Corruption Perceptions Index

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Transparency International (TI) has published the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) since 1996, annually ranking countries "by their perceived levels of corruption, as determined by expert assessments and opinion surveys."[1] The CPI generally defines corruption as "the misuse of public power for private benefit".[2]

The CPI currently ranks 176 countries "on a scale from 100 (very clean) to 0 (highly corrupt)".[3]

Methods[edit]

Transparency International commissioned University of Passau's Johann Graf Lambsdorff to produce the CPI.[4]

The 2012 CPI takes into account 13 different surveys and assessments from 12 different institutions,[5] the 13 surveys/assessments are either business people opinion surveys or performance assessments from a group of analysts.[2] Early CPIs used public opinion surveys,[6] the institutions are:

Countries needs to be evaluated by at least three sources to appear in the CPI.[6]

The CPI measures perception of corruption due to the difficulty of measuring absolute levels of corruption.[8]

Validity[edit]

A study published in 2002 found a "very strong significant correlation" between the Corruption Perceptions Index and two other proxies for corruption: Black Market activity and overabundance of regulation.

All three metrics also had a highly significant correlation with real gross domestic product per capita (RGDP/Cap); the Corruption Perceptions Index correlation with RGDP/Cap was the strongest, explaining over three fourths of the variance.[9] (Note that a lower index on this scale reflects greater corruption, so that countries with higher RGDPs generally had less corruption.)

Rankings[edit]

2016[edit]

Legend:

Scores: Less corrupt More corrupt
100..90 89..80 79..70 69..60 59..50 49..40 39..30 29..20 19..10 9..0
2016 Corruption Perceptions Index table[10][11]
Rank Country
or
Territory
2016[12] 2015[13] 2014[14] 2013[15] 2012[16]
Score Change in score from previous year Score Change in score from previous year Score Change in score from previous year Score Change in score from previous year Score
1  Denmark
90
Decrease-1
91
Decrease-1
92
Increase1
91
Increase1
90
1  New Zealand
90
Increase2
88
Decrease-3
91
Steady0
91
Increase1
90
3  Finland
89
Decrease-1
90
Increase1
89
Steady0
89
Decrease-1
90
4  Sweden
88
Decrease-1
89
Increase2
87
Decrease-2
89
Increase1
88
5   Switzerland
86
Steady0
86
Steady0
86
Increase1
85
Decrease-1
86
6  Norway
85
Decrease-2
87
Increase1
86
Steady0
86
Increase1
85
7  Singapore
84
Decrease-1
85
Increase1
84
Decrease-2
86
Decrease-1
87
8  Netherlands
83
Decrease-4
87
Increase4
83
Steady0
83
Decrease-1
84
9  Canada
82
Decrease-1
83
Increase2
81
Steady0
81
Decrease-3
84
10  Germany
81
Steady0
81
Increase2
79
Increase1
78
Decrease-1
79
10  Luxembourg
81
Steady0
81
Decrease-1
82
Increase2
80
Steady0
80
10  United Kingdom
81
Steady0
81
Increase3
78
Increase2
76
Increase2
74
13  Australia
79
Steady0
79
Decrease-1
80
Decrease-1
81
Decrease-4
85
14  Iceland
78
Decrease-1
79
Steady0
79
Increase1
78
Decrease-4
82
15  Belgium
77
Steady0
77
Increase1
76
Increase1
75
Steady0
75
15  Hong Kong
77
Increase2
75
Increase1
74
Decrease-1
75
Decrease-2
77
17  Austria
75
Decrease-1
76
Increase4
72
Increase3
69
Steady0
69
18  United States
74
Decrease-2
76
Increase2
74
Increase1
73
Steady0
73
19  Ireland
73
Decrease-2
75
Increase1
74
Increase2
72
Increase3
69
20  Japan
72
Decrease-3
75
Decrease-1
76
Increase2
74
Steady0
74
21  Uruguay
71
Decrease-3
74
Increase1
73
Steady0
73
Increase1
72
22  Estonia
70
Steady0
70
Increase1
69
Increase1
68
Increase4
64
23  France
69
Decrease-1
70
Increase1
69
Decrease-2
71
Steady0
71
24  Bahamas
66
Steady0 Steady0
71
Steady0
71
Steady0
71
24  Chile
66
Decrease-4
70
Decrease-3
73
Increase2
71
Decrease-1
72
24  United Arab Emirates
66
Decrease-4
70
Steady0
70
Increase1
69
Increase1
68
27  Bhutan
65
Steady0
65
Steady0
65
Increase2
63
Steady0
63
28  Israel
64
Increase3
61
Increase1
60
Decrease-1
61
Increase1
60
29  Poland
62
Steady0
62
Increase1
61
Increase1
60
Increase2
58
29  Portugal
62
Decrease-1
63
Steady0
63
Increase1
62
Decrease-1
63
31  Barbados
61
Steady0 Steady0
74
Decrease-1
75
Decrease-1
76
31  Qatar
61
Decrease-10
71
Increase2
69
Increase1
68
Steady0
68
31  Slovenia
61
Increase1
60
Increase2
58
Increase1
57
Decrease-4
61
31  Taiwan
61
Decrease-1
62
Increase1
61
Steady0
61
Steady0
61
35  Botswana
60
Decrease-3
63
Steady0
63
Decrease-1
64
Decrease-1
65
35  Saint Lucia
60
Steady0 Steady0 Steady0
71
Steady0
71
35  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
60
Steady0 Steady0
67
Increase5
62
Steady0
62
38  Cape Verde
59
Increase4
55
Decrease-2
57
Decrease-1
58
Decrease-2
60
38  Dominica
59
Steady0 Steady0
58
Steady0
58
Steady0
58
38  Lithuania
59
Decrease-2
61
Increase3
58
Increase1
57
Increase3
54
41  Brunei
58
Steady0 Steady0 Steady0
60
Increase5
55
41  Costa Rica
58
Increase3
55
Increase1
54
Increase1
53
Decrease-1
54
41  Spain
58
Steady0
58
Decrease-2
60
Increase1
59
Decrease-6
65
44  Georgia
57
Increase5
52
Steady0
52
Increase3
49
Decrease-3
52
44  Latvia
57
Increase2
55
Steady0
55
Increase2
53
Increase4
49
46  Grenada
56
Steady0 Steady0 Steady0 Steady0
47  Cyprus
55
Decrease-6
61
Decrease-2
63
Steady0
63
Decrease-3
66
47  Czech Republic
55
Decrease-1
56
Increase5
51
Increase3
48
Decrease-1
49
47  Malta
55
Decrease-1
56
Increase1
55
Decrease-1
56
Decrease-1
57
50  Mauritius
54
Increase1
53
Decrease-1
54
Increase2
52
Decrease-5
57
50  Rwanda
54
Steady0
54
Increase5
49
Decrease-4
53
Steady0
53
52  South Korea
53
Decrease-3
56
Increase1
55
Steady0
55
Decrease-1
56
53  Namibia
52
Decrease-1
53
Increase4
49
Increase1
48
Steady0
48
54  Slovakia
51
Steady0
51
Increase1
50
Increase3
47
Increase1
46
55  Croatia
49
Decrease-2
51
Increase3
48
Steady0
48
Increase2
46
55  Malaysia
49
Decrease-1
50
Decrease-2
52
Increase2
50
Increase1
49
57  Hungary
48
Decrease-3
51
Decrease-3
54
Steady0
54
Decrease-1
55
57  Jordan
48
Decrease-5
53
Increase4
49
Increase4
45
Decrease-3
48
57  Romania
48
Increase2
46
Increase3
43
Steady0
43
Decrease-1
44
60  Cuba
47
Steady0
47
Increase1
46
Steady0
46
Decrease-2
48
60  Italy
47
Increase3
44
Increase1
43
Steady0
43
Increase1
42
62  São Tomé and Príncipe
46
Increase4
42
Steady0
42
Steady0
42
Steady0
42
62  Saudi Arabia
46
Decrease-6
52
Increase3
49
Increase3
46
Increase2
44
64  Montenegro
45
Increase1
44
Increase2
42
Decrease-2
44
Increase3
41
64  Oman
45
Steady0
45
Steady0
45
Decrease-2
47
Steady0
47
64  Senegal
45
Increase1
44
Increase1
43
Increase2
41
Increase5
36
64  South Africa
45
Increase1
44
Steady0
44
Increase2
42
Decrease-1
43
64  Suriname
45
Increase9
36
Steady0
36
Steady0
36
Decrease-1
37
69  Greece
44
Decrease-2
46
Increase3
43
Increase3
40
Increase4
36
70  Bahrain
43
Decrease-8
51
Increase2
49
Increase1
48
Decrease-3
51
70  Ghana
43
Decrease-4
47
Decrease-1
48
Increase2
46
Increase1
45
72  Burkina Faso
42
Increase4
38
Steady0
38
Steady0
38
Steady0
38
72  Serbia
42
Increase2
40
Decrease-1
41
Decrease-1
42
Increase3
39
72  Solomon Islands
42
Steady0 Steady0 Steady0 Steady0
75  Bulgaria
41
Steady0
41
Decrease-2
43
Increase2
41
Steady0
41
75  Kuwait
41
Decrease-8
49
Increase5
44
Increase1
43
Decrease-1
44
75  Tunisia
41
Increase3
38
Decrease-2
40
Decrease-1
41
Steady0
41
75  Turkey
41
Decrease-1
42
Decrease-3
45
Decrease-5
50
Increase1
49
79  Belarus
40
Increase8
32
Increase1
31
Increase2
29
Decrease-2
31
79  Brazil
40
Increase2
38
Decrease-5
43
Increase1
42
Decrease-1
43
79  India
40
Increase2
38
Steady0
38
Increase2
36
Steady0
36
79  China
40
Increase3
37
Increase1
36
Decrease-4
40
Increase1
39
83  Albania
39
Increase3
36
Increase3
33
Increase2
31
Decrease-2
33
83  Bosnia and Herzegovina
39
Increase1
38
Decrease-1
39
Decrease-3
42
Steady0
42
83  Jamaica
39
Decrease-2
41
Increase3
38
Steady0
38
Steady0
38
83  Lesotho
39
Decrease-5
44
Decrease-5
49
Steady0
49
Increase4
45
87  Mongolia
38
Decrease-1
39
Steady0
39
Increase1
38
Increase2
36
87  Panama
38
Decrease-1
39
Increase2
37
Increase2
35
Decrease-3
38
87  Zambia
38
Steady0
38
Steady0
38
Steady0
38
Increase1
37
90  Colombia
37
Steady0
37
Steady0
37
Increase1
36
Steady0
36
90  Indonesia
37
Increase1
36
Increase2
34
Increase2
32
Steady0
32
90  Liberia
37
Steady0
37
Steady0
37
Decrease-1
38
Decrease-3
41
90  Morocco
37
Increase1
36
Decrease-3
39
Increase2
37
Steady0
37
90  Macedonia
37
Decrease-5
42
Decrease-3
45
Increase1
44
Increase1
43
95  Argentina
36
Increase4
32
Decrease-2
34
Steady0
34
Decrease-1
35
95  Benin
36
Decrease-1
37
Decrease-2
39
Increase3
36
Steady0
36
95  El Salvador
36
Decrease-3
39
Steady0
39
Increase1
38
Steady0
38
95  Kosovo
36
Increase3
33
Steady0
33
Steady0
33
Decrease-1
34
95  Maldives
36
Steady0 Steady0 Steady0 Steady0
95  Sri Lanka
36
Decrease-1
37
Decrease-1
38
Increase1
37
Decrease-3
40
101  Gabon
35
Increase1
34
Decrease-3
37
Increase3
34
Decrease-1
35
101  Niger
35
Increase1
34
Decrease-1
35
Increase1
34
Increase1
33
101  Peru
35
Decrease-1
36
Decrease-2
38
Steady0
38
Steady0
38
101  Philippines
35
Steady0
35
Decrease-3
38
Increase2
36
Increase2
34
101  Thailand
35
Decrease-3
38
Steady0
38
Increase3
35
Decrease-2
37
101  Timor-Leste
35
Increase7
28
Steady0
28
Decrease-2
30
Decrease-3
33
101  Trinidad and Tobago
35
Decrease-4
39
Increase1
38
Steady0
38
Decrease-1
39
108  Algeria
34
Decrease-2
36
Steady0
36
Steady0
36
Increase2
34
108  Ivory Coast
34
Increase2
32
Steady0
32
Increase5
27
Decrease-2
29
108  Egypt
34
Decrease-2
36
Decrease-1
37
Increase5
32
Steady0
32
108  Ethiopia
34
Increase1
33
Steady0
33
Steady0
33
Steady0
33
108  Guyana
34
Increase5
29
Decrease-1
30
Increase3
27
Decrease-1
28
113  Armenia
33
Decrease-2
35
Decrease-2
37
Increase1
36
Increase2
34
113  Bolivia
33
Decrease-1
34
Decrease-1
35
Increase1
34
Steady0
34
113  Vietnam
33
Increase2
31
Steady0
31
Steady0
31
Steady0
31
116  Mali
32
Decrease-3
35
Increase3
32
Increase4
28
Decrease-6
34
116  Pakistan
32
Increase2
30
Increase1
29
Increase1
28
Increase1
27
116  Tanzania
32
Increase2
30
Decrease-1
31
Decrease-2
33
Decrease-2
35
116  Togo
32
Steady0
32
Increase3
29
Steady0
29
Decrease-1
30
120  Dominican Republic
31
Decrease-2
33
Increase1
32
Increase3
29
Decrease-3
32
120  Ecuador
31
Decrease-1
32
Decrease-1
33
Decrease-2
35
Increase3
32
120  Malawi
31
Steady0
31
Decrease-2
33
Decrease-4
37
Steady0
37
123  Azerbaijan
30
Increase1
29
Steady0
29
Increase1
28
Increase1
27
123  Djibouti
30
Decrease-4
34
Steady0
34
Decrease-2
36
Steady0
36
123  Honduras
30
Decrease-1
31
Increase2
29
Increase3
26
Decrease-2
28
123  Laos
30
Increase5
25
Steady0
25
Decrease-1
26
Increase5
21
123  Mexico
30
Decrease-5
35
Steady0
35
Increase1
34
Steady0
34
123  Moldova
30
Decrease-3
33
Decrease-2
35
Steady0
35
Decrease-1
36
123  Paraguay
30
Increase3
27
Increase3
24
Steady0
24
Decrease-1
25
123  Sierra Leone
30
Increase1
29
Decrease-2
31
Increase1
30
Decrease-1
31
131  Iran
29
Increase2
27
Steady0
27
Increase2
25
Decrease-3
28
131  Kazakhstan
29
Increase1
28
Decrease-1
29
Increase3
26
Decrease-2
28
131    Nepal
29
Increase2
27
Decrease-2
29
Decrease-2
31
Increase4
27
131  Russia
29
Steady0
29
Increase2
27
Decrease-1
28
Steady0
28
131  Ukraine
29
Increase2
27
Increase1
26
Increase1
25
Decrease-1
26
136  Guatemala
28
Steady0
28
Decrease-4
32
Increase3
29
Decrease-4
33
136  Kyrgyzstan
28
Steady0
28
Increase1
27
Increase3
24
Steady0
24
136  Lebanon
28
Steady0
28
Increase1
27
Decrease-1
28
Decrease-2
30
136  Myanmar
28
Increase6
22
Increase1
21
Steady0
21
Increase6
15
136  Nigeria
28
Increase2
26
Decrease-1
27
Increase2
25
Decrease-2
27
136  Papua New Guinea
28
Increase3
25
Steady0
25
Steady0
25
Steady0
25
142  Guinea
27
Increase2
25
Steady0
25
Increase1
24
Steady0
24
142  Mauritania
27
Decrease-4
31
Increase1
30
Steady0
30
Decrease-1
31
142  Mozambique
27
Decrease-4
31
Steady0
31
Increase1
30
Decrease-1
31
145  Bangladesh
26
Increase1
25
Steady0
25
Decrease-2
27
Increase1
26
145  Cameroon
26
Decrease-1
27
Steady0
27
Increase2
25
Decrease-1
26
145  Gambia
26
Decrease-2
28
Decrease-1
29
Increase1
28
Decrease-6
34
145  Kenya
26
Increase1
25
Steady0
25
Decrease-2
27
Steady0
27
145  Madagascar
26
Decrease-2
28
Steady0
28
Steady0
28
Decrease-4
32
145  Nicaragua
26
Decrease-1
27
Decrease-1
28
Steady0
28
Decrease-1
29
151  Tajikistan
25
Decrease-1
26
Increase3
23
Increase1
22
Steady0
22
151  Uganda
25
Steady0
25
Decrease-1
26
Steady0
26
Decrease-3
29
153  Comoros
24
Decrease-2
26
Steady0
26
Decrease-2
28
Steady0
28
154  Turkmenistan
22
Increase4
18
Increase1
17
Steady0
17
Steady0
17
154  Zimbabwe
22
Increase1
21
Steady0
21
Steady0
21
Increase1
20
156  Cambodia
21
Steady0
21
Steady0
21
Increase1
20
Decrease-2
22
156  Democratic Republic of the Congo
21
Decrease-1
22
Steady0
22
Steady0
22
Increase1
21
156  Uzbekistan
21
Increase2
19
Increase1
18
Increase1
17
Steady0
17
159  Burundi
20
Decrease-1
21
Increase1
20
Decrease-1
21
Increase2
19
159  Central African Republic
20
Decrease-4
24
Steady0
24
Decrease-1
25
Decrease-1
26
159  Chad
20
Decrease-2
22
Steady0
22
Increase3
19
Steady0
19
159  Haiti
20
Increase3
17
Decrease-2
19
Steady0
19
Steady0
19
159  Congo
20
Decrease-3
23
Steady0
23
Increase1
22
Decrease-4
26
164  Angola
18
Increase3
15
Decrease-4
19
Decrease-4
23
Increase1
22
164  Eritrea
18
Steady0
18
Steady0
18
Decrease-2
20
Decrease-5
25
166  Iraq
17
Increase1
16
Steady0
16
Steady0
16
Decrease-2
18
166  Venezuela
17
Steady0
17
Decrease-2
19
Decrease-1
20
Increase1
19
168  Guinea-Bissau
16
Decrease-1
17
Decrease-2
19
Steady0
19
Decrease-6
25
169  Afghanistan
15
Increase4
11
Decrease-1
12
Increase4
8
Steady0
8
170  Libya
14
Decrease-2
16
Decrease-2
18
Increase3
15
Decrease-6
21
170  Sudan
14
Increase2
12
Increase1
11
Steady0
11
Decrease-2
13
170  Yemen
14
Decrease-4
18
Decrease-1
19
Increase1
18
Decrease-5
23
173  Syria
13
Decrease-5
18
Decrease-2
20
Increase3
17
Decrease-9
26
174  South Sudan
11
Decrease-4
15
Steady0
15
Increase1
14
Steady0
175  Somalia
10
Increase2
8
Steady0
8
Steady0
8
Steady0
8
176  North Korea
8
Steady0
8
Steady0
8
Steady0
8
Steady0
8

2011[edit]

The 20 top countries that were ranked as having the lowest perceived levels of corruption were (note scale of 10 to 1):

# Country Score # Country Score
1  New Zealand 9.5 11  Luxembourg 8.5
2  Denmark 9.4 12  Hong Kong 8.4
 Finland 13  Iceland 8.3
4  Sweden 9.3 14  Germany 8.0
5  Singapore 9.2  Japan
6  Norway 9.0 16  Austria 7.8
7  Netherlands 8.9  Barbados
8  Australia 8.8  United Kingdom
  Switzerland 19  Belgium 7.5
10  Canada 8.7  Ireland
Source:[17]

The 20 bottom countries that were ranked as having the highest perceived levels of corruption were:

# Country Score # Country Score
182  Somalia 1.0 172  Equatorial Guinea 1.9
 North Korea  Burundi
180  Myanmar 1.5 168  Libya 2.0
 Afghanistan Democratic Republic of the Congo DR Congo
177  Uzbekistan 1.6  Chad
 Turkmenistan  Angola
 Sudan 164  Yemen 2.1
175  Iraq 1.8  Kyrgyzstan
 Haiti  Guinea
172  Venezuela 1.9  Cambodia
Source:[17]

2010[edit]

The 20 top countries that were ranked as having the lowest perceived levels of corruption were (note scale of 10 down to 1):

# Country Score # Country Score
1  Denmark 9.3 11  Iceland 8.5
 New Zealand  Luxembourg
 Singapore 13  Hong Kong 8.4
4  Finland 9.2 14  Ireland 8.0
 Sweden 15  Austria 7.9
6  Canada 8.9  Germany
7  Netherlands 8.8 17  Barbados 7.8
8  Australia 8.7  Japan
  Switzerland 19  Qatar 7.7
10  Norway 8.6 20  United Kingdom 7.6
Source:[18]

The 20 bottom countries that were ranked as having the highest perceived levels of corruption were:

# Country Score # Country Score
178  Somalia 1.1 168  Angola 1.9
176  Myanmar 1.4 164  Venezuela 2.0
 Afghanistan  Kyrgyzstan
175  Iraq 1.5  Guinea
172  Uzbekistan 1.6 Democratic Republic of the Congo DR Congo
 Turkmenistan 159  Tajikistan 2.1
 Sudan  Russia
171  Chad 1.7  Papua New Guinea
170  Burundi 1.8  Laos
168  Equatorial Guinea 1.9  Kenya
Source:[18]

Economic implications[edit]

Research papers published in 2007 and 2008 examined the economic consequences of corruption perception, as defined by the CPI, the researchers found a correlation between a higher CPI and higher long-term economic growth,[19] as well as an increase in GDP growth of 1.7% for every unit increase in a country's CPI score.[20] Also shown was a power-law dependence linking higher CPI score to higher rates of foreign investment in a country.

Criticism and limitations[edit]

Because corruption is willfully hidden, it is impossible to measure directly; instead, proxies for corruption are used. Seligson states that corruption is a very “difficult phenomenon to measure,” there have been many attempts to solve this problem but they’ve all come up with limitations.[21]

The Index has been criticized on the basis of its methodology.[22]

According to political scientist Dan Hough, three flaws in the Index include:[23]

  • Corruption is too complex to be captured by a single score. The nature of corruption in rural Kansas will, for instance, be different than in the city administration of New York yet the Index measures them in the same way.
  • By measuring perceptions of corruption, as opposed to corruption itself, the Index may simply be reinforcing stereotypes and cliches.
  • The Index only measures public-sector corruption, leaving out private actors. This for instance means the Libor scandal or the VW emissions scandal are not counted.

Media outlets frequently use the raw numbers as a yardstick for government performance, without clarifying what the numbers mean, the local Transparency International chapter in Bangladesh disowned the index results after a change in methodology caused the country's scores to increase; media reported it as an "improvement".[24]

In a 2013 article in Foreign Policy, Alex Cobham suggested that CPI should be dropped for the good of Transparency International, it argues that the CPI embeds a powerful and misleading elite bias in popular perceptions of corruption, potentially contributing to a vicious cycle and at the same time incentivizing inappropriate policy responses. Cobham writes, "the index corrupts perceptions to the extent that it's hard to see a justification for its continuing publication."[25]

In the United States, many lawyers advise international businesses to consult the CPI when attempting to measure the risk of Foreign Corrupt Practices Act violations in different nations, this practice has been criticized by the Minnesota Journal of International Law, which wrote that since the CPI may be subject to perceptual biases it therefore should not be considered by lawyers to be a measure of actual national corruption risk.[26]

Transparency International also publishes the Global Corruption Barometer, which ranks countries by corruption levels using direct surveys instead of perceived expert opinions, which has been under criticism for substantial bias from the powerful elite.[25]

Transparency International has warned that a country with a clean CPI score may still be linked to corruption internationally, for example, while Sweden had the 3rd best CPI score in 2015, one of its state-owned companies, TeliaSonera, was facing allegations of bribery in Uzbekistan.[27]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Transparency International (2011). "Corruption Perceptions Index". Transparency International. Transparency International. Retrieved 1 December 2011. 
  2. ^ a b CPI 2010: Long methodological brief, p. 2
  3. ^ Transparency International (2016). "Corruption Perceptions Index 2016". Transparency International. Transparency International. Retrieved 14 August 2017. 
  4. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions: TI Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI 2005)". Retrieved 22 November 2005. 
  5. ^ CPI 2010: Long methodological brief, p. 1
  6. ^ a b CPI 2010: Long methodological brief, p. 7
  7. ^ Transparency International (2010). Corruption Perceptions Index 2010: Sources of information (PDF) (Report). Transparency International. Retrieved 24 August 2011. 
  8. ^ Transparency International (2010). "Frequently asked questions (FAQs)". Corruption Perceptions Index 2010. Transparency International. Retrieved 24 August 2011. 
  9. ^ Wilhelm, Paul G. (2002). "International Validation of the Corruption Perceptions Index: Implications for Business Ethics and Entrepreneurship Education". Journal of Business Ethics. Springer Netherlands. 35 (3): 177–189. doi:10.1023/A:1013882225402. 
  10. ^ "2016 official table". 25 January 2017. Retrieved 29 January 2017. 
  11. ^ "Official announcement". Transparency International. 25 January 2017. Retrieved 29 January 2017. 
  12. ^ "2016 table". Transparency International. Retrieved 29 January 2017. 
  13. ^ "2015 table". Transparency International. Retrieved 28 January 2016. 
  14. ^ "2014 table". Transparency International. Retrieved 16 December 2014. 
  15. ^ "2013 table". Transparency International. Retrieved 16 December 2014. 
  16. ^ "2012 table". Transparency International. Retrieved 16 December 2014. 
  17. ^ a b Corruption Perceptions Index 2011. Full table and rankings. Transparency International. Retrieved: 4 December 2013.
  18. ^ a b Corruption Perceptions Index 2010. Full table and rankings. Transparency International. Retrieved: 4 December 2013.
  19. ^ Shao, J.; Ivanov, P. C.; Podobnik, B.; Stanley, H. E. (2007). "Quantitative relations between corruption and economic factors". The European Physical Journal B. 56 (2): 157. Bibcode:2007EPJB...56..157S. arXiv:0705.0161Freely accessible. doi:10.1140/epjb/e2007-00098-2. 
  20. ^ Podobnik, B.; Shao, J.; Njavro, D.; Ivanov, P. C.; Stanley, H. E. (2008). "Influence of corruption on economic growth rate and foreign investment". The European Physical Journal B. 63 (4): 547. Bibcode:2008EPJB...63..547P. arXiv:0710.1995Freely accessible. doi:10.1140/epjb/e2008-00210-2. 
  21. ^ Seligson, Mitchell A. "The Impact of Corruption on Regime Legitimacy: A Comparative Study of Four Latin American Countries." Journal of Politics(2002): 408-433.
  22. ^ "Transparency International’s Corruption Perceptions Index: Whose Perceptions Are They Anyway?" (PDF). 2005. 
  23. ^ Hough, Dan (2016-01-27). "Here’s this year’s (flawed) Corruption Perception Index. Those flaws are useful.". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2016-01-27. 
  24. ^ Werve, Jonathan (2008-09-23). "TI's Index: Local Chapter Not Having It". Global Integrity. 
  25. ^ a b Cobham, Alex. "Corrupting Perceptions". Foreign Policy. 
  26. ^ Campbell, Stuart Vincent. "Perception is Not Reality: The FCPA, Brazil, and the Mismeasurement of Corruption" 22 Minnesota Journal of International Law 1, p. 247 (2013).
  27. ^ CPI index 2015. Accessed 2016-02-03.

External links[edit]