Speech balloons are a graphic convention used most in comic books and cartoons to allow words to be understood as representing the speech or thoughts of a given character in the comic. There is a formal distinction between the balloon that indicates thoughts and the one that indicates words spoken aloud: the balloon that conveys thoughts is referred to as a thought bubble. One of the earliest antecedents to the modern speech bubble were the "speech scrolls", wispy lines that connected first-person speech to the mouths of the speakers in Mesoamerican art between 600 and 900 AD. Earlier, depicting stories in subsequent frames, using descriptive text resembling bubbles-text, were used in murals, one such example witten in Greek, dating to the 2nd century, found in Capitolias, today in Jordan. In Western graphic art, labels that reveal what a pictured figure is saying have appeared since at least the 13th century; these were in common European use by the early 16th century. Word balloons began appearing in 18th-century printed broadsides, political cartoons from the American Revolution used them.
They fell out of fashion, but by 1904 had regained their popularity, although they were still considered novel enough to require explanation. With the development of the comics industry in the 20th century, the appearance of speech balloons has become standardized, though the formal conventions that have evolved in different cultures, can be quite distinct. Richard F. Outcault's Yellow Kid is credited as the first American comic strip character, his words appeared on his yellow shirt, but word balloons much like those in use today were added immediately, as early as 1896. By the start of the 20th century, word balloons were ubiquitous. In Europe, where text comics were more common, speech balloons caught on, with well-known examples being Alain Saint-Ogan's Zig et Puce, Hergé's The Adventures of Tintin and Rob-Vel's Spirou; the most common is the speech bubble. It comes in two forms for two circumstances: an off-panel character. An in-panel character uses a bubble with a pointer, directed towards the speaker.
When one character has multiple balloons within a panel only the balloon nearest to the speaker's head has a tail, the others are connected to it in sequence by narrow bands. This style is used in Mad Magazine, due to its "call-and-response" dialogue-based humor. An off-panel character has some of them rather unconventional; the first is a standard speech bubble with a tail pointing toward the speaker's position. The second option, which originated in manga, has the tail pointing into the bubble, instead of out; the third option replaces the tail with a sort of bottleneck that connects with the side of the panel. It can be seen in the works of Marjane Satrapi. In American comics, a bubble without a tail means that the speaker is not outside the reader's field of view but invisible to the viewpoint character as an unspecified member of a crowd. Characters distant from the scene of the panel can still speak, in squared bubbles without a tail. In contrast to captions, the corners of such balloons never coincide with those of the panel.
Thought bubbles come in two forms: the chain thought bubble and the "fuzzy" bubble. The chain thought bubble is the universal symbol for thinking in cartoons, it consists of a large, cloud-like bubble containing the text of the thought, with a chain of smaller circular bubbles leading to the character. Some artists use an elliptical bubble instead of a cloud-shaped one. Animal characters like Snoopy and Garfield "talk" using thought bubbles. Thought bubbles may be used in circumstances when a character is gagged or otherwise unable to speak. Another, less conventional thought bubble has emerged: the "fuzzy" thought bubble. Used in manga, the fuzzy bubble is circular in shape, but the edge of the bubble is not a line but a collection of spikes close to each other, creating the impression of fuzziness. Fuzzy thought bubbles do not use tails, are placed near the character, thinking; this has the advantage of reflecting the TV equivalent effect: something said with an echo. Writers and artists can refuse to use thought bubbles, expressing the action through spoken dialogue and drawing.
However, they are restricted to the current viewpoint character. An example is Alan Moore and David Lloyd's V for Vendetta, wherein during one chapter, a monologue expressed in captions serves not only to express the thoughts of a character but the mood, st
Spirou magazine is a weekly Franco-Belgian comics magazine published by the Dupuis company. First published 21 April 1938, it was an eight-page weekly comics magazine composed a mixture of short stories and gags, serial comics, a handful of American comics, of which the most popular series would be collected as albums by Dupuis afterwards. With the success of the weekly magazine Le Journal de Mickey in France, the popularity of the weekly Adventures of Tintin in Le Petit Vingtième, many new comic magazines or youth magazines with comics appeared in France and Belgium in the second half of the 1930s. In 1936, the experienced publisher Jean Dupuis put his sons Paul and the 19-year-old Charles in charge of a new magazine aimed at the juvenile market. First appearing in April 1938, it was a large format magazine, available only in French and only in Wallonia, it introduced two new comics, the eponymous Spirou drawn by the young Frenchman Rob-Vel, Les Aventures de Tif written and drawn by Fernand Dineur, printed American comics such as Superman, Red Ryder and Brick Bradford.
On 27 October 1938 the Dutch edition named. Spirou and Robbedoes soon became popular and the magazine doubled its pages from 8 to 16. After the invasion of the Germans, the magazine had to stop publishing American comics, they were at first continued by local artists and replaced with new series. When Rob-Vel no longer had the possibility to send his pages from France to Belgium on a regular basis either, his series was continued by Joseph Gillain, a young artist who had worked for Petits Belges and used the pen name Jijé. Together with Dineur and Sirius, they filled the magazine with a number of new series and increased the popularity of it further. Near the end of the war, due to paper shortages, publication had to be stopped anyway, with only a few irregular almanacs to keep the bond with the readers intact and to provide work for the personnel to prevent them being deported to Germany; the period 1945–1960 has been described by critics as the golden age of Spirou magazine and of Belgian comics in general incited by the 1946 appearance of the successful competitor Tintin magazine.
Spirou resumed publication only weeks. Jijé was the main author; some American comics reappeared as well. Jijé started out a studio, where he schooled three talented apprentices, André Franquin and Morris. In 1946 and 1947, the team was joined by some of the main contributors to Spirou for the next decades, including Victor Hubinon, Jean-Michel Charlier and Eddy Paape. After a few years, these artists started their now classic series like Buck Danny by Hubinon and Charlier and Lucky Luke by Morris, while Franquin took over Spirou from Jijé; the American comics and reprints were replaced by new, European productions, by the 50s, nearly all the content was made for the magazine. Charles Dupuis remained editor-in-chief of the magazine until 1955 when he appointed Yvan Delporte to that position, so he could himself focus on his increasing interest in the publication of the magazine's series' albums; the golden ages culminated in the 1950s with the introduction of more authors and series like Peyo, René Follet, Marcel Remacle, Jean Roba, Maurice Tillieux and Mitacq.
In 1954, Jijé created the realistic western comic Jerry Spring, in 1957 Franquin introduced the anti-hero Gaston Lagaffe. The authors of the magazine, many of them pupils of Jijé, were grouped stylistically in the Marcinelle school, the counterpart of ligne claire exhibited by the artists grouped around Hergé in Tintin magazine. By 1960, the magazine had achieved a fixed structure and had grown to 52 pages filled with new, European comics, coupled with some text pages and adverts. Most of the comics were long-running series which were published as albums of 44 or 64 pages, generating a constant source of revenue for the artists and the publisher. In the next decades, the sales of albums would become the main focus, reducing the importance of the magazine which became more of a breeding ground for new talent and series. In the early 1960s, the main changes were the strong editorial work of Delporte, who kept the magazine vibrant despite the more or less fixed series, with numerous supplements and experimental layouts.
The magazine demonstrated the pleasure that had gone in creating it, maintained a strong reader base despite the growing competition from more adolescent and adult French magazines like Pilote. Some of the main authors temporarily started working for other magazines, with Morris the only major name who left the magazine, their replacements, like Berck, had trouble filling the void. Around 1959–1960, the first mini-récits appeared; this was an experiment in which the middle pages of the magazines could be removed, which the reader could fold into a small comics magazine of its own. Several artists were allowed to hone their skills inside these mini-récits before moving on to larger pages, until the 1970s, more than 500 mini-récits were produced, series that debuted in this format include The Smurfs by Peyo, Bobo by Rosy and Deliège, Flagada by Degotte among many others. Only in the early 1970s a n
Poetry is a form of literature that uses aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language—such as phonaesthetics, sound symbolism, metre—to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning. Poetry has a long history, dating back to prehistorical times with the creation of hunting poetry in Africa, panegyric and elegiac court poetry was developed extensively throughout the history of the empires of the Nile and Volta river valleys; some of the earliest written poetry in Africa can be found among the Pyramid Texts written during the 25th century BCE, while the Epic of Sundiata is one of the most well-known examples of griot court poetry. The earliest Western Asian epic poetry, the Epic of Gilgamesh, was written in Sumerian. Early poems in the Eurasian continent evolved from folk songs such as the Chinese Shijing, or from a need to retell oral epics, as with the Sanskrit Vedas, Zoroastrian Gathas, the Homeric epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey. Ancient Greek attempts to define poetry, such as Aristotle's Poetics, focused on the uses of speech in rhetoric, drama and comedy.
Attempts concentrated on features such as repetition, verse form and rhyme, emphasized the aesthetics which distinguish poetry from more objectively informative, prosaic forms of writing. Poetry uses forms and conventions to suggest differential interpretation to words, or to evoke emotive responses. Devices such as assonance, alliteration and rhythm are sometimes used to achieve musical or incantatory effects; the use of ambiguity, symbolism and other stylistic elements of poetic diction leaves a poem open to multiple interpretations. Figures of speech such as metaphor and metonymy create a resonance between otherwise disparate images—a layering of meanings, forming connections not perceived. Kindred forms of resonance may exist, between individual verses, in their patterns of rhyme or rhythm; some poetry types are specific to particular cultures and genres and respond to characteristics of the language in which the poet writes. Readers accustomed to identifying poetry with Dante, Goethe and Rumi may think of it as written in lines based on rhyme and regular meter.
Much modern poetry reflects a critique of poetic tradition, playing with and testing, among other things, the principle of euphony itself, sometimes altogether forgoing rhyme or set rhythm. In today's globalized world, poets adapt forms and techniques from diverse cultures and languages; some scholars believe. Others, suggest that poetry did not predate writing; the oldest surviving epic poem, the Epic of Gilgamesh, comes from the 3rd millennium BCE in Sumer, was written in cuneiform script on clay tablets and on papyrus. A tablet dating to c. 2000 BCE describes an annual rite in which the king symbolically married and mated with the goddess Inanna to ensure fertility and prosperity. An example of Egyptian epic poetry is The Story of Sinuhe. Other ancient epic poetry includes the Iliad and the Odyssey. Epic poetry, including the Odyssey, the Gathas, the Indian Vedas, appears to have been composed in poetic form as an aid to memorization and oral transmission, in prehistoric and ancient societies.
Other forms of poetry developed directly from folk songs. The earliest entries in the oldest extant collection of Chinese poetry, the Shijing, were lyrics; the efforts of ancient thinkers to determine what makes poetry distinctive as a form, what distinguishes good poetry from bad, resulted in "poetics"—the study of the aesthetics of poetry. Some ancient societies, such as China's through her Shijing, developed canons of poetic works that had ritual as well as aesthetic importance. More thinkers have struggled to find a definition that could encompass formal differences as great as those between Chaucer's Canterbury Tales and Matsuo Bashō's Oku no Hosomichi, as well as differences in content spanning Tanakh religious poetry, love poetry, rap. Classical thinkers employed classification as a way to assess the quality of poetry. Notably, the existing fragments of Aristotle's Poetics describe three genres of poetry—the epic, the comic, the tragic—and develop rules to distinguish the highest-quality poetry in each genre, based on the underlying purposes of the genre.
Aestheticians identified three major genres: epic poetry, lyric poetry, dramatic poetry, treating comedy and tragedy as subgenres of dramatic poetry. Aristotle's work was influential throughout the Middle East during the Islamic Golden Age, as well as in Europe during the Renaissance. Poets and aestheticians distinguished poetry from, defined it in opposition to prose, understood as writing with a proclivity to logical explication and a linear narrative structure; this does not imply that poetry is illogical or lacks narration, but rather that poetry is an attempt to render the beautiful or sublime without the burden of engaging the logical or narrative thought process. English Romantic poet John Keats termed this escape from logic "Negative Capability"; this "romantic" approach views form as a key element of successful poetry because form is abstract and distinct from the underlying notional logic. This approach remained influential into t
Luigi Albertini was an influential Italian newspaper editor, Member of Parliament, historian of the First World War. As editor of one of Italy's best-known newspapers, Corriere della Sera of Milan, he was a champion of liberalism, he was a vigorous opponent of socialism and clericalism, of Prime Minister Giovanni Giolitti, willing to compromise with those forces. Albertini's opposition to the Fascist regime forced the owners to fire him in 1925. Albertini was an outspoken antifascist though at one time he did support the National Fascist Party in their opposition to the Left. From 1914 until Benito Mussolini's March on Rome in 1922, he was a member of parliament in the Italian Senate, where he was a key intellectual and moderating force. Albertini was born in Italy. After reading law at the University of Turin, in 1894 he moved to London, where he was foreign correspondent for La Stampa of Turin. While in London he investigated labour conditions and studied the organization of The Times newspaper.
In 1898 he joined the Milan newspaper, Corriere della Sera as an editorial assistant, working under Eugenio Torelli Viollier and Domenico Oliva. In the spring of 1900, Viollier died and Albertini took his position as managing editor, a few weeks director, he invested in the paper. He updated the paper's technical services. Under Albertini's direction, Corriere della Sera became the most read and respected daily paper in Italy. But, in November 1925 the paper's owners, the Crespi family, sacked him because of his public stance against the Fascist government, his last editorial was included in the 29 November 1925 edition. After that, Albertini withdrew from public life and retired to his model estate at Torre in Pietra near Rome. There, he dedicated his time to reclaiming land on it, he extensively researched Italy's role in the First and Second World Wars. He wrote his memoirs and had just completed his three-volume seminal work on the origins of the First World War when he died on 29 December 1941 in Rome.
Albertini's three-volume The Origins of the War of 1914 was his highest achievement and brought him world fame. He researched and wrote it with the assistance of Luciano Magrini, a former Corriere della Sera foreign correspondent, skilled in German. From 1928 to 1940, Magrini interviewed many of the protagonists of the First World War, he obtained numerous documents that are reproduced in the work, published in Italian in 1942 and 1943. It was translated into English by Isabella Massey and published by Oxford University Press in 1953; the bedrock of all discussion remains L. Albertini’s The Origins of the War of 1914… which provides a detailed chronology of the crisis and excerpts from the most important documents. Alberto Albertini wrote the first biography of his brother, published in Italian in 1945. Since 1965 Ottavio Brié of the political science facility at the University of Rome, has had access to Luigi Albertini's huge correspondence, which he has edited and published, he researched and wrote a second biography, Luigi Albertini, published in Italian in 1972.
Devendittis, Paul. Luigi Albertini: Conservative Liberalism in Thought and Practice. Review Article from European History Quarterly Vol. 6 #1 pp. 139–146 Sage Journals On Line, preview of page 1 Herberiches, Celesta. The Corriere Della Sera and Fascism: A Chapter from Italian Press History. Article from International Communication Gazette #13 pp. 338–361 Sage Journals On Line, preview of page 1 Schmitt, Bernadotte E. "The Origins of the War of 1914," Journal of Modern History 24#1 pp. 69–74 in JSTOR, detailed review Works by or about Luigi Albertini at Internet Archive Luigi Albertini from Encyclopædia Britannica Online
A comic strip is a sequence of drawings arranged in interrelated panels to display brief humor or form a narrative serialized, with text in balloons and captions. Traditionally, throughout the 20th century and into the 21st, these have been published in newspapers and magazines, with horizontal strips printed in black-and-white in daily newspapers, while Sunday newspapers offered longer sequences in special color comics sections. With the development of the internet, they began to appear online as webcomics. There were more than 200 different comic strips and daily cartoon panels in South Korea alone each day for most of the 20th century, for a total of at least 7,300,000 episodes. Strips are drawn by a comics artist or cartoonist; as the name implies, comic strips can be humorous. Starting in the late 1920s, comic strips expanded from their mirthful origins to feature adventure stories, as seen in Popeye, Captain Easy, Buck Rogers and The Adventures of Tintin. Soap-opera continuity strips such as Judge Parker and Mary Worth gained popularity in the 1940s.
All are called, comic strips, though cartoonist Will Eisner has suggested that "sequential art" would be a better genre-neutral name. In the UK and the rest of Europe, comic strips are serialized in comic book magazines, with a strip's story sometimes continuing over three pages or more. Comic strips have appeared in American magazines such as Liberty and Boys' Life and on the front covers of magazines, such as the Flossy Frills series on The American Weekly Sunday newspaper supplement. Storytelling using a sequence of pictures has existed through history. One medieval European example in textile form is the Bayeux Tapestry. Printed examples emerged in 19th-century Germany and in 18th-century England, where some of the first satirical or humorous sequential narrative drawings were produced. William Hogarth's 18th century English cartoons include both narrative sequences, such as A Rake's Progress, single panels; the Biblia pauperum, a tradition of picture Bibles beginning in the Middle Ages, sometimes depicted Biblical events with words spoken by the figures in the miniatures written on scrolls coming out of their mouths—which makes them to some extent ancestors of the modern cartoon strips.
In China, with its traditions of block printing and of the incorporation of text with image, experiments with what became lianhuanhua date back to 1884. The first newspaper comic strips appeared in North America in the late 19th century; the Yellow Kid is credited as one of the first newspaper strips. However, the art form combining words and pictures developed and there are many examples which led up to the comic strip. Swiss author and caricature artist Rodolphe Töpffer is considered the father of the modern comic strips, his illustrated stories such as Histoire de M. Vieux Bois, first published in the USA in 1842 as The Adventures of Obadiah Oldbuck or Histoire de Monsieur Jabot, inspired subsequent generations of German and American comic artists. In 1865, German painter and caricaturist Wilhelm Busch created the strip Max and Moritz, about two trouble-making boys, which had a direct influence on the American comic strip. Max and Moritz was a series of moralistic tales in the vein of German children's stories such as Struwwelpeter.
Max and Moritz provided an inspiration for German immigrant Rudolph Dirks, who created the Katzenjammer Kids in 1897. Familiar comic-strip iconography such as stars for pain, sawing logs for snoring, speech balloons, thought balloons originated in Dirks' strip. Hugely popular, Katzenjammer Kids occasioned one of the first comic-strip copyright ownership suits in the history of the medium; when Dirks left William Randolph Hearst for the promise of a better salary under Joseph Pulitzer, it was an unusual move, since cartoonists deserted Pulitzer for Hearst. In a unusual court decision, Hearst retained the rights to the name "Katzenjammer Kids", while creator Dirks retained the rights to the characters. Hearst promptly hired Harold Knerr to draw his own version of the strip. Dirks renamed his version Fritz. Thus, two versions distributed by rival syndicates graced the comics pages for decades. Dirks' version distributed by United Feature Syndicate, ran until 1979. In the United States, the great popularity of comics sprang from the newspaper war between Pulitzer and Hearst.
The Little Bears was the first American comic strip with recurring characters, while the first color comic supplement was published by the Chicago Inter-Ocean sometime in the latter half of 1892, followed by the New York Journal's first color Sunday comic pages in 1897. On January 31, 1912, Hearst introduced the nation's first full daily comic page in his New York Evening Journal; the history of this newspaper rivalry and the rapid appearance of comic strips in most major American newspapers is discussed by Ian Gordon. Numerous events in newspaper comic strips have reverberated throughout society at large, though few of these events occurred in recent years, owing to the declining role of the newspaper comic strip as an entertainment form; the longest-running American comic strips are: The Katzenjammer Kids Gasoline Alley Ripley's Believe It or Not! Barney Google and Snuffy Smith Thimble Theater/Popeye Blondie Bringing Up Father (1913–2000.
Tintin was a weekly Franco-Belgian comics magazine of the second half of the 20th century. Subtitled "The Magazine for the Youth from 7 to 77", it was one of the major publications of the Franco-Belgian comics scene and published such notable series as Blake and Mortimer and the principal title The Adventures of Tintin. Published by Le Lombard, the first issue was released in 1946, it ceased publication in 1993. Tintin magazine was part of an elaborate publishing scheme; the magazine's primary content focused on a new page or two from several forthcoming comic albums that had yet to be published as a whole, thus drawing weekly readers who could not bear to wait for entire albums. There were several ongoing stories at any given time. Tintin was available bound as a hardcover or softcover collection; the content always included filler material, some of, of considerable interest to fans, for example alternate versions of pages of the Tintin stories, interviews with authors and artists. Not every comic appearing in Tintin was put into book form, another incentive to subscribe to the magazine.
If the quality of Tintin printing was high compared to American comic books through the 1970s, the quality of the albums was superb, utilizing expensive paper and printing processes. Raymond Leblanc and his partners had started a small publishing house after World War II, decided to create an illustrated youth magazine, they decided that Tintin would be the perfect hero, as he was very well known. Business partner André Sinave went to see Tintin author Hergé, proposed creating the magazine. Hergé, who had worked for Le Soir during the war, was being prosecuted for having collaborated with the Germans, thus was without a publisher. After consulting with his friend Edgar Pierre Jacobs, Hergé agreed; the first issue, published on 26 September 1946, was in French. It featured Hergé, Paul Cuvelier and Jacques Laudy as artists, with their mutual friend Jacques Van Melkebeke serving as editor. A Dutch edition, entitled Kuifje, was published simultaneously. 40,000 copies were released in French, 20,000 in Dutch.
For Kuifje, a separate editor-in-chief was appointed, Karel Van Milleghem. He invented the famous slogan "The magazine for the youth from 7 to 77". In 1948, when the magazine grew from 12 to 20 pages and a version for France was created, a group of new young artists joined the team: the French Étienne Le Rallic and Jacques Martin, Dino Attanasio and the Flemish Willy Vandersteen. For decades, Hergé had artistic control over the magazine though he was sometimes absent for long periods and new work of his became rarer, his influence is evident in Vandersteen's Suske en Wiske for which Hergé imposed a stronger attention to the stories, a change of art style. In order to keep its readership loyal, Tintin magazine created a sort of fidelity passport, called the "Chèque Tintin" in France and "Timbre Tintin" in Belgium, offered with every issue of the magazine, in every comic album by Le Lombard, on many food products as well; these stamps could be exchanged for various gifts not available in commercial establishments.
Other brands from food companies, affiliated themselves with the Tintin voucher system: they could be found on flour, semolina boxes, etc. A Tintin soda existed, Tintin shoes; the French Railways Company went as far as to propose 100 km of railway transportation for 800 stamps. Among the gifts, there were original art. At the time the vouchers were initiated, the magazine was selling 80,000 copies in Belgium and only 70,000 in France. Due to the success of the vouchers, the circulation in France rose to 300,000 a week; the vouchers disappeared by the end of the 1960s. In the 1950s new artists and series showed up: Tibet with his humorous western Chick Bill and his detective series Ric Hochet Raymond Macherot, with his fantasy series Chlorophylle and detective series Clifton Maurice Maréchal - Prudence Petitpas. Jean Graton with Michel Vaillant Albert Uderzo and René Goscinny with Oumpah-pahThe magazine became more and more international and successful: at one time, there were separate versions for France, Canada and the Netherlands, with about 600,000 copies a week.
The magazine had increased to 32 pages, a cheaper version was created as well: Chez Nous / Ons Volkske, printed on cheaper paper and featuring reprints from Tintin magazine, plus some new series by Tibet and Studio Vandersteen. In the 1960s the magazine kept on attracting new artists; the editorial line was bent towards humor, with Greg, Jo-El Azara and Dupa. Other authors joined the magazine, like William Hermann. In the 1970s the comics scene in France and Belgium went through important changes; the mood for magazines had declined in favor of albums in the la
Hugo Eugenio Pratt was an Italian comic book creator, known for combining strong storytelling with extensive historical research on works such as Corto Maltese. He was inducted into the Will Eisner Award Hall of Fame in 2005. In 1946 Hugo Pratt became part of the so-called Group of Venice with Fernando Carcupino, Dino Battaglia and Damiano Damiani. Born in Rimini, Italy to Rolando Pratt and Evelina Genero, Hugo Pratt spent most of his childhood in Venice in a cosmopolitan family environment, his paternal grandfather Joseph was of English origin, his maternal grandfather was of Marrano descent, his grandmother was of Turkish origin. He was related to actor Boris Karloff. In 1937, Pratt moved with his mother to Abyssinia, joining his father, working there following the conquest of that country by Benito Mussolini's Italy. Pratt's father, a professional Italian soldier, was captured in 1941 by British troops and in late 1942, died from disease as a prisoner of war; the same year, Hugo Pratt and his mother were interned in a prison camp at Dirédaoua, where he would buy comics from guards, was sent back to Italy by the Red Cross.
After the war, Pratt moved to Venice. Pratt joined the'Venice Group' with other Italian cartoonists, including Alberto Ongaro and Mario Faustinelli, their magazine Asso di Picche, launched in 1945 as Albo Uragano, concentrated on adventure comics. The magazine scored some success and published works including Dino Battaglia, his character Asso di Picche was a success in Argentina, where Pratt was invited in 1949. In the late 1940s, he moved to Buenos Aires where he worked for Argentine publisher Editorial Abril and met Argentine comics artists like Alberto Breccia and Solano López; the passage to Editorial Frontera saw the publication of some of his most important early series. These included Sgt. Kirk and Ernie Pike, written by Héctor Germán Oesterheld. Pratt taught drawing in the Escuela Panamericana de Arte directed by Enrique Lipszyc, he travelled to South American destinations like the Amazon and Mato Grosso. During that period he produced his first comic book as a complete author, both writing and illustrating Anna della jungla, followed by the similar Capitan Cormorant and Wheeling.
The latter was completed after his return to Italy. From the summer of 1959 to the summer of 1960, Pratt lived in London where he drew a series of war comics for Fleetway Publications, with British scriptwriters, he returned to Argentina, despite the harsh economic times there. From there, he moved again to Italy in 1962 where he started a collaboration with the children's comic book magazine Il Corriere dei Piccoli, for which he adapted several classics of adventure literature, including Treasure Island and Kidnapped by Robert Louis Stevenson. In 1967, Pratt met Florenzo Ivaldi. In the first issue, Pratt's most famous story was published: Una ballata del mare salato, which introduced his best known character, Corto Maltese. Corto's series continued three years in the French magazine Pif gadget. Due to his rather mixed family ancestry, Pratt had learned snippets of things like kabbalism and lots of history. Many of his stories are placed in real historical eras and deal with real events: the 1755 war between French and British colonists in Ticonderoga, colonial wars in Africa and both World Wars, for example.
Pratt did exhaustive research for factual and visual details, some characters are real historical figures or loosely based on them, like Corto's main friend/enemy, Rasputin. Many of the minor characters cross over into other stories in a way that places all of Pratt’s stories into the same continuum. Pratt's main series in the second part of his career include Gli scorpioni del deserto and Jesuit Joe, he wrote stories for his friend and pupil Milo Manara for Tutto ricominciò con un'estate indiana and El Gaucho. From 1970 to 1984, Pratt lived in France where Corto Maltese, a psychologically complex character resulting from the travel experiences and the endless inventive capacity of his author, became the main character of a comics series. Published from 1970 to 1973 by the magazine Pif gadget, it brought him much popular and critical success. Published in album format, this series was translated into fifteen languages. From 1984 to 1995 Pratt lived in Switzerland where the international success that Corto Maltese sparked continued to grow.
In France, most of his pre-Corto Maltese works were published in several album editions by publishers such as Casterman and Humanoides Associés. A wanderer by nature, Hugo Pratt continued to travel from Canada to Patagonia, from Africa to the Pacific area, he died of bowel cancer on 20 August 1995. Pratt has cited authors like Robert Louis Stevenson, James Oliver Curwood, Zane Grey, Kenneth Roberts, Joseph Conrad, Fenimore Cooper, Herman Melville and Jack London as influences, along with cartoonists Lyman Young, Will Eisner, Milton Caniff. On Friday, July 15, 2005, at San Diego Comic-Con's 17th Annual Will Eisner Comic Industry Awards, he was one of four professionals that year inducted into the Comic Book Hall of Fame. One of the series created by Pratt, entitled "The Scorpions of the Desert" in English, has been continued after Pratt's death. In 2005 a sixth volume in this series was released, drawn by Pierre Wazeem and entitled "Le chemin de fièvre". A seventh album was scheduled by the French publishers Casterman for release in March 2