Dwyfor Meirionnydd (Assembly constituency)
Dwyfor Meirionnydd is a constituency of the National Assembly for Wales, created for the 2007 Assembly election. It elects one Assembly Member by the first past the post method of election. However, it is one of eight constituencies in the Mid and West Wales electoral region, which elects four additional members, in addition to nine constituency members, to produce a degree of proportional representation for the region as a whole; the constituency shares the boundaries of the Dwyfor Meirionnydd Westminster constituency, which came into use for the 2010 United Kingdom general election, created by merging into one constituency areas which were within the Caernarfon and Meirionnydd Nant Conwy constituencies. Caernarfon was a Gwynedd constituency within the preserved county of Gwynedd, one of nine constituencies in the North Wales region. Meirionnydd Nant Conwy was a Gwynedd constituency and a Clwyd constituency within the preserved county of Gwynedd and within the preserved county of Clwyd, one of eight constituencies in the Mid and West Wales electoral region.
Dwyfor Meirionnydd is a Gwynedd constituency, one of three constituencies within the preserved county of Gwynedd, one of eight constituencies in the Mid and West Wales electoral region. The other Gwynedd constituencies, however and Ynys Môn, are within the North Wales electoral region; the Mid and West Wales region consists of the constituencies of Brecon and Radnorshire, Carmarthen East and Dinefwr, Carmarthen West and South Pembrokeshire, Dwyfor Meirionnydd, Llanelli and Preseli Pembrokeshire. In general elections for the National Assembly for Wales, each voter has two votes; the first vote may be used to vote for a candidate to become the Assembly Member for the voter's constituency, elected by the first-past-the-post system. The second vote may be used to vote for a regional closed party list of candidates. Additional member seats are allocated from the lists by the d'Hondt method, with constituency results being taken into account in the allocation; the seat has been represented since its creation in 2007 by Dafydd Elis-Thomas of Plaid Cymru, the Assembly's former Presiding Officer.
He represented the former constituency of Meirionnydd Nant Conwy from 1999 to 2007, was the Westminster MP for the area from 1974 to 1992
The Corris Railway is a narrow gauge preserved railway based in Corris on the border between Merionethshire and Montgomeryshire in Mid-Wales. The line opened in 1859 as a horse tramway, running from quays on the Afon Dyfi at Morben and Derwenlas, skirting the town of Machynlleth and following the Dulas Valley north to Corris and on to Aberllefenni. Branches served the slate quarries at Corris Uchaf, the isolated quarries around Ratgoed and quarries along the length of the Dulas Valley; the railway closed in 1948, but a preservation society was formed in 1966 opening a museum. The railway now operates as a tourist attraction. A new steam locomotive was built for the railway, delivered in 2005; the two surviving locomotives, plus some of the original rolling stock, are preserved on the nearby Talyllyn Railway. The gauge of the railway is 2 ft 3 in, unusual, was shared by only three other public railways in the United Kingdom: the Talyllyn Railway, the short-lived Plynlimon and Hafan Tramway and the Campbeltown and Machrihanish Light Railway.
The first proposal to construct a railway to connect the slate quarries in the district around Corris, Corris Uchaf and Aberllefenni with wharves on the estuary of the Afon Dyfi west of Machynlleth was made in November 1850 with Arthur Causton as engineer. At this time slate from the quarries was hauled by horse-drawn carts and sledges to transport their output to the river; the proposed Corris, Machynlleth & River Dovey Railway or Tramroad would have run down the Dulas Valley and along the north shore of the Dyfi past Pennal to Pant Eidal, near the main-line Gogarth Halt. The bill was withdrawn resubmitted in December 1851; the bill specified the tramroad's gauge as 2 ft 2.5 in. This 1851 scheme was not constructed, was followed by two further proposals in the early 1850s. Following the plans for a 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in standard gauge railway along the Dyfi valley, these early proposals were shelved. In December 1857, a fourth bill was set before Parliament to create the Corris Machynlleth & River Dovey Tramroad.
This was similar to the 1851 scheme, proposing a tramway from the "machine house" at Aberllefenni, down to the wharf at "Cae Goch on the River Dovey" with a short onward branch to Morben. The gauge specified for the tramroad was increased to 2 ft 3 in, the same restriction forbidding locomotives was imposed; this bill was passed on 12th. July 1858. After more than eight years of proposals, the 1859 scheme was the one, built. Construction proceeded and by April 1859 the tramroad opened between Corris and Machynlleth; the line through to Aberllefenni was built as was the southern line to Derwenlas. It is thought that the tramroad never reached Morben. On 3 January 1863 the standard gauge Newtown and Machynlleth Railway had opened, followed on 1 July of the same year by the Aberystwyth and Welsh Coast Railway's line from Machynlleth to Borth; these two lines became part of the Cambrian Railways by August 1865. The opening of the standard gauge line to Borth made the section of the CM&RDT from Machynlleth to Derwenlas obsolete.
It was much easier to transship slates to the main line at Machynlleth, so the lower section of the tramway was abandoned. In 1862, a new Bill was deposited, seeking to extend the Upper Corris Tramway to iron ore mines at Tir Stent, near Cross Foxes; the bill sought powers to raise further capital for the tramroad and allow the use of locomotives. But the directors of the Aberystwyth & Welsh Coast Railway objected and the Bill failed. Another similar Bill was deposited in December 1863, again the A&WCR opposed it; this time, they withdrew their objection. The second Bill passed on 25 July 1864, it took until the 1870s for work to begin to upgrade the Corris Railway to a standard where locomotives could be used. The original tramroad was laid with light bridge rail suitable for waggons to traverse as they were pulled by horses; these rails would not support the weight of much heavier steam locomotives. In 1878 control of the railway passed to the Imperial Tramways Company of London; the new owners saw the potential for passenger traffic on the Corris Railway and ordered the first passenger carriages for the railway though the Act of 1864 did not permit passengers to be carried.
They appointed Joseph R. Dix, son of the main-line stationmaster at Machynlleth, as Manager in successor to David Owen. In 1880 and 1883, two new Acts were obtained which adjusted the tolls on the railway and permitted the carriage of passengers; the second of these Acts was necessary because the owners of the quarries served by the railway objected that passenger trains would interfere with their mineral traffic. The railway ran a test passenger service on the local roads, it was the first instance of a long history of the Corris Railway operating passenger road services in the area. In December 1878 the first steam locomotive purchased from the H
Machynlleth railway station
Machynlleth railway station is a railway station on the Cambrian Line in mid-Wales, serving the historic town of Machynlleth. It was built by the Newtown and Machynlleth Railway, subsequently passed into the ownership of the Cambrian Railways, the Great Western Railway, British Railways and British Railways, it is notable that there is a distance of 22 miles between this station and Caersws, the longest distance between two intermediate stations in Wales. The first railway station in Machynlleth was the narrow gauge Corris Railway, which opened its station building on the north side of the main-line goods yard in 1859; this was made accessible from the mainline station by a flight of steps from the standard gauge platform. Waggish porters were known to call out "Platform 14 for Corris"; the existing mainline station dates from 1863 with the opening of the Newtown and Machynlleth Railway. The following year the Aberystwyth and Welsh Coast Railway opened the line as far as Aberystwyth via Dovey Junction, in 1867 the line was extended from Barmouth to Pwllheli via Porthmadog.
In 1868 the station and lines were absorbed into the Cambrian Railways. The Cambrian Railways were absorbed by the Great Western Railway on 1 January 1922 as a result of the Railways Act 1921, became part of British Railways in 1948. In 2016 a new footbridge with a lift at both ends to improve disabled access between the platforms was completed; the previous bridge was donated to the Cambrian Heritage Railways. The railway built a small engine shed at the station in 1863; this was expanded by Cambrian Railways, but the extensions were demolished after 1966, when the depot ceased to be used for servicing steam locomotives. Only the original building now survives. Machynlleth is the location where the majority of eastbound or'up' trains from Pwllheli and Aberystwyth combine to go forward as one towards Shrewsbury and Birmingham International. Most trains in the opposite direction divide here before continuing west; the service in each direction is two hourly, although trains to Pwllheli are far less frequent on Sundays.
The infrastructure along the line was upgraded during 2010/11, with the intention of allowing hourly trains to and from Aberystwyth. In the 2015-16 timetable, some additional Shrewsbury - Aberystwyth services operate to give an hourly interval frequency during the morning & evening peak periods. Cambrian Line signalling has been centrally controlled from Machynlleth since the 1980s conversion of the route from traditional signalling to a radio-controlled'RETB' system. On 26 March 2011, the new European Rail Traffic Management System signalling system went into operational use across the Cambrian Line controlled from Machynlleth. Two days of driver familiarisation followed, with passenger operation commencing on the morning of 28 March 2011. A new control centre has been built on the down side opposite the earlier signal box which has since been demolished. A past train operator, Arriva Trains Wales, has developed Machynlleth into the main depot for its fleet of Class 158 trains which provide all passenger services on the Cambrian Lines.
Replacing the previous Victorian-era depot and yard, Arriva's depot opened in 2007 and prominently features environmentally friendly technologies such as rainwater harvesting and a wind turbine. In 2011, The Bluebell Railway discovered a well-worn totem sign from Machynlleth during the excavating of Imberhorne Cutting as part of the northern extension to East Grinstead, used as a landfill site by the local council in the late 1960s; the extension was opened on 23 March 2013. The sign is now displayed in their new museum; the station has a staffed ticket office in the main building on platform 2. This is open all week - outside these hours tickets must be bought on the train, as no ticket machine is provided. There are toilets, a waiting room and a cafe in the main building and waiting room and shelter on platform 1. Train running information is provided by customer help points, CIS displays, automated announcements and timetable posters. Step free access is provided to both platforms by means of a new footbridge with a lift at both ends completed in 2016.
The previous ramp up to platform 1 from street level having closed with the foundations of the new bridge being built across it. Train times and station information for Machynlleth railway station from National Rail Corris Railway
Slate is a fine-grained, homogeneous metamorphic rock derived from an original shale-type sedimentary rock composed of clay or volcanic ash through low-grade regional metamorphism. It is the finest grained foliated metamorphic rock. Foliation may not correspond to the original sedimentary layering, but instead is in planes perpendicular to the direction of metamorphic compression; the foliation in slate is called "slaty cleavage". It is caused by strong compression causing fine grained clay flakes to regrow in planes perpendicular to the compression; when expertly "cut" by striking parallel to the foliation, with a specialized tool in the quarry, many slates will display a property called fissility, forming smooth flat sheets of stone which have long been used for roofing, floor tiles, other purposes. Slate is grey in color when seen, en masse, covering roofs. However, slate occurs in a variety of colors from a single locality. Slate is not to schist; the word "slate" is used for certain types of object made from slate rock.
It may mean a writing slate. They were traditionally a small, smooth piece of the rock framed in wood, used with chalk as a notepad or noticeboard, for recording charges in pubs and inns; the phrases "clean slate" and "blank slate" come from this usage. Before the mid-19th century, the terms slate and schist were not distinguished. In the context of underground coal mining in the United States, the term slate was used to refer to shale well into the 20th century. For example, roof slate referred to shale above a coal seam, draw slate referred to shale that fell from the mine roof as the coal was removed. Slate is composed of the minerals quartz and muscovite or illite along with biotite, chlorite and pyrite and, less apatite, kaolinite, tourmaline, or zircon as well as feldspar; as in the purple slates of North Wales, ferrous reduction spheres form around iron nuclei, leaving a light green spotted texture. These spheres are sometimes deformed by a subsequent applied stress field to ovoids, which appear as ellipses when viewed on a cleavage plane of the specimen.
Slate can be made into roofing slates, a type of roof shingle, or more a type of roof tile, which are installed by a slater. Slate has two lines of breakability – cleavage and grain – which make it possible to split the stone into thin sheets; when broken, slate retains a natural appearance while remaining flat and easy to stack. A "slate boom" occurred in Europe from the 1870s until the first world war, allowed by the use of the steam engine in manufacturing slate tiles and improvements in road and waterway transportation systems. Slate is suitable as a roofing material as it has an low water absorption index of less than 0.4%, making the material waterproof. In fact, this natural slate, which requires only minimal processing, has the lowest embodied energy of all roofing materials. Natural slate is used by building professionals as a result of its durability. Slate is durable and can last several hundred years with little or no maintenance, its low water absorption makes it resistant to frost damage and breakage due to freezing.
Natural slate is fire resistant and energy efficient. Slate roof tiles are fixed either with nails, or with hooks as is common with Spanish slate. In the UK, fixing is with double nails onto timber battens or nailed directly onto timber sarking boards. Nails were traditionally of copper, although there are modern alloy and stainless steel alternatives. Both these methods, if used properly, provide a long-lasting weathertight roof with a lifespan of around 80–100 years; some mainland European slate suppliers suggest that using hook fixing means that: Areas of weakness on the tile are fewer since no holes have to be drilled Roofing features such as valleys and domes are easier to create since narrow tiles can be used Hook fixing is suitable in regions subject to severe weather conditions, since there is greater resistance to wind uplift, as the lower edge of the slate is secured. The metal hooks are, however and may be unsuitable for historic properties. Slate tiles are used for interior and exterior flooring, stairs and wall cladding.
Tiles are grouted along the edges. Chemical sealants are used on tiles to improve durability and appearance, increase stain resistance, reduce efflorescence, increase or reduce surface smoothness. Tiles are sold gauged, meaning that the back surface is ground for ease of installation. Slate flooring can be slippery. Slate tiles were used in 19th century UK building construction and in slate quarrying areas such as Blaenau Ffestiniog and Bethesda, Wales there are still many buildings wholly constructed of slate. Slates can be set into walls to provide a rudimentary damp-proof membrane. Small offcuts are used as shims to level floor joists. In areas where slate is plentiful it is used in pieces of various sizes for building walls and hedges, sometimes combined with other kinds of stone. In modern homes slate is used as table coasters; because it is a good electrical insulator and fireproof, it was used to construct early-20th-century electric switchboards and relay controls for large electric motors.
Fine slate can be used as a whe
Ffridd Gate railway station
Ffridd Gate was a station on the Corris Railway in Wales, serving the hamlet of the same name near to where the Afon Dulas meets the Afon Dyfi and the village of Llanwrin. South of the station was the railway's bridge over the Dyfi a wooden trestle construction and a three-span steel bridge; the site of the bridge is now occupied by the Millennium Bridge for walkers and cyclists, providing a short-cut to Machynlleth. The Centre for Alternative Technology lies about a mile north of the hamlet. Centre for Alternative Technology Eco Dyfi Valley Partnership
A trunk road, trunk highway, or strategic road is a major road connecting two or more cities, ports and other places, the recommended route for long-distance and freight traffic. Many trunk roads are of motorway standard. In the United Kingdom, trunk roads were first defined for Great Britain in the Trunk Roads Act 1936. Thirty major roads were classed as trunk roads and the minister of transport took direct control of them and the bridges across them; the Trunk Roads Act came into force in England and Wales on 1 April 1937, in Scotland on 16 May 1937. This development did not extend to Northern Ireland, which has always had a separate system of highway and road traffic law. At that time, 4,500 miles of British roads were classified as trunk roads. Additional roads have been "trunked", notably in the Trunk Roads Act 1946. Others, like all British motorways, have entered the system as a result of new construction; as of 2004, Great Britain had 7,845 miles of trunk roads. Since 1994, trunk roads in England have been managed by Highways England, while Scotland has had responsibility for its own trunk roads since 1998.
The Welsh government has had responsibility for trunk roads in Wales since its establishment in 1998. England has 4,814 miles, Scotland has 1,982 miles and Wales has 1,048 miles of trunk roads, inclusive of motorways. Highways England publishes a full network map of trunk motorways in England. Most interurban trunk roads are "primary routes", the category of roads recommended for long distance and freight transport. Not all primary routes are trunk roads, the difference being that maintenance of trunk roads is paid for by national government bodies rather than the local councils in whose area they lie. Primary routes are identified by their direction signs, which feature white text on a green background with route numbers in yellow. Trunk roads, like other "A" roads, can be either single- or dual-carriageway. Trunk roads were listed on maps with a "T" in brackets after their number, to distinguish them from non-trunk parts of the same road, however this suffix is no longer included on current Ordnance Survey maps, which distinguish between primary and non-primary "A" roads.
A trunk road, upgraded to motorway standards may retain its original "A" number, but with an "M" in brackets to denote that motorway regulations apply on it. Long distance examples of this are the A1 in England, the A74 in Scotland, it is possible for roads to be "de-trunked" – for example, when superseded by a motorway following a similar route – in which case they become ordinary "A" roads. When a road is de-trunked signposts are replaced, sometimes route numbers are changed, making the original itinerary of the road harder to follow. In England, the government has de-trunked much of the trunk road network since the late 1990s, transferring responsibility to local councils to allow Highways England to concentrate on a selection of core trunk routes dual carriageways and motorways. In Ireland, major roads were classified under an old system as "trunk roads", had route numbers prefixed by a "T". Connecting roads were classified as'link roads", had route numbers prefixed by an "L". Many of these roads had their origins including turnpike roads.
Although a number of old road signs using these route designations may still be encountered, Ireland has adopted a newer classification scheme of national primary and national secondary routes, regional roads, local roads. Local road numbers were not signposted, although they are now indicated on signs in many areas of the country; the current "L"-prefixed local roads are unrelated to the previous "L"-prefixed link road classification. Some former trunk roads, or sections of former trunk roads, became non-trunk regional roads under the new road numbering system introduced in the 1970s and 1980s. More sections of former national primary routes which have been bypassed by motorways or other road improvement schemes have been downgraded to regional road status. Though the term "trunk road" is not used in American English, the U. S. Highway and Interstate Highway systems can be considered American trunk highways. However, individual states are responsible for actual highway construction and maintenance though the federal government helps fund these activities as long as the states enact certain laws and enforce them.
Each state maintains all of its roads and tries to integrate them into a system appropriate for that state. The states of Michigan and Wisconsin designate their highways as "state trunklines" or " trunk highways". In many states, highways beyond those that are part of the U. S. Highway and Interstate Highway systems may serve as trunk highways. Not all state highways and state routes, serve this purpose or are constructed to these standards. Trunk highways in China consist of China National Expressways of China. Trunk highways in India consist of National Highway, Expressways in India, State highways in India; the most famous is the Grand Trunk Road. The most important roads in Sweden are labelled "national trunk road". In 1982, the parliament decided upon. They
Machynlleth, sometimes referred to colloquially as Mach, is a market town and electoral ward in Powys and within the historic boundaries of Montgomeryshire. It is in the Dyfi Valley at the intersection of the A489 roads. At the 2001 Census it had a population of 2,147, rising to 2,235 in 2011. Machynlleth was the seat of Owain Glyndŵr's Welsh Parliament in 1404, as such claims to be the "ancient capital of Wales". However, it has never held any official recognition as a capital, it was unsuccessful. It is twinned with Michigan. Machynlleth hosted the National Eisteddfod in 1937 and 1981. There is a long history of human activity in the Machynlleth area. In the late-1990s, radiocarbon dating showed that copper mining was taking place in the Early Bronze Age, within a mile of the town centre. There are legends of a once fertile plain, the Cantre'r Gwaelod, now lost beneath the waves of Cardigan Bay; the Romans settled in the area. One of the earliest written references to Machynlleth is the Royal charter granted in 1291 by Edward I to Owen de la Pole, Lord of Powys.
This gave him the right to hold "a market at Machynlleth every Wednesday for and two fairs every year". The Wednesday market is still a popular day in Machynlleth 700 years later; the Royal House, which stands on the corner of the Garsiwn, is another of the mediaeval houses that can still be seen today. According to local tradition, Dafydd Gam, a Welsh ally of the English kings, was imprisoned here from 1404 to 1412 for attempting to assassinate Owain Glyndŵr. After his release by Glyndŵr, ransomed Gam fought alongside Henry V at the Battle of Agincourt and is named amongst the dead in Shakespeare's Henry V; the name Royal House undoubtedly refers to the tradition that Charles I stayed at the house in 1643. The weekly market and biannual fair thrived, in 1613 drew complaints from other towns whose trading in cloth was being affected. A document dated 1632 shows that animals for sale came from all over Merionethshire, Cardiganshire and Denbighshire, prospective buyers came from Flintshire, Brecknockshire and Shropshire, in addition to the above.
The Dyfi Bridge was first mentioned in 1533, by Geoffrey Hughes, "Citizen and Merchant taylour of London" who left £6 13/4 "towards making of a bridge at the toune of Mathanlleth". By 1601 "Dyfi bridge in the Hundred of Mochunleth" was reported to be insufficient, the current one was built in 1805 for £250. Fenton describes it in 1809 as "A noble erection of five large arches; the piers are narrow and over each cut-water is a pilaster, a common feature of the 18th century". Rowland Pugh was the Lord of Meirionedd, lived at Mathafarn about two miles east of Machynlleth. Pugh supported the Royalist side in the English Civil War. On 2 November 1644, Sir Thomas Myddleton of Chirk Castle was marching on Machynlleth with a force of the Parliamentarian army, when he was ambushed by a force organised by Pugh. In retaliation for the attack, Myddleton burned down Mathafarn on 29 November 1644, along with a number of houses in Machynlleth; the disappearance of April Jones in October 2012 received a large amount of coverage in the UK media.
Mary Cornelia, the daughter of local landowner Sir John Edwards married Viscount Seaham, the second son of the third Marquess of Londonderry, in 1846 and they set up home in Plas Machynlleth. He became Earl Vane on the death of his father and the fifth Marquess on the death of his half-brother. To celebrate the 21st birthday of their eldest son, Viscount Castlereagh, the townspeople subscribed to the erection of the clock tower, which has become known as the symbol of Machynlleth; the tower, which stands on the site of the old town hall, is the first thing many visitors will notice. The foundation stone was laid on 15 July 1874 amid great festivities. Another son, Lord Herbert Vane-Tempest, was the last member of the family to live at the Plas and was killed in the Abermule train collision on the Cambrian Railways, of which he was a director; the house was given to the townspeople in December 1948 under the stewardship of the Machynlleth Urban District Council. Various local government re-organisations saw responsibility for the Plas pass first to Montgomeryshire District Council, who in 1995 converted it into the Celtica Visitor Centre.
Celtica interpreted the history and culture of the Celts with a walk-through audio-visual exhibition housed in a purpose-built addition to the house. The £3 million attraction was part-funded by the European Union; the centre had a high-profile in the Welsh media, with opera singer Bryn Terfel opening the attraction in October 1995. Powys Council took over Celtica and the house when it was formed as a unitary authority in 1997; the centre was successful in attracting tourist, school groups and conferences for a number of years, however initial visitor number predictions proved to be too ambitious and Powys Council were unwilling to prolong its subsidy and with little scope for alternative investment Celtica closed in March 2006, the house stood empty while Powys Council sought to relinquish responsibility for it in line with their policy of selling many of their publicly owned buildings. At this point, Machynlleth Town Council, realising that the town was in danger of losing the Plas house and grounds, which they saw as belonging to the community in the spirit of the 1948 bequest, began discussions with Powys Council with a vi