Communication is the act of conveying meanings from one entity or group to another through the use of mutually understood signs and semiotic rules. The main steps inherent to all communication are: The formation of communicative motivation or reason. Message composition. Message encoding. Transmission of the encoded message as a sequence of signals using a specific channel or medium. Noise sources such as natural forces and in some cases human activity begin influencing the quality of signals propagating from the sender to one or more receivers. Reception of signals and reassembling of the encoded message from a sequence of received signals. Decoding of the reassembled encoded message. Interpretation and making sense of the presumed original message; the scientific study of communication can be divided into: Information theory which studies the quantification and communication of information in general. The channel of communication can be visual, auditory and haptic, electromagnetic, or biochemical.
Human communication is unique for its extensive use of abstract language. Development of civilization has been linked with progress in telecommunication. Nonverbal communication describes the processes of conveying a type of information in the form of non-linguistic representations. Examples of nonverbal communication include haptic communication, chronemic communication, body language, facial expressions, eye contact, how one dresses. Nonverbal communication relates to the intent of a message. Examples of intent are voluntary, intentional movements like shaking a hand or winking, as well as involuntary, such as sweating. Speech contains nonverbal elements known as paralanguage, e.g. rhythm, intonation and stress. It establishes trust. Written texts include nonverbal elements such as handwriting style, the spatial arrangement of words and the use of emoticons to convey emotion. Nonverbal communication demonstrates one of Paul Wazlawick's laws: you cannot not communicate. Once proximity has formed awareness, living creatures begin interpreting.
Some of the functions of nonverbal communication in humans are to complement and illustrate, to reinforce and emphasize, to replace and substitute, to control and regulate, to contradict the denovative message. Nonverbal cues are relied on to express communication and to interpret others' communication and can replace or substitute verbal messages. However, non-verbal communication is ambiguous; when verbal messages contradict non-verbal messages, observation of non-verbal behaviour is relied on to judge another's attitudes and feelings, rather than assuming the truth of the verbal message alone. There are several reasons as to why non-verbal communication plays a vital role in communication: "Non-verbal communication is omnipresent." They are included in every single communication act. To have total communication, all non-verbal channels such as the body, voice, touch, distance and other environmental forces must be engaged during face-to-face interaction. Written communication can have non-verbal attributes.
E-mails and web chats allow an individual's the option to change text font colours, stationary and capitalization in order to capture non-verbal cues into a verbal medium. "Non-verbal behaviours are multifunctional." Many different non-verbal channels are engaged at the same time in communication acts and allow the chance for simultaneous messages to be sent and received. "Non-verbal behaviours may form a universal language system." Smiling, pointing and glaring are non-verbal behaviours that are used and understood by people regardless of nationality. Such non-verbal signals allow the most basic form of communication when verbal communication is not effective due to language barriers. Verbal communication is the written conveyance of a message. Human language can be defined as a system of symbols and the grammars by which the symbols are manipulated; the word "language" refers to common properties of languages. Language learning occurs most intensively during human childhood. Most of the thousands of human languages use patterns of sound or gesture for symbols which enable communication with others around them.
Languages tend to share certain properties. There is no defined line between a dialect. Constructed languages such as Esperanto, programming languages, various mathematical formalism is not restricted to the properties shared by human languages; as mentioned, language can be characterized as symbolic. Charles Ogden and I. A Richards developed The Triangle of Meaning model to explain the symbol, the referent, the meaning; the properties of language are governed by rules. Language follows phonological rules, syntactic rules, semantic rules, pragmatic rules; the meanings that are attached to words can be otherwise known as denotative.
Russian Academy of Sciences
The Russian Academy of Sciences consists of the national academy of Russia. Headquartered in Moscow, the Academy is considered a civil, self-governed, non-commercial organization chartered by the Government of Russia, it combines scientists employed by institutions. Near the central academy building there is a monument to Yuri Gagarin in the square bearing his name; as of November 2017, the Academy included other units. There are three types of membership in the RAS: full members, corresponding members, foreign members. Academicians and corresponding members must be citizens of the Russian Federation. However, some academicians and corresponding members were elected before the collapse of the USSR and are now citizens of other countries. Members of RAS are elected based on their scientific contributions – election to membership is considered prestigious. In the years 2005–2012, the academy had 500 full and 700 corresponding members, but in 2013, after the Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences and the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences became incorporated into the RAS, a number of the RAS members accordingly increased.
The last elections to the renewed Russian Academy of Sciences were organized in October 2016. In the beginning of April 2019, the Academy had 460 foreign members. Since 2015, the Academy awards, on a competitive basis, the honorary scientific rank of a RAS Professor to the top-level researchers with Russian citizenship. Now there are 605 scientists with this rank. RAS professorship is not a membership type but its holders are considered as possible candidates for membership; the RAS consists of 13 specialized scientific divisions, three territorial branches and 15 regional scientific centers. The Academy has numerous councils and commissions, all organized for different purposes. Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences The Siberian Branch was established in 1957, with Mikhail Lavrentyev as founding chairman. Research centers are in Novosibirsk, Krasnoyarsk, Yakutsk, Ulan-Ude, Kemerovo and Omsk; as of end-2017, the Branch employed over 12,500 scientific researchers, 211 of whom were members of the Academy.
Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences The Ural Branch was established in 1932, with Aleksandr Fersman as its founding chairman. Research centers are in Yekaterinburg, Cheliabinsk, Orenburg and Syktyvkar; as of 2016, 112 Ural scientists were members of the Academy. Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences The Far East Branch includes the Primorsky Scientific Center in Vladivostok, the Amur Scientific Center in Blagoveschensk, the Khabarovsk Scientific Center, the Sakhalin Scientific Center in Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, the Kamchatka Scientific Center in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, the North-Eastern Scientific Center in Magadan, the Far East Regional Agriculture Center in Ussuriysk and several Medical institutions; as of 2017, there were 64 Academy members in the Branch. Kazan Scientific Center Pushchino Scientific Center Samara Scientific Center Saratov Scientific Center Vladikavkaz Scientific Center of the RAS and the Government of the Republic Alania- Northern Ossetia Dagestan Scientific Center Kabardino-Balkarian Scientific Center Karelian Research Centre of RAS Kola Scientific Center Nizhny Novgorod Center Science Scientific of the RAS in Chernogolovka St. Petersburg Scientific Center Ufa Scientific Center Southern Scientific Center Troitsk Scientific Center The Russian Academy of Sciences comprises a large number of research institutions, including: Member institutions are linked via a dedicated Russian Space Science Internet.
Started with just three members, The RSSI now has 3,100 members, including 57 from the largest research institutions. Russian universities and technical institutes are not under the supervision of the RAS, but a number of leading universities, such as Moscow State University, St. Petersburg State University, Novosibirsk State University, the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, make use of the staff and facilities of many institutes of the RAS. From 1933 to 1992, the main scientific journal of the Soviet Academy of Sciences was the Proceedings of the USSR Academy of Sciences; the Academy is increasing its presence in the educational area. In 1990 the Higher Chemical College of the Russian Academy of Sciences was founded, a specialized university intended to provide extensive opportunities for students to choose an academic path; the Academy gives out a number of different prizes and awards among which: The Emperor Peter the Great and advised by Gottfried Leibniz, founded the Academy in Saint Petersburg.
Called The Saint Petersburg Academy of Sciences (Russian
Sir David Frederick Attenborough is an English broadcaster and natural historian. He is best known for writing and presenting, in conjunction with the BBC Natural History Unit, the nine natural history documentary series forming the Life collection that together constitute a comprehensive survey of animal and plant life on Earth, he is a former senior manager at the BBC, having served as controller of BBC Two and director of programming for BBC Television in the 1960s and 1970s. He is the only person to have won BAFTAs for programmes in each of black and white, colour, HD, 3D and 4K. Attenborough is considered a national treasure in Britain, although he himself does not like the term. In 2002 he was named among the 100 Greatest Britons following a UK-wide poll for the BBC, he is the younger brother of the director and actor Richard Attenborough, older brother of the motor executive John Attenborough. Attenborough was born in Isleworth, but grew up in College House on the campus of the University College, where his father, was principal.
He is the middle of three long-lived sons. During the Second World War, through a British volunteer network known as the Refugee Children's Movement, his parents fostered two Jewish refugee girls from Europe. Attenborough spent his childhood collecting fossils and natural specimens, he received encouragement in this pursuit aged seven, when a young Jacquetta Hawkes admired his "museum". He spent much time in the grounds of the university, aged 11, he heard that the zoology department needed a large supply of newts, which he offered through his father to supply for 3d each; the source, which he did not reveal at the time, was a pond less than five metres from the department. A few years one of his adoptive sisters gave him a piece of amber containing prehistoric creatures. In 1936, Attenborough and his brother Richard attended a lecture by Grey Owl at De Montfort Hall and were influenced by his advocacy of conservation. According to Richard, David was "bowled over by the man's determination to save the beaver, by his profound knowledge of the flora and fauna of the Canadian wilderness and by his warnings of ecological disaster should the delicate balance between them be destroyed.
The idea that mankind was endangering nature by recklessly despoiling and plundering its riches was unheard of at the time, but it is one that has remained part of Dave's own credo to this day." In 1999, Richard directed a biopic of Belaney entitled Grey Owl. Attenborough was educated at Wyggeston Grammar School for Boys in Leicester and won a scholarship to Clare College, Cambridge in 1945, where he studied geology and zoology and obtained a degree in natural sciences. In 1947, he was called up for national service in the Royal Navy and spent two years stationed in North Wales and the Firth of Forth. In 1950, Attenborough married Jane Elizabeth Ebsworth Oriel; the couple had two children and Susan. Robert is a senior lecturer in bioanthropology for the School of Archaeology and Anthropology at the Australian National University in Canberra. Susan is a former primary school headmistress. After leaving the Navy, Attenborough took a position editing children's science textbooks for a publishing company.
He soon became disillusioned with the work and in 1950 applied for a job as a radio talk producer with the BBC. Although he was rejected for this job, his CV attracted the interest of Mary Adams, head of the Talks department of the BBC's fledgling television service. Attenborough, like most Britons at that time, did not own a television, he had seen only one programme in his life. However, he accepted Adams' offer of a three-month training course, in 1952 he joined the BBC full-time. Discouraged from appearing on camera because Adams thought his teeth were too big, he became a producer for the Talks department, which handled all non-fiction broadcasts, his early projects included the quiz show Animal, Mineral? and Song Hunter, a series about folk music presented by Alan Lomax. Attenborough's association with natural history programmes began when he produced and presented the three-part series Animal Patterns; the studio-bound programme featured animals from London Zoo, with the naturalist Julian Huxley discussing their use of camouflage and courtship displays.
Through this programme, Attenborough met Jack Lester, the curator of the zoo's reptile house, they decided to make a series about an animal-collecting expedition. The result was Zoo Quest, first broadcast in 1954, where Attenborough became the presenter at short notice due to Lester being taken ill. In 1957, the BBC Natural History Unit was formally established in Bristol. Attenborough was asked to join it, but declined, not wishing to move from London where he and his young family were settled. Instead, he formed his own department, the Travel and Exploration Unit, which allowed him to continue to front Zoo Quest as well as produce other documentaries, notably the Travellers' Tales and Adventure series. In the early 1960s, Attenborough resigned from the permanent staff of the BBC to study for a postgraduate degree in social anthropology at the London School of Economics, interweaving his study with further filming. However, he accepted an invitation to return to the BBC as controller of BBC Two before he could finish the degree.
Attenborough became the controller of BBC Two in March 1965, but had a clause
Gunnar Öquist is a Swedish biologist and professor of plant physiology at Umeå University, served as the permanent secretary of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences from 2003 to 2010. He graduated from Uppsala University in 1967 and enrolled in postgraduate studies in Umeå in 1968, he earned his Ph. D. at Umeå University in 1972 with the Thesis Some effects of light intensity and iron deficiency on pigmentation and photosynthesis in the blue-green alga Anacystis nidulans. He was made docent in plant physiology 1974. After two years at Lund University he returned to Umeå in 1976 and was made a professor in 1981. Öquist's field of research has been the adaptation of photosynthesis in cyanobacteria and higher plants when they are submitted to variations in light intensity, supply of water or supply of nutrition.Öquist served as the main secretary of the Natural Sciences Research Council, a former Swedish governmental body for science funding, from 1993 to 1999. Öquist has been a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences since 1986, became the Academy's permanent secretary on July 1, 2003, when he succeeded Erling Norrby.
On July 1, 2010, Öquist retired from the post and was succeeded by Staffan Normark. Media related to Gunnar Öquist at Wikimedia Commons
Rolf M. Zinkernagel
Rolf Martin Zinkernagel is Professor of Experimental Immunology at the University of Zurich. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1996 for the discovery of how the immune system recognizes virus-infected cells. Zinkernagel received his MD degree from the University of Basel in 1970 and his PhD from the Australian National University in 1975. Zinkernagel is a member of the Cancer Research Institute Scientific Advisory Council, The National Academy of Sciences, The Academy of Cancer Immunology. Zinkernagel was elected as a Corresponding Fellow to the Australian Academy of Science in 1996. Together with the Australian Peter C. Doherty he received the 1996 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for the discovery of how the immune system recognizes virus-infected cells. With this he became the 24th Swiss Nobel laureate. In 1999 he was awarded an honorary Companion of the Order of Australia, Australia's highest civilian honour, for his scientific work with Doherty. Viruses reproduce inside them.
Killer T-cells destroy those infected cells. Zinkernagel and Doherty discovered that, in order for killer T-cells to recognize infected cells, they had to recognize two molecules on the surface of the cell—not only the virus antigen, but a molecule of the major histocompatibility complex; this recognition was done by a T-cell receptor on the surface of the T-cell. The MHC was identified as being responsible for the rejection of incompatible tissues during transplantation. Zinkernagel and Doherty discovered that the MHC was responsible for the body fighting meningitis viruses too. In addition to the Nobel Prize, he won the Cloëtta Prize in 1981, the Cancer Research Institute William B. Coley Award in 1987 and the Albert Lasker Medical Research Award in 1995. Zinkernagel was elected a Foreign Member of the Royal Society in 1998
Elizabeth Helen Blackburn, is an Australian-American Nobel laureate, the former President of the Salk Institute for Biological Studies. She was a biological researcher at the University of California, San Francisco, who studied the telomere, a structure at the end of chromosomes that protects the chromosome. In 1984, Blackburn co-discovered telomerase, the enzyme that replenishes the telomere, with Carol W. Greider. For this work, she was awarded the 2009 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, sharing it with Greider and Jack W. Szostak, becoming the only Tasmanian-born Nobel laureate, she worked in medical ethics, was controversially dismissed from the Bush Administration's President's Council on Bioethics. Elizabeth Helen Blackburn was born in Hobart, Tasmania on 26 November 1948 to parents who were both family physicians, her family moved to the city of Launceston when she was four, where she attended the Broadland House Church of England Girls' Grammar School until the age of sixteen. Upon her family's relocation to Melbourne, she attended University High School, gained high marks in the end-of-year final statewide matriculation exams.
She went on to earn a Bachelor of Science in 1970 and Master of Science in 1972, both from the University of Melbourne in the field of biochemistry. Blackburn went to receive her PhD in 1975 from the University of Cambridge, where she worked with Frederick Sanger developing methods to sequence DNA using RNA, as well studied the bacteriophage Phi X 174, it was here, the Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology at Cambridge University, where Blackburn met her husband John Sedat. Blackburn's soon to be husband had taken a position at Yale, so she had decided to try and do her postdoctoral research there. “Thus it was that love brought me to a most fortunate and influential choice: Joe Gall’s lab at Yale.” So Elizabeth would go to complete her postdoctoral at Yale University. During her postdoctoral work at Yale, Blackburn was doing research on the protozoan Tetrahymena thermophil and noticed a repeating codon at the end of the linear rDNA which varied in size. Blackburn noticed that this hexanucleotide at the end of the chromosome contained a TTGGGG sequence, tandomly repeated, the terminal end of the chromosomes were palindromic.
These characteristics allowed Blackburn and colleagues to conduct further research on the protozoan. Using the telomeric repeated end of Tetrahymena and colleague Jack Szostak showed the unstable replicating plasmids of yeast were protected from degradation, proving that these sequences contained characteristics of telomeres; this research proved the telomeric repeats of Tetrahymena were conserved evolutionarily between the species. Through this research and collaborators noticed the replication system for chromosomes was not to add to the lengthening of the telomere, that the addition of these hexanucleotides to the chromosomes was due to the activity of an enzyme, able to transfer specific functional groups; the proposition of a possible transferase-like enzyme lead Blackburn and PhD student Carol W. Greider to the discovery of an enzyme with reverse transcriptase activity, able to fill in the terminal ends of telomeres without leaving the chromosome incomplete and unable to divide without loss of the end of the chromosome.
This 1985 discovery lead to the purification of this enzyme in lab, showing the transferase-like enzyme contained both RNA and protein components. The RNA portion of the enzyme served as a template for adding the telomeric repeats to the incomplete telomere, the protein added enzymatic function for the addition of these repeats. Through this breakthrough, the term “telomerase” was given to the enzyme, solving the end-replication process that had troubled scientists at the time. Telomerase works by adding base pairs to the overhang of DNA on the 3’ end, extending the strand until DNA polymerase and an RNA primer can complete the complementary strand and synthesize the double stranded DNA. Since DNA polymerase only synthesizes DNA in the leading strand direction, the shortening of the telomere results. Through their research and collaborators were able to show that the telomere is replenished by the enzyme telomerase, which conserves cellular division by preventing the rapid loss of genetic information internal to the telomere, leading to cellular aging.
On January 1, 2016, Blackburn was interviewed about her studies, discovering telomerase, her current research. When she was asked to recall the moment of telomerase discovery she stated:Carol had done this experiment, we stood, just in the lab, I remember sort of standing there, she had this – we call it a gel. It's an autoradiogram because there were trace amounts of radioactivity that were used to develop an image of the separated DNA products of what turned out to be the telomerase enzyme reaction. I remember looking at it and just thinking,'Ah! This could be big; this looks just right.' It had a pattern to it. There was a regularity to it. There was something, not just sort of garbage there, and, kind of coming through though we look back at it now, we'd say, there was this and the other, but it was a pattern shining through, it just had this sort of sense,'Ah! There's something real here.' But of course, the good scientist has to be sceptical and say,'Okay, we're going to test this every way around here, nail this one way or the other.'
If it's going to be true, you have to make sure that it's true, because you can get a lot of false leads if you're w
American Association of Physicists in Medicine
The American Association of Physicists in Medicine is a scientific and professional organization of Medical Physicists. Their headquarters are located at 1631 Prince Street, Virginia. Publications include two scientific journals Medical Physics and The Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics, as well as technical reports, symposium proceedings; the purposes of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine are to promote the application of physics to medicine and biology and to encourage interest and training in medical physics and related fields. AAPM has established Medical Physics as informational journal. AAPM has over 8000 full members. American Board of Science in Nuclear Medicine Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine AAPM web site Medical Physics Journal