Kuruption! is the debut studio album by American rapper Kurupt. It was released on Antra Records, a label formed, it was distributed by A&M Records. Scheduled for release on September 1, 1998, with the album cover announcing that date, the album was pushed back to October 6, 1998. Kurupt was the executive producer of the album, it features guest appearances from numerous rappers from both the East Coast and West Coast, including Daz Dillinger, Tray Deee, Dr. Dre. Disc one is labeled as "West Coast" and disc two is labeled as "East Coast", it peaked at #8 on the Billboard 200 on October 24, 1998
Political corruption is the use of powers by government officials or their network contacts for illegitimate private gain. An illegal act by an officeholder constitutes political corruption only if the act is directly related to their official duties, is done under color of law or involves trading in influence. Forms of corruption vary, but include bribery, cronyism, parochialism, influence peddling and embezzlement. Corruption may facilitate criminal enterprise such as drug trafficking, money laundering, human trafficking, though is not restricted to these activities. Misuse of government power for other purposes, such as repression of political opponents and general police brutality, is considered political corruption. Masiulis case is a typical example of political corruption; the activities that constitute illegal corruption differ depending on the jurisdiction. For instance, some political funding practices that are legal in one place may be illegal in another. In some cases, government officials have broad or ill-defined powers, which make it difficult to distinguish between legal and illegal actions.
Worldwide, bribery alone is estimated to involve over 1 trillion US dollars annually. A state of unrestrained political corruption is known as a kleptocracy meaning "rule by thieves"; some forms of corruption – now called "institutional corruption" – are distinguished from bribery and other kinds of obvious personal gain. A similar problem of corruption arises in any institution that depends on financial support from people who have interests that may conflict with the primary purpose of the institution. Over time, corruption has been defined differently. For example, in a simple context, while performing work for a government or as a representative, it is unethical to accept a gift. Any free gift could be construed as a scheme to lure the recipient towards some biases. In most cases, the gift is seen as an intention to seek certain favors such as work promotion, tipping in order to win a contract, job or exemption from certain tasks in the case of junior employee giving the gift to a senior employee who can be key in winning the favor.
In politics, corruption undermines democracy and good governance by flouting or subverting formal processes. Corruption in elections and in the legislature reduces accountability and distorts representation in policymaking, it violates a basic principle of republicanism regarding the centrality of civic virtue. More corruption erodes the institutional capacity of government if procedures are disregarded, resources are siphoned off, public offices are bought and sold. Corruption undermines the legitimacy of government and such democratic values as trust and tolerance. Recent evidence suggests that variation in the levels of corruption amongst high-income democracies can vary depending on the level of accountability of decision-makers. Evidence from fragile states shows that corruption and bribery can adversely impact trust in institutions. Corruption can impact government’s provision of goods and services, it increases the costs of services which arise efficiency loss. In the absence of corruption, governmental projects might be cost-effective at their true costs, once corruption costs are included projects may not be cost-effective so they are not executed distorting the provision of goods and services.
In the private sector, corruption increases the cost of business through the price of illicit payments themselves, the management cost of negotiating with officials and the risk of breached agreements or detection. Although some claim corruption reduces costs by cutting bureaucracy, the availability of bribes can induce officials to contrive new rules and delays. Removing costly and lengthy regulations are better than covertly allowing them to be bypassed by using bribes. Where corruption inflates the cost of business, it distorts the field of inquiry and action, shielding firms with connections from competition and thereby sustaining inefficient firms. Corruption may have a direct impact on the firm's effective marginal tax rate. Bribing tax officials can reduce tax payments of the firm if the marginal bribe rate is below the official marginal tax rate. However, in Uganda, bribes have a higher negative impact on firms’ activity than taxation. Indeed, a one percentage point increase in bribes reduces firm’s annual growth by three percentage points, while an increase in 1 percentage point on taxes reduces firm’s growth by one percentage point.
Corruption generates economic distortion in the public sector by diverting public investment into capital projects where bribes and kickbacks are more plentiful. Officials may increase the technical complexity of public sector projects to conceal or pave the way for such dealings, thus further distorting investment. Corruption lowers compliance with construction, environmental, or other regulations, reduces the quality of government services and infrastructure, increases budgetary pressures on government. Economists argue that one of the factors behind the differing economic development in Africa and Asia is that in Africa, corruption has taken the form of rent extraction with the resulting financial capital moved overseas rather than invested at home. In Nigeria, for example, more than $400 billion was stolen from the treasury by Nigeria's leaders between 1960 and 1999. University of Massachusetts Amherst researchers estimated that from 1970 to 1996, capital flight from 30 Sub-Saharan countries total
Corruption (interactive fiction)
Corruption is a text adventure game by Magnetic Scrolls released in 1988. In this game, a successful stockbroker finds himself embroiled in a world of crime and danger; the game is a standard text adventure with static graphics in all versions but the Apple II and Spectrum +3 ones. It focuses on character interaction instead of object interaction; the Amiga version has a "speech mode". The working title of the game was "Upon Westminster Bridge"; the game was voted Best 8-bit Adventure Game of the Year at the Golden Joystick Awards. ACE's reviewer The Pilgrim called it "a game that combines powerful programming, wry humour, a compelling plot all at once. No doubt about it, Corruption is best yet." In Computer & Video Games, Keith Campbell wrote that "the game has much the same feel as the Infocom mysteries, like Suspect, although I found this plot to be far more interesting." He remarked that Corruption will provide "hours of enjoyable frustration", he praised its graphics, noting that "an adventure set in offices in the city, doesn't sound exciting graphically, yet Magnetic Scrolls have made it so."Sinclair User's Sarah Sharkey summarized, "his game is good.
The text is well written, the characters are realistic and the storyline is believable." She highlighted the game's "super interaction with characters" and "absorbing and realistic game world". Mike Gerrard of Your Sinclair wrote, "All in all, I enjoyed Corruption far more than I thought I would... but not quite as much as the previous Magnetic Scrolls games."Computer Gaming World in 1989 praised the game's menu features, such as the ability to reveal exits. Charles Ardai in 1992 wrote in the magazine that Corruption was "the one clear winner" in the Magnetic Scrolls Collection. While criticizing the short length of gameplay, he stated that "a game this powerful deserves the widest possible audience". Corruption at SpectrumComputing.co.uk Corruption at Lemon 64 Corruption at Lemon Amiga Corruption at MobyGames Corruption at the Little Green Desktop
Data corruption refers to errors in computer data that occur during writing, storage, transmission, or processing, which introduce unintended changes to the original data. Computer and storage systems use a number of measures to provide end-to-end data integrity, or lack of errors. In general, when data corruption occurs a file containing that data will produce unexpected results when accessed by the system or the related application. Results could range from a minor loss of data to a system crash. For example, if a document file is corrupted, when a person tries to open that file with a document editor they may get an error message, thus the file might not be opened or might open with some of the data corrupted; the adjacent image is a corrupted image file. Some types of malware may intentionally corrupt files as part of their payloads by overwriting them with inoperative or garbage code, while a non-malicious virus may unintentionally corrupt files when it accesses them. If a virus or trojan with this payload method manages to alter files critical to the running of the computer's operating system software or physical hardware, the entire system may be rendered unusable.
Some programs can give a suggestion to repair the file automatically, some programs cannot repair it. It depends on the level of corruption, the built-in functionality of the application to handle the error. There are various causes of the corruption. There are two types of data corruption associated with computer systems: detected. Undetected data corruption known as silent data corruption, results in the most dangerous errors as there is no indication that the data is incorrect. Detected data corruption may be permanent with the loss of data, or may be temporary when some part of the system is able to detect and correct the error. Data corruption can occur from the host to the storage medium. Modern systems attempt to detect corruption at many layers and recover or correct the corruption. Data corruption during transmission has a variety of causes. Interruption of data transmission causes information loss. Environmental conditions can interfere with data transmission when dealing with wireless transmission methods.
Heavy clouds can block satellite transmissions. Wireless networks are susceptible to interference from devices such as microwave ovens. Hardware and software failure are the two main causes for data loss. Background radiation, head crashes, aging or wear of the storage device fall into the former category, while software failure occurs due to bugs in the code. Cosmic rays cause most soft errors in DRAM; some errors go unnoticed, without being detected by the host operating system. There are many error sources beyond the disk storage subsystem itself. For instance, cables might be loose, the power supply might be unreliable, external vibrations such as a loud sound, the network might introduce undetected corruption, cosmic radiation and many other causes of soft memory errors, etc. In 39,000 storage systems that were analyzed, firmware bugs accounted for 5–10% of storage failures. All in all, the error rates as observed by a CERN study on silent corruption are far higher than one in every 1016 bits.
Webshop Amazon.com has acknowledged similar high data corruption rates in their systems. One problem is that hard disk drive capacities have increased but their error rates remain unchanged; the data corruption rate has always been constant in time, meaning that modern disks are not much safer than old disks. In old disks the probability of data corruption was small because they stored tiny amounts of data. In modern disks the probability is much larger because they store much more data, whilst not being safer; that way, silent data corruption has not been a serious concern while storage devices remained small and slow. Hence, the users of small disks rarely faced silent corruption, so the data corruption was not considered a problem that required a solution, but in modern times and with the advent of larger drives and fast RAID setups, users are capable of transferring 1016 bits in a reasonably short time, thus reaching the data corruption thresholds. As an example, ZFS creator Jeff Bonwick stated that the fast database at Greenplum, a database software company specializing in large-scale data warehousing and analytics, faces silent corruption every 15 minutes.
As another example, a real-life study performed by NetApp on more than 1.5 million HDDs over 41 months found more than 400,000 silent data corruptions, out of which more than 30,000 were not detected by the hardware RAID controller. Another study, performed by CERN over six months and involving about 97 petabytes of data, found that about 128 megabytes of data became permanently corrupted. Silent data corruption may result in cascading failures, in which the system may run for a period of time with undetected initial error causing more problems until it is detected. For example, a failure affecting file system metadata can result in multiple files being damaged or made inaccessible as the file system is used in its corrupted state; when data corruption behaves as a Poisson process, where each bit of data has an independently low probability of being changed, data corruption can be detected by the use of
Corruption (1963 film)
Corruption is a 1963 Italian drama film directed by Mauro Bolognini. Alain Cuny as Leonardo Mattioli Rosanna Schiaffino as Adriana Jacques Perrin as Stefano, figlio di Leonardo Isa Miranda as moglie di Leonardo Filippo Scelzo as insegnante Ennio Balbo as Morandi Corruption on IMDb
Individual nation articles should be consulted on specific national responses to corruption. In general, corruption is a form of dishonesty or criminal activity undertaken by a person or organization entrusted with a position of authority to acquire illicit benefit. Corruption may include many activities including bribery and embezzlement, though it may involve practices that are legal in many countries. Political corruption occurs when an office-holder or other governmental employee acts in an official capacity for personal gain. Corruption is most commonplace in kleptocracies, narco-states and mafia states. Corruption can occur on different scales. Corruption ranges from small favors between a small number of people, to corruption that affects the government on a large scale, corruption, so prevalent that it is part of the everyday structure of society, including corruption as one of the symptoms of organized crime. Corruption and crime are endemic sociological occurrences which appear with regular frequency in all countries on a global scale in varying degree and proportion.
Individual nations each allocate domestic resources for the control and regulation of corruption and crime. Strategies to counter corruption are summarized under the umbrella term anti-corruption. Stephen D. Morris, a professor of politics, writes that political corruption is the illegitimate use of public power to benefit a private interest. Economist Ian Senior defines corruption as an action to secretly provide a good or a service to a third party so that he or she can influence certain actions which benefit the corrupt, a third party, or both in which the corrupt agent has authority. Daniel Kaufmann, from the World Bank, extends the concept to include'legal corruption' in which power is abused within the confines of the law—as those with power have the ability to make laws for their protection; the effect of corruption in infrastructure is to increase costs and construction time, lower the quality and decrease the benefit. The research work on social corruption developed at The Unicist Research Institute defines that corruption allows individuals to profit from the environment through illegitimate actions while they disintegrate the system they are part of.
Corruption can occur on different scales. Corruption ranges from small favors between a small number of people, to corruption that affects the government on a large scale, corruption, so prevalent that it is part of the everyday structure of society, including corruption as one of the symptoms of organized crime. A number of indicators and tools have been developed which can measure different forms of corruption with increasing accuracy. Petty corruption occurs at a smaller scale and takes place at the implementation end of public services when public officials meet the public. For example, in many small places such as registration offices, police stations, state licensing boards, many other private and government sectors. Grand corruption is defined as corruption occurring at the highest levels of government in a way that requires significant subversion of the political and economic systems; such corruption is found in countries with authoritarian or dictatorial governments but in those without adequate policing of corruption.
The government system in many countries is divided into the legislative and judiciary branches in an attempt to provide independent services that are less subject to grand corruption due to their independence from one another. Systemic corruption is corruption, due to the weaknesses of an organization or process, it can be contrasted with individual agents who act corruptly within the system. Factors which encourage systemic corruption include discretionary powers. Specific acts of corruption include "bribery and embezzlement" in a system where "corruption becomes the rule rather than the exception." Scholars distinguish between centralized and decentralized systemic corruption, depending on which level of state or government corruption takes place. Some scholars argue that there is a negative duty of western governments to protect against systematic corruption of underdeveloped governments. Corruption can occur in many sectors, whether they be public or private industry or NGOs. However, only in democratically controlled institutions is there an interest of the public to develop internal mechanisms to fight active or passive corruption, whereas in private industry as well as in NGOs there is no public control.
Therefore, the owners' investors' or sponsors' profits are decisive. Public corruption includes corruption of the political process and of government agencies such as the police as well as corruption in processes of allocating public funds for contracts and hiring. Recent research by the World Bank suggests that who makes policy decisions can be critical in determining the level of corruption because of the incentives different policy-makers face. Political corruption is the abuse of public power, office, or resources by elected government officials for personal gain, by extortion, soliciting or offering bribes, it can take the form of office holders maintaining themselves in office by purchasing votes by enacting laws which use taxpayers' money. Evidence suggests that corruption can have political consequences- with citizens being asked for bribes becoming less to identify with their country or reg
Metroid Prime 3: Corruption
Metroid Prime 3: Corruption is a first-person action-adventure video game developed by Retro Studios and published by Nintendo for the Wii video game console. A part of the science fiction Metroid series, it is the third main installment in the Metroid Prime series, it was released in North America and Europe in Japan the following year. The story of Corruption is set six months after the events of Metroid Prime 2: Echoes, it follows Samus Aran as she confronts the Space Pirates, who have launched an attack on the Galactic Federation naval base on Norion. While fending off a Space Pirate assault and her fellow bounty hunters are infected with Phazon by her doppelgänger Dark Samus. After losing contact with the other hunters, the Federation sends Samus on a mission to determine what happened to them. During the course of the game, Samus works to prevent the Phazon from spreading from planet to planet while being corrupted by the Phazon herself; the player controls Samus using the Wii Nunchuk devices.
Corruption introduces features new to the Prime series, such as Hypermode, which allows Samus to use more powerful attacks, the ability to command her gunship. The new control scheme featured in Corruption took a year to develop and caused the game's release to be delayed several times; the game was first shown to the public at the E3 2005 trade show. Reception to Corruption has been positive, with several reviews praising the gameplay. More than one million copies of the game were sold in 2007, it was re-released in August 2009 as part of Metroid Prime: Trilogy, a Wii compilation of the three main games of the Prime series with Wii Remote controls. Retro announced. Metroid Prime 3: Corruption is a first-person action-adventure game; the player controls Samus Aran, using the Wii Remote and Nunchuk devices. The Nunchuk enables the player to perform actions such as moving Samus and locking on to enemies and targets; the Wii Remote allows the player to execute actions such as jumping and firing weapons.
Corruption is a large, open-ended game that takes place across several planets, each with regions connected by elevators, rail systems and bridges. Each region has rooms separated by doors; the gameplay revolves around solving puzzles to uncover secrets, jumping on platforms, shooting enemies with the help of a "lock-on" mechanism that allows Samus to move in a circle while staying aimed on an enemy. The "lock-on" mechanism allows Samus to use the Grapple Beam to attach onto and pull objects, such as enemy shields or certain doors; the game uses a first-person view, except in Morph Ball mode, in which Samus's suit transforms into an armored ball and the game uses a third-person camera. The third person camera is used in conjunction with the Screw Attack power-up: in this case Samus's suit emits strange energy waves as she performs a continuous jump; the game's heads-up display simulates the inside of Samus' helmet, features a radar, ammunition gauge and health meter. The player can change visors to enable new abilities such as X-ray vision, collecting information on many items and enemies, interfacing with certain mechanisms such as force fields and elevators.
Corruption includes a hint system that periodically displays on-screen instructions and navigation assistance. The game has the addition of the Hypermode, a feature in which health is drained to give temporary invincibility and more powerful attacks. After a certain amount of time, the player will enter Corrupt Hypermode, if not stopped leads to a non-standard game over due to Samus being overtaken by Phazon. Another new feature is the Command Visor, which allows Samus to summon remotely her gunship from a suitable landing site to save the game, or travel to another destination quickly. During the progress of the game, new abilities can be obtained to allow it to perform aerial attacks against enemy targets and transport heavy objects; the events in Metroid Prime 3: Corruption take place six months after Metroid Prime 2: Echoes. The game's protagonist, Samus Aran, is a bounty hunter hired to assist the Galactic Federation during its ongoing conflict with the Space Pirates. After facing initial defeat on the planet Zebes during the events of the first Metroid, the Space Pirates sought to gain power by using a newly discovered mutagen called Phazon.
However, Samus managed to disrupt their operations throughout the Prime trilogy and allowed the Galactic Federation to confiscate and replicate their Phazon armaments. The Space Pirates' operation was left in disarray following defeat in Metroid Prime 2: Echoes. In their desperation, they turned to Samus's sinister doppelgänger, for aid. Dark Samus strengthened the Space Pirates' forces, while slowly indoctrinating them into mindless servants, their combined forces seek to corrupt the universe with Phazon by first executing a series of methodical attacks on three Federation planets: Norion and Elysia. The game is centered on these planets and three other locations that become accessible after completing certain in-game tasks. Fleet Admiral Castor Dane, the commander of a Galactic Federation flagship Olympus, calls for a meeting with Samus Aran and three other bounty hunters—Rundas and Gandrayda; the bounty hunters receive orders to clear a computer virus from several organic supercomputers called "Aurora Units", located throughout the galaxy.