace him. This system continued at least until ca, 356/7 BC, but by the time Aristotle wrote his Constitution of the Athenians in ca.330 BC, the appointments were made without any reference to tribal affiliation. Hence, during the Hellenistic period, although the number of the tribes was increased, as political power passed to the rhetores in the 5th century, the strategoi were limited to their military duties.
Originally, the strategoi were appointed ad hoc to various assignments and this was generalized in Hellenistic times, when each strategos was given specific duties. One of them, the strategos epi ta hopla, ascended to major prominence in the Roman period, the Athenian people kept a close eye on their strategoi. If the vote went against anyone, he was deposed and as a rule tried by jury, the strategos as an office is attested at least for Syracuse from the late 5th century BC, and in the koinon of the Arcadians in the 360s BC. The title of strategos autokrator was used for generals with broad powers, thus Philip II of Macedon was elected as strategos autokrator of the League of Corinth. g. In the Hellenistic empires of the Diadochi, notably Lagid Egypt, for which most details are known, in Egypt, the strategoi were originally responsible for the Greek military colonists established in the country. Quickly, they assumed a role in the administration alongside the nomarches, the governor of each of the nomes.
Already by the time of Ptolemy II, the strategos was the head of the administration, while conversely his military role declines. Ptolemy V established the office of epistrategos to oversee the individual strategoi, the latter had now become solely civilian officials, combining the role of the nomarches and the oikonomos, while the epistrategos retained powers of military command. In addition, hypostrategoi could be appointed as subordinates, the office largely retained its Ptolemaic functions and continued to be staffed by the Greek population of the country. The Odrysian kingdom of Thrace was divided into strategiai, each headed by a strategos, based on the various Thracian tribes and subtribes. At the time of the annexation into the Roman Empire in 46 AD, there were 50 such districts, which were initially retained in the new Roman province
Saint Peter, known as Simon Peter, Simeon, or Simōn pronunciation, according to the New Testament, was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ, leaders of the early Christian Great Church. Hippolytus of Rome, a 3rd-century theologian, gave him the title of Apostle of the Apostles, according to Catholic teaching, Peter was ordained by Jesus in the Rock of My Church dialogue in Matthew 16,18. He is traditionally counted as the first Bishop of Rome and by Eastern Christian tradition as the first Patriarch of Antioch. The ancient Christian churches all venerate Peter as a saint and as founder of the Church of Antioch. The New Testament indicates that Peter was the son of John and was from the village of Bethsaida in the province of Galilee or Gaulanitis and his brother Andrew was an apostle. According to New Testament accounts, Peter was one of twelve apostles chosen by Jesus from his first disciples, originally a fisherman, he played a leadership role and was with Jesus during events witnessed by only a few apostles, such as the Transfiguration.
According to the gospels, Peter confessed Jesus as the Messiah, was part of Jesuss inner circle, thrice denied Jesus and wept bitterly once he realised his deed, according to Christian tradition, Peter was crucified in Rome under Emperor Nero Augustus Caesar. It is traditionally held that he was crucified upside down at his own request, Tradition holds that he was crucified at the site of the Clementine Chapel. His remains are said to be contained in the underground Confessio of St. Peters Basilica. According to Catholic doctrine, the direct successor to Saint Peter is the incumbent pope. Two general epistles in the New Testament are ascribed to Peter, the Gospel of Mark was traditionally thought to show the influence of Peters preaching and eyewitness memories. Peters original name was Shimon or Simeon and he was given the name Peter, New Testament Greek Πέτρος derived from πέτρα, which means rock. In the Latin translation of the Bible this became Petrus, a form of the feminine petra. Another version of this name is Aramaic, , after his name in Hellenised Aramaic.
The English and German Peter, French Pierre, the Italian Pietro, the Spanish and Portuguese Pedro, the Syriac or Aramaic word for rock is kepa, which in Greek became Πέτρος, meaning rock. He is known as Simon Peter and Kepha, both Cephas and Kepha mean rock. In the New Testament, he is among the first of the disciples called during Jesus ministry, Peter became the first listed apostle ordained by Jesus in the early church. Peter was a fisherman in Bethsaida and he was named Simon, son of Jonah or John
The Palmyrene Empire, a splinter state centered at Palmyra, broke away from the Roman Empire during the crisis of the third century. It encompassed the Roman provinces of Syria Palaestina, Arabia Petraea, Zenobia ruled the Palmyrene Empire as regent for her son Vaballathus, who had become King of Palmyra in 267. In 270 Zenobia managed to conquer most of the Roman east in a short period. However, in 271 she claimed the title for herself and for her son and fought a short war with the Roman emperor Aurelian. A year the Palmyrenes rebelled, which led Aurelian to destroy Palmyra, the Palmyrene Empire is hailed highly in Syria and plays an important role as an icon in Syrian nationalism. The Palmyrene leader Odaenathus was declared king, and remained loyal to Gallienus, forming an army of Palmyrenes. In 260, Odaenathus won a victory over Shapur in a battle near the Euphrates. Next, Odaenathus defeated the usurpers in 261, and spent the remainder of his fighting the Persians. Odaenathus received the title Governor of the East, and ruled Syria as the imperial representative, the Augustan History claim that Maeonius was proclaimed emperor for a very brief period, before being executed by the soldiers.
However, no inscriptions or other evidence exist for Maeonius reign, Odaenathus was succeeded by his minor sons with Zenobia, the ten-year-old Vaballathus. Under the regency of Zenobia, Vaballathus was kept in the shadow while his mother assumed actual rule, Zabdas sacked Bosra, killed the Roman governor and marched south securing Roman Arabia. According to the Persian geographer Ibn Khordadbeh, Zenobia herself attacked Dumat Al-Jandal, Ibn Khordadbeh is confusing Zenobia with al-Zabbā, a semi-legendary Arab queen whose story is often confused with Zenobias story. In October of 270, a Palmyrene army of 70,000 invaded Egypt, afterward, in 271, Zabbai started the operations in Asia Minor, and was joined by Zabdas in the spring of that year. The Palmyrenes subdued Galatia, and occupied Ankara, marking the greatest extent of the Palmyrene expansion, the attempts to conquer Chalcedon were unsuccessful. However, toward the end of 271, Vaballathus took the title of Augustus along with his mother, in 272, Aurelian crossed the Bosphorus and advanced quickly through Anatolia.
According to one account, Marcus Aurelius Probus regained Egypt from Palmyra, while the emperor continued his march, apollonius implored him, Aurelian, if you desire to rule, abstain from the blood of the innocent. Aurelian, if you will conquer, be merciful, whatever the reason for his clemency, Aurelian sparing of Tyana paid off, many more cities submitted to him upon seeing that the emperor would not exact revenge upon them. Entering Issus and heading to Antioch, Aurelian defeated Zenobia in the Battle of Immae, Zenobia retreated to Antioch fled to Emesa while Aurelian advanced and took the former
Nuncio is the title for an ecclesiastical diplomat, being an envoy or permanent diplomatic representative of the Holy See to a state or international organization. A nuncio is appointed by and represents the Holy See, and is the head of the mission, called an Apostolic Nunciature. The Holy See is legally distinct from the Vatican City or the Catholic Church, a nuncio is usually an archbishop. A papal nuncio is equivalent in rank to that of ambassador extraordinary and plenipotentiary. A nuncio performs the functions as an ambassador and has the same diplomatic privileges. Under the 1961 Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, to which the Holy See is a party, the representative of the Holy See in some situations is called a Delegate or, in the case of the United Nations, Permanent Observer. In the Holy See hierarchy, these usually rank equally to a nuncio, in addition, the nuncio serves as the liaison between the Holy See and the Church in that particular nation, supervising the diocesan episcopate and has an important role in the selection of bishops.
The name nuncio is derived from the ancient Latin word, before 1829, Internuncio was the title applied instead to the ad interim head of a mission when one Nuncio had left office and his replacement had not yet assumed it. A legate a latere is a papal representative or a representative for a special purpose. Apostolic delegates have the ecclesiastical rank as nuncios, but have no formal diplomatic status. Archbishop Pio Laghi, for example, was first apostolic delegate, pro-nuncio, to the United States during the Jimmy Carter, Ronald Reagan, Apostolic delegates are sent to regions such as the West Indies and the islands of the Pacific. Alterations in the credentials of a head of mission not involving any change of class shall not affect his precedence and this article is without prejudice to any practice accepted by the receiving State regarding the precedence of the representative of the Holy See. A Holy See Representative is accredited to an organisation where other states dispatch a Permanent Representative
Chaplain of His Holiness
A Chaplain of His Holiness is a priest to whom the Pope has granted this title. They are addressed as Monsignor and have certain privileges with respect to ecclesiastical dress, lower ranks of Privy Chamberlains were abolished, making Chaplain of His Holiness the first of the three ranks of Monsignor. The role of Chaplain of His Holiness dates to the time of Pope Urban VIII, such Chaplains have provided unpaid service since the pontificate of Pope Pius VI. Once the candidate has passed all the requirements, a rescript is drawn up by the Secretariat of State attesting to their promotion to this ecclesiastical rank. The members of the chapters of one church in Rome and the cathedral in Lodi hold this title durante munere, the title no longer expires but requires renewal on the death of the Pope who granted it
A papal legate or Apostolic legate is a personal representative of the pope to foreign nations, or to some part of the Catholic Church. He is empowered on matters of Catholic Faith and for the settlement of ecclesiastical matters, the legate is appointed directly by the pope. The term legation is applied both to a mandate and to the territory concerned. In the High Middle Ages, papal legates were often used to strengthen the links between Rome and the parts of Christendom. More often than not, legates were learned men and skilled diplomats who were not from the country they were accredited to. The Italian-born Guala Bicchieri served as legate to England in the early 13th century. Papal legates often summoned legatine councils, which dealt with church government, during the Middle Ages, a legatine council was the usual means that a papal legate imposed his directives. There are several ranks of papal legates in diplomacy, some of which are no longer used, a nuncio performs the same functions as an ambassador and has the same diplomatic privileges.
Under the 1961 Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, to which the Holy See is a party and this highest rank is normally awarded to a priest of cardinal rank. It is an investiture and can either be focused or broad in scope. The legate a latere is the ego of the Pope. The legatus natus would act as the representative in his province. Although limited in their jurisdiction compared to legati a latere, a legatus natus were not subordinate to them, literally sent legate, possessing limited powers for the purpose of completing a specific mission. This commission is normally focused in scope and of short duration, some administrative provinces of the Papal states in Italy were governed by a Papal Legate. This has been the case in Benevento, in Pontecorvo and in Viterbo, in four cases, including Bologna, this post was awarded exclusively to Cardinals, the Velletri post was created for Bartolommeo Pacca. The title could be changed to Apostolic Delegate, as happened in Frosinone in 1827, Papal diplomacy Nuncio – an envoy whose diplomatic status is recognized by the receiving state – usually a titular archbishop.
Papal apocrisiarius List of papal legates to England Other Pontifical legate Catholic Encyclopedia, Legate WorldStatesmen - Italy to 1860 - Papal State Maseri, de Legatis et Nunciis Apostolicis Iudiciis Ecclesiasticis Civilibus et Criminalibus Oneribusque Civitatum Cameralibus et Communitativis. Commentatio Canoncia de Legatis et Nuntiis Pontificum, die englische Legation des Cardinals Guido Fulcodi, des spaeteren P. Clemens IV
Palmyra is an ancient Semitic city in present-day Homs Governorate, Syria. Archaeological finds date back to the Neolithic period, and the city was first documented in the second millennium BC. Palmyra changed hands on a number of occasions between different empires before becoming a subject of the Roman Empire in the first century AD, the city grew wealthy from trade caravans, the Palmyrenes were renowned merchants who established colonies along the Silk Road and operated throughout the Roman Empire. Palmyras wealth enabled the construction of projects, such as the Great Colonnade, the Temple of Bel. The Palmyrenes were a mix of Amorites and Arabs, the citys social structure was tribal, and its inhabitants spoke Palmyrene, Greek was used for commercial and diplomatic purposes. The culture of Palmyra was influenced by Greco-Roman culture and produced distinctive art, the citys inhabitants worshiped local deities and Mesopotamian and Arab gods. By the third century AD, Palmyra was a regional center reaching the apex of its power in the 260s.
The king was succeeded by regent Queen Zenobia, who rebelled against Rome, in 273, Roman emperor Aurelian destroyed the city, which was restored by Diocletian at a reduced size. Before AD273, Palmyra enjoyed autonomy and was attached to the Roman province of Syria, the city became a Roman colonia during the third century, leading to the incorporation of Roman governing institutions, before becoming a monarchy in 260. Following its destruction in 273, Palmyra became a center under the Byzantines. Its destruction by the Timurids in 1400 reduced it to a small village, under French Mandatory rule in 1932, the inhabitants were moved into the new village of Tadmur, and the ancient site became available for excavations. ISIL sabotaged many artifacts and destroyed a number of buildings considerably damaging the ancient site, Aramaic Palmyrene inscriptions themselves showed two variants of the name, TDMR and TDMWR. The Greek name Παλμύρα is first recorded by Pliny the Elder in the 1st century AD and it was used throughout the Greco-Roman world.
It is generally believed that Palmyra derives from Tadmor and two possibilities have been presented by linguists, one holds that Palmyra was an alteration of Tadmor. The second view, supported by some philologists, such as Jean Starcky, holds that Palmyra is a translation of Tadmor, Michael Patrick OConnor suggested that the names Palmyra and Tadmor originated in the Hurrian language. As evidence, he cited the inexplicability of alterations to the roots of both names. According to this theory, Tadmor derives from the Hurrian word tad with the addition of the typical Hurrian mid vowel rising formant mar, according to this theory, Palmyra derives from the Hurrian word pal using the same mVr formant. Palmyra is 215 km northeast of the Syrian capital, two mountain ranges overlook the city, the northern Palmyrene mountain belt from the north and the southern Palmyrene mountains from the southwest
According to Strabo, the river Parthenius formed the western limit of the region, and it was bounded on the east by the Halys river. The name Paphlagonia is derived in the legends from Paphlagon, a son of Phineus, the greater part of Paphlagonia is a rugged mountainous country, but it contains fertile valleys and produces a great abundance of hazelnuts and fruit – particularly plums and pears. The mountains are clothed with forests, conspicuous for the quantity of boxwood that they furnish. Hence, its coasts were occupied by Greeks from an early period, among these, the flourishing city of Sinope, founded from Miletus about 630 BC, stood pre-eminent. The Paphlagonians were one of the most ancient nations of Anatolia and listed among the allies of the Trojans in the Trojan War, according to Homer and Livy, a group of Paphlagonians, called the Enetoi in Greek, were expelled from their homeland during a revolution. In the time of the Hittites, Paphlagonia was inhabited by the Kashka people and it seems perhaps that they were related to the people of the adjoining country, who were speakers of one of the Anatolian branch of the Indo-European languages.
Their language would appear, from Strabos testimony, to have been distinctive, Paphlagonians were mentioned by Herodotus among the peoples conquered by Croesus, and they sent an important contingent to the army of Xerxes in 480 BC. All these rulers appear to have borne the name Pylaimenes as a sign that they claimed descent from the chieftain of that name who figures in the Iliad as leader of the Paphlagonians. At a period, Paphlagonia passed under the control of the Macedonian kings, however, it continued to be governed by native princes until it was absorbed by the encroaching power of Pontus. From that time, the province was incorporated into the kingdom of Pontus until the fall of Mithridates. The name was retained by geographers, though its boundaries are not distinctly defined by the geographer Claudius Ptolemy. Paphlagonia reappeared as a province in the 5th century AD
This reflects the principate emperors assertion that they were merely first among equals among the citizens of Rome. The title itself derived from the position of the princeps senatus, although dynastic pretences crept in from the start, formalizing this in a monarchic style remained politically unthinkable. Afterwards, Imperial rule in the Empire is designated as the dominate, the theory implied the first citizen had to earn his extraordinary position by merit in the style that Augustus himself had gained the position of auctoritas. Large distributions of food for the public and charitable institutions were means that served as popularity boosters while the construction of public works provided employment for the poor. With the fall of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, the principate was redefined in formal terms under the Emperor Vespasian, the position of princeps became a distinct entity within the broader – formally still republican – Roman constitution. Under the Antonine dynasty, it was the norm for the Emperor to appoint a successful, in modern historical analysis, this is treated by many authors as an ideal situation, the individual who was most capable was promoted to the position of princeps.
Of the Antonine dynasty, Edward Gibbon famously wrote that this was the happiest and most productive period in human history and this first phase was to be followed by, or rather evolved into, the so-called dominate. Richard Alston, Aspects of Roman History, henning Börm, Wolfgang Havener, Octavians Rechtsstellung im Januar 27 v. Chr. und das Problem der „Übertragung“ der res publica. Gedanken zur Periodisierung der römischen Kaiserzeit, kurt A. Raaflaub, Mark Toher, Between Republic and Empire, Interpretations of Augustus and his Principate. Berkeley / Los Angeles / Oxford 1990
Lucius Julius Aurelius Septimius Vabalathus Athenodorus was a king of the Palmyrene Empire. Vaballathus is the Latinized form of his Palmyrene name, as the Arabian goddess Allāt came to be identified with Athena, he used Athenodorus as the Greek form of his name. His father was Septimius Odaenathus, King of Palmyra, and his mother was Queen Zenobia, when his father was assassinated by his cousin Maeonius in the year 267, the young Vaballathus was made king of the Palmyrene Empire. Effective power was wielded by his mother Zenobia, who conquered Lower Egypt, Palestine, the end of Vaballathus rule came when Aurelian conquered and sacked Palmyra in the year 272/3 and took Vaballathus and his mother back to Rome as hostages. According to Zosimus, Vaballathus died on the way to Rome and this would have been humiliating, but better than death. This theory is supported by Aurelians similar treatment of the Tetricii in Gaul, an excellent military tactician and a talented administrator, Aurelian was one of the more merciful Roman Emperors in the empires long history.
Coinage of Vabalathus Long, Jacqueline F. Vaballathus and Zenobia