Reverend Canon Gideon Byamugisha is an Anglican priest in Uganda with a parish outside of Kampala. In 1992, he became the first religious leader in Africa to publicly announce that he was HIV positive. In 2009, Byamugisha received the 26th annual Niwano Peace Prize "in recognition of his work to uphold the dignity and human rights of people living with HIV/AIDS". Byamugisha co-founded the African Network of Religious Leaders Living with and Personally Affected HIV and Aids in February 2002, in 2006 started a shelter for orphans of AIDS victims, he lives with his wife and three HIV negative children. Byamugisha is near the Ugandan border with Rwanda, the eldest of fourteen children, he was a history and geography teacher, as well as a deputy headmaster, before beginning his theology studies in his twenties. He was most interested in the philosophy of religion. In 1990, Byamugisha's his first wife Kellen gave birth to his daughter and both parents had been accepted to study at graduate programs in Britain.
These plans changed. Six months Byamugisha learned that his wife had died of AIDS. Byamugisha does not know, he and his wife were not tested before their marriage, in 1988 he had been in a serious bicycling accident which required injections and a blood transfusion at a time when medical supplies and blood were not screened for HIV. Although there was a possibility that he would lose his job because of the stigma associated with AIDS, Byamugisha decided to tell the principal of the college he worked at and other staff members about his condition. Although they were supportive of him, they asked him not to tell others, he began telling his students, other members of his church. He considers this to have been a risky choice, as community members worried that this would harm the image of the church. Byamugisha claims. "The only regret I have is. I have all this education—two degrees, one first class—but I failed a HIV test." However, in 1996 he lost 40 pounds because he had no access to antiretroviral drugs.
Told that he would only live 6 months without ARVs, the bishop of Kampala used the church network to find two donors who began sending him the drugs in 1997. As he started to travel and speak about his condition, Byamugisha began encountering other religious leaders who were HIV infected, or affected by the death and illness of family members, but were not ready to publicly discuss their conditions. At the time, there was much misinformation about AIDS and HIV in Africa, because of the promises and edicts from Christian and Hindu groups on the continent, to have a religious leader infected or affected was unthinkable. In 1998, Byamugisha began to feel the need to organise the religious community with personal ties to HIV/AIDS. In 2002, he secured funds to host a meeting of the religious leaders who had come to him in the past, 42 leaders met with him in the Collins Hotel, in Nyanga Hills, some 300 km outside Harare. Eight of the participants were HIV+, this group became the African Network of Religious Leaders Living with and Personally Affected HIV and Aids, grew to more than 2000 members in 39 countries by the end of 2006.
Byamugisha has become prominent in the international HIV/AIDS community. He has worked as an advisor to World Vision and has travelled internationally to speak about HIV/AIDS, including to a conference at the US White House in December 2002. Byamugisha advocates the view that HIV related issues reveal problems in other areas of society, such as poverty, literacy rates, social inequality, gender relations and government policy. Fixing these issues, he claims, will have a significant effect on the AIDS epidemic in Africa. Major issues Byamugisha sees in charity organisations include their insistence on policies that match the domestic agendas of donor agencies rather than accept the realities of society in Africa. While the Catholic Church and other religious communities had softened their stance on condom usage and AIDS education in Africa, organisations such as the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, the biggest donor in Uganda, continued to insist on education about abstinence or delay of sexual debut for young people, on fidelity or partner reduction for most adults, two interventions Byamugisha has been critical of as "stigmatizing" to those who cannot or will not abstain or be faithful to one partner.
He criticised PEPFAR's use of non-generic HIV drugs. In the first year of operation, PEPFAR insisted that only brand-name HIV drugs be used, though they are five times more expensive than the generic brands, Byamugisha pointed out, can only be used to treat five times fewer people. Byamugisha blamed the private agendas of the US pharmaceutical industry and the US evangelical Christian lobby for such policies which do not resonate with the realities of Africa. Byamugisha collaborated in 2003 with photographer Gideon Mendel on the book A Broken Landscape: HIV & AIDS in Africa. Byamugisha lives with his HIV positive wife Pamela, with one HIV negative daughter from his previous marriage and two HIV negative daughters and Gift, whom he had with Pamela; the couple decided to have Love and Gift after drugs to prevent transmission of the virus from mother to child became available in 2000. 28: Stories of AIDS in Africa – A book containing Byamugisha's story HIV/AIDS in Uganda ANERELA Watch a film on Gideon Byamugisha
Preah Maha Ghosananda
Maha Ghosananda was a revered Cambodian Buddhist monk in the Theravada tradition, who served as the Patriarch of Cambodian Buddhism during the Khmer Rouge period and post-communist transition period of Cambodian history. His Pali monastic name,'Mahā Ghosānanda', means "great joyful proclaimer", he was well known in Cambodia for his annual peace marches. He was born Va Yav in Takéo Province, Cambodia in 1913 to a farming family in the Mekong Delta plains. From an early age he showed great interest in religion, began to serve as a temple boy at age eight, he impressed the monks with whom he served, at age fourteen received novice ordination. He studied Pali scriptures in the local temple high school went on to complete his higher education at the monastic universities in Phnom Penh and Battambang, he was sponsored by Chuon Nath to travel to India to pursue a doctorate in Pali at Nalanda University in Bihar, at that time an institute known under the name of Nava Nālandā Mahāvihāra. While in India, he studied under the Japanese monk Nichidatsu Fujii, founder of the Japanese peace-oriented sect Nipponzan Myohoji and a former associate of Mahatma Gandhi.
In 1965, Maha Ghosananda left India to study meditation under Ajahn Dhammadaro,a famous meditation master of the Thai Forest Tradition. He remained with Ajahn Dhammadaro at his forest hermitage in southern Thailand, Wat Chai Na,for eleven years. In 1978, Maha Ghosananda traveled to the refugee camps near the Thai-Cambodian border to begin ministering to the first refugees who filtered across the border. Maha Ghosananda's appearance in the refugee camps raised a stir among the refugees who had not seen a monk for years; the Cambodian refugees wept as Maha Ghosananda chanted the ancient and familiar sutras, the bedrock of traditional Cambodian culture before Year Zero. He distributed photocopied Buddhist scriptures among the refugees, as protection and inspiration for the battered people; when the Pol Pot regime collapsed in 1979, Maha Ghosananda was one of only 3,000 Cambodian Buddhist monks alive, out of more than 60,000 at the start of the reign of terror in 1976. Throughout 1979 Maha Ghosananda established wats in refugee camps along the Thai-Cambodian border, ordaining monks against the orders of the Thai military.
He founded more than 30 temples for Cambodian refugees living in Canada and the United States. His entire family, countless friends and disciples, were massacred by the Khmer Rouge. Maha Ghosananda served as a key figure in post-Communist Cambodia, helping to restore the nation state and to revive Cambodian Buddhism. In 1980, he served as a representative of the Cambodian nation-in-exile to the United Nations. In 1980 Maha Ghosananda and the Reverend Peter L. Pond formed the Inter-Religious Mission for Peace in Cambodia. Together they located hundreds of surviving monks and nuns in Cambodia so that they could renew their vows and take leadership roles in Cambodian temples around the world. In June 1980 the Thai Government decided to forcibly repatriate thousands of refugees. Pond and the Preah Maha Ghosananda organized a protest against the forced repatriation of refugees from Sa Kaeo Refugee Camp. In 1988, Maha Ghosananda was elected as sanghreach by a small gathering of exiled monks in Paris.
He agreed to accept the position provisionally, until a complete, independent monastic hierarchy could be established in Cambodia. At the time, Venerable Tep Vong was the titular head of a unified Cambodian sangha, having been appointed to the position in 1981 by the Vietnamese-backed People's Republic of Kampuchea. In 1989, he returned full-time to Cambodia. In 1992, during the first year of the United Nations sponsored peace agreement, Maha Ghosananda led the first nationwide Dhammayietra, a peace march or pilgrimage, across Cambodia in an effort to begin restoring the hope and spirit of the Cambodian people; the 16-day, 125-mile peace walk passed through territory still littered with landmines from the Khmer Rouge. The initial walk consisted of 350 monks and lay Buddhists who escorted around 100 Cambodians from refugee camps to their villages in Cambodia; this was carried out without official permission from Thai or Cambodian officials to cross the border. By the time the march reached Phnom Penh it had grown in size and drew coverage from the international media.
In recognition of his contributions, King Sihanouk bestowed on Maha Goshananda the title samdech song santipeap that year. The Dhammayietra became an annual walk which Maha Ghosananda led a number of times, despite the danger during the Khmer Rouge years. In 1995, the Dhammayietra consisted of 500 Cambodian Buddhist monks and precept-taking lay people, they were joined by The Interfaith Pilgrimage for Life. Together the two groups crossed Cambodia from the Thai border all the way to Vietnam, spending several days walking through Khmer Rouge-controlled territory along the way. For his teachings on non-violence and establishing Buddhist temples throughout the world that root his exiled people in their religion of peace, he was presented with the Peace Abbey Courage of Conscience Award, he had been called "the Gandhi of Cambodia." Maha Ghosananda was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize by the chair of the U. S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Claiborne Pell, he was again nominated in 1995, 1996, 1997 for his work in bringing peace to Cambodia.
He acted as an adviser to the Buddhist Peace Fellowship and resided part-time in the Palelai Buddhist Temple and Monastery in Philadelphia
Ballycastle, County Antrim
Ballycastle is a small town in County Antrim, Northern Ireland. The town is located on the north-easternmost coastal tip of the island of Ireland at the northern mainland limit of the Antrim Coast and Glens Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. Rathlin Island and the Mull of Kintyre in Scotland can be viewed from the coastline; the Ould Lammas Fair is held each year on the last Tuesday of August. Ballycastle is the home of the Corrymeela Community, it was the seat and main settlement of the old Moyle District Council and forms part of the North Antrim constituency. Ballycastle was named the best place to live in Northern Ireland in a list compiled by The Sunday Times in 2016. Ballycastle is classified as a small town by the Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency. On 29 April 2001 2001 Census the population of Ballycastle was 5,089, of these: 25.3% were aged under 16 years and 18.7% were aged 60 and over 46.8% of the population were male and 53.2% were female 77.7% were from a Catholic background and 20.5% were from a Protestant background 6.5% of people aged 16–74 were unemployed On Census day in 2011: 77.1% were from a Catholic background and 19.0% were from a Protestant background Fair Head, Ballycastle's headland rises 196 metres out of the bay.
Goats roam the rocks beneath the cliff tops, where a walkway called'The Gray Man's Path' winds around the coastline. From the road, a man-made Iron Age island or crannog can be seen in the middle of a large lake. Knocklayde, a heather-covered mountain with a height of 1,695 feet, is crowned by Carn na Truagh, has views over Ballycastle, Rathlin Island, Fair Head, Scotland. Glentaisie, the most northerly of the Nine Glens of Antrim, lies at the foot of Knocklayde mountain, it is named after the daughter of King Dorm of Rathlin Island. According to legend, renowned for her great beauty, was betrothed to Congal, heir to the Kingdom of Ireland; the king of Norway sought her hand in marriage, when he arrived to claim his bride, her wedding celebrations to Congal had begun. The king and his army tried to capture Taisie, but in the subsequent battle he was killed, his army fled leaderless and empty-handed; the Carey and Tow Rivers flow down from the glens into the Margy River. It flows into the Moyle Sea at the start of the Strand.
The Strand's Ballycastle Beach is designated a Blue Flag beach. Pans Rocks, which are the remains of an iron salt pan lying at the far end of Ballycastle Beach, jut out into the sea and are used as a location for fishing; the Devils Churn, lying just beyond Pans Rocks, has steps carved into the stone leading to an underwater tunnel. Clare Park on Clare Road, was an estate owned by the McGildownys; the 17th-century house has been pulled down but it was set in a site high up on the Antrim coast. A cycling route runs from Ballycastle to Cushendun, by way of Torr Head, from which Moyle can be seen. Used for inshore sea fishing, Torr Head has a coastguard station, built on and out of the remains of Dunvarragh, the fort of Barach; the Corrymeela Community is based at Corrymeela, just outside Ballycastle. Overlooking the harbour, there is a monument to Guglielmo Marconi whose employees made the world's first commercial wireless telegraph transmission between Ballycastle and the East Lighthouse on Rathlin Island.
Holy Trinity, Church of Ireland, is situated in the Diamond. Like the rest of the Diamond, the church is grade'A' listed. Built by Colonel Hugh Boyd, who bore the total cost, the church was completed in 1756, it was built in Graeco-Italian style with an apse-shaped chancel, an octagonal spire about 100 feet high. It was a chapel for the Boyd family and its estate for many years; the remains of many Boyd descendants are in the vaults below - although it was always subject to Episcopal jurisdiction. It was given to the Church of Ireland in about 1950; the church is open every day from 9am-5pm. Bonamargy Friary is off the Cushendall Road on the approach to Ballycastle and is a late Franciscan foundation established in 1485 by Rory MacQuillan. Locked vaults hold the remains of the celebrated chieftain, Sorley Boy MacDonnell, several of the earls of Antrim; the Friary's most famous resident is recluse Julia MacQuillan. Known as "The Black Nun", she wished to be buried at the entrance of the chapel so that she might be trodden under the feet of those who entered.
A round holed cross marks her grave. Kinbane Castle is situated on a headland projecting into the sea, about 3 miles from Ballycastle on the road to Ballintoy. A two-storey building, it was built in 1547 by Colla MacDonnell, who died within its walls in 1558. There are several churches in Ballycastle. Ballycastle's Presbyterian Church has a distinctive round tower. Sorley Boy MacDonnell - Scottish-Irish prince, born at Dunanynie Castle near Ballycastle Gillaspick MacDonnell - nephew of Sorley Boy MacDonnell, killed accidentally in 1571 at Ballycastle. Christopher Fleming, 17th Baron Slane - politician, buried in the MacDonnell family vault in Bonamargy Friary, the burial place of the Earls of Antrim. Hugh Boyd - writer John Surman Carden - officer of the British Royal Navy, died in Ballycastle Hugh M‘Neile - controversial anti-Roman Catholic preacher John Samuel Bewley Monsell - clergyman and hymnwriter Thomas Witherow - Presbyterian minister and historian. Sir Roger Casement - writer and Republican Revolutionary Louise
Rathlin Island is an island and civil parish off the coast of County Antrim in Northern Ireland. It is Northern Ireland's northernmost point. Rathlin is the only inhabited offshore island of Northern Ireland, with a growing population of 150 people, is the most northerly inhabited island off the coast of the island of Ireland; the reverse L-shaped Rathlin Island is 4 miles from east to west, 2.5 miles from north to south. The highest point on the island is 134 metres above sea level. Rathlin is 15.5 miles from the Mull of the southern tip of Scotland's Kintyre peninsula. It is part of the Causeway Coast and Glens council area, is represented by the Rathlin Development & Community Association. Rathlin is part of the traditional barony Cary, of current district Moyle; the island constitutes a civil parish and is subdivided into 22 townlands: A ferry operated by Rathlin Island Ferry Ltd connects the main port of the island, Church Bay, with the mainland at Ballycastle, 6 miles away. Two ferries operate on the route – the fast foot-passenger-only catamaran ferry Rathlin Express and a purpose built larger ferry, commissioned in May 2017, Spirit of Rathlin, which carries both foot passengers and a small number of vehicles, weather permitting.
Rathlin Island Ferry Ltd won a six-year contract for the service in 2008 providing it as a subsidised "lifeline" service. There is an ongoing investigation on how the transfer was handled between the Environment Minister and the new owners. Rathlin is of prehistoric volcanic origin, having been created as part of the British Tertiary Volcanic Province. Rathlin is one of 43 Special Areas of Conservation in Northern Ireland, it is home to tens of thousands of seabirds, including common guillemots, kittiwakes and razorbills – about thirty bird families in total. It is visited by birdwatchers, with a Royal Society for the Protection of Birds nature reserve that has views of Rathlin’s bird colony; the RSPB has successfully managed natural habitat to facilitate the return of the red-billed chough. Northern Ireland's only breeding pair of choughs can be seen during the summer months; the cliffs on this bare island are impressive, standing 70 metres tall. Bruce's Cave is named after Robert the Bruce known as Robert I of Scotland: it was here that he was said to have seen the legendary spider, described as inspiring Bruce to continue his fight for Scottish independence.
The island is the northernmost point of the Antrim Coast and Glens Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. In 2008-09, the Maritime and Coastguard Agency of the United Kingdom and the Marine Institute Ireland undertook bathymetric survey work north of Antrim, updating Admiralty charts. In doing so a number of interesting submarine geological features were identified around Rathlin Island, including a submerged crater or lake on a plateau with clear evidence of water courses feeding it; this suggests the events leading to inundation - subsidence of land or rising water levels - were quick. Marine investigations in the area have identified new species of sea anemone, rediscovered the fan mussel and a number of shipwreck sites, including HMS Drake, torpedoed and sank just off the island in 1917. Rathlin was known to the Romans, Pliny referring to "Reginia" and Ptolemy to "Rhicina" or "Eggarikenna". In the 7th century Adomnán mentions "Rechru" and "Rechrea insula", which may have been early names for Rathlin.
The 11th-century Irish version of the Historia Brittonum states that the Fir Bolg "took possession of Man and of other islands besides - Arran, Islay and'Racha'" – another possible early variant. Rathlin was the site of the first Viking raid on Ireland, according to the Annals of Ulster; the pillaging of the island's church and burning of its buildings took place in 795 In 1306, Robert the Bruce sought refuge upon Rathlin, owned by the Irish Bissett family. He stayed in Rathlin Castle belonging to their lordship the Glens of Antrim; the Bissetts were dispossessed of Rathlin by the English, who were in control of the Earldom of Ulster, for welcoming Bruce. In the 16th century, the island came into the possession of the MacDonnells of Antrim. Rathlin has been the site of a number of massacres. On an expedition in 1557, Sir Henry Sidney devastated the island. In July 1575, the Earl of Essex sent Francis Drake and John Norreys to confront Scottish refugees on the island, in the ensuing massacre, hundreds of men and children of Clan MacDonnell were killed.
In 1642, Covenanter Campbell soldiers of the Argyll's Foot were encouraged by their commanding officer Sir Duncan Campbell of Auchinbreck to kill the local Catholic MacDonalds, near relatives of their arch clan enemy in the Scottish Highlands Clan MacDonald. They threw scores of MacDonald women over cliffs to their deaths on rocks below; the number of victims of this massacre has been put as low as one hundred and as high as three thousand. In 1746, the island was purchased by the Reverend John Gage. In the 18th century, kelp production became important, with Rathlin becoming a major centre for production; the shoreline is still littered with kilns and storage places. This was a commercial enterprise sponsored by the landlords of the island and involved the whole community. A 19th-
Northern Ireland is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region. Northern Ireland shares a border to the west with the Republic of Ireland. In 2011, its population was 1,810,863, constituting about 30% of the island's total population and about 3% of the UK's population. Established by the Northern Ireland Act 1998 as part of the Good Friday Agreement, the Northern Ireland Assembly holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters, while other areas are reserved for the British government. Northern Ireland co-operates with the Republic of Ireland in some areas, the Agreement granted the Republic the ability to "put forward views and proposals" with "determined efforts to resolve disagreements between the two governments". Northern Ireland was created in 1921, when Ireland was partitioned between Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland by the Government of Ireland Act 1920. Unlike Southern Ireland, which would become the Irish Free State in 1922, the majority of Northern Ireland's population were unionists, who wanted to remain within the United Kingdom.
Most of these were the Protestant descendants of colonists from Great Britain. However, a significant minority Catholics, were nationalists who wanted a united Ireland independent of British rule. Today, the former see themselves as British and the latter see themselves as Irish, while a distinct Northern Irish or Ulster identity is claimed both by a large minority of Catholics and Protestants and by many of those who are non-aligned. For most of the 20th century, when it came into existence, Northern Ireland was marked by discrimination and hostility between these two sides in what First Minister of Northern Ireland, David Trimble, called a "cold house" for Catholics. In the late 1960s, conflict between state forces and chiefly Protestant unionists on the one hand, chiefly Catholic nationalists on the other, erupted into three decades of violence known as the Troubles, which claimed over 3,500 lives and caused over 50,000 casualties; the 1998 Good Friday Agreement was a major step in the peace process, including the decommissioning of weapons, although sectarianism and religious segregation still remain major social problems, sporadic violence has continued.
Northern Ireland has been the most industrialised region of Ireland. After declining as a result of the political and social turmoil of the Troubles, its economy has grown since the late 1990s; the initial growth came from the "peace dividend" and the links which increased trade with the Republic of Ireland, continuing with a significant increase in tourism and business from around the world. Unemployment in Northern Ireland peaked at 17.2% in 1986, dropping to 6.1% for June–August 2014 and down by 1.2 percentage points over the year, similar to the UK figure of 6.2%. 58.2% of those unemployed had been unemployed for over a year. Prominent artists and sportspeople from Northern Ireland include Van Morrison, Rory McIlroy, Joey Dunlop, Wayne McCullough and George Best; some people from Northern Ireland prefer to identify as Irish while others prefer to identify as British. Cultural links between Northern Ireland, the rest of Ireland, the rest of the UK are complex, with Northern Ireland sharing both the culture of Ireland and the culture of the United Kingdom.
In many sports, the island of Ireland fields a single team, a notable exception being association football. Northern Ireland competes separately at the Commonwealth Games, people from Northern Ireland may compete for either Great Britain or Ireland at the Olympic Games; the region, now Northern Ireland was the bedrock of the Irish war of resistance against English programmes of colonialism in the late 16th century. The English-controlled Kingdom of Ireland had been declared by the English king Henry VIII in 1542, but Irish resistance made English control fragmentary. Following Irish defeat at the Battle of Kinsale, the region's Gaelic, Roman Catholic aristocracy fled to continental Europe in 1607 and the region became subject to major programmes of colonialism by Protestant English and Scottish settlers. A rebellion in 1641 by Irish aristocrats against English rule resulted in a massacre of settlers in Ulster in the context of a war breaking out between England and Ireland fuelled by religious intolerance in government.
Victories by English forces in that war and further Protestant victories in the Williamite War in Ireland toward the close of the 17th century solidified Anglican rule in Ireland. In Northern Ireland, the victories of the Siege of Derry and the Battle of the Boyne in this latter war are still celebrated by some Protestants. Popes Innocent XI and Alexander VIII had supported William of Orange instead of his maternal uncle and father-in-law James II, despite William being Protestant and James a Catholic, due to William's participation in alliance with both Protesant and Catholic powers in Europe in wars against Louis XIV, the powerful King of France, in conflict with the papacy for decades. In 1693, Pope Innocent XII recognised James as continuing King of Great Britain and Ireland in place of William, after reconciliation with Louis. In 1695, contrary to the terms of the Treaty of Limerick, a series of penal laws were passed by the Anglican ruling class in Ireland in intense anger at the Pope's recognition of James over William, felt to be a betrayal.
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Norman Cousins was an American political journalist, author and world peace advocate. Cousins was born in New Jersey. At age 11, he was placed in a sanatorium. Despite this, he was an athletic youth, he claimed that as a young boy he "set out to discover exuberance." Cousins attended Theodore Roosevelt High School in the Bronx, New York City, graduating on February 3, 1933. He edited the high school paper, "The Square Deal," where his editing abilities were in evidence. Cousins received a bachelor's degree from Columbia University, in New York City, he joined the staff of the New York Evening Post in 1934, in 1935 was hired by Current History as a book critic. He ascended to the position of managing editor, he befriended the staff of the Saturday Review of Literature, which had its offices in the same building, by 1940, joined the staff of that publication as well. He was named editor-in-chief in 1942, a position he would hold until 1972. Under his direction, circulation of the publication increased from 20,000 to 650,000.
Cousins's philosophy toward his work was exemplified by his instructions to his staff "not just to appraise literature, but to try to serve it, nurture it, safeguard it." Cousins believed that "there is a need for writers who can restore to writing its powerful tradition of leadership in crisis." He was a lifetime believer in the power of hope, in the realism of optimism. One of his well-known lines, "Life is an adventure in forgiveness," has survived him, but Cousins had no patience for those who consciously bend truth, whether for personal expediency or in the political sphere. The integrity of words, in speech and in writing, was sacred to him. To his mind, the honest use of words was an absolute value, the distinguishing mark of the human being. Cousins joined the University of California, Los Angeles faculty in 1978 and became an adjunct professor in the Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Science, he taught medical literature. His research interest was the connection between health.
Politically, Cousins was a tireless advocate of liberal causes, such as nuclear disarmament and world peace, which he promoted through his writings in Saturday Review. In a 1984 forum at the University of California, titled "Quest for Peace", Cousins recalled the long editorial he wrote on August 6, 1945, the day the United States dropped the atomic bomb in Hiroshima. Titled "The Modern Man is Obsolete", who stated that he felt "the deepest guilt" over the bomb's use on human beings, discussed in the editorial the social and political implications of the atomic bomb and nuclear power, he rushed to get it published the next day in the Review, the response was considerable, as it was reprinted in newspapers around the country and enlarged into a book, reprinted in different languages. Following the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis, President John F. Kennedy saw that only he could find the terms that would be accepted by Nikita Khrushchev to avert nuclear war. Both sides used unofficial intermediaries to relay messages back and forth outside the usual diplomatic routes.
For example Kennedy used Norman Cousins, well appreciated in Moscow for his leadership of SANE, the Committee for a SANE Nuclear Policy. This helped the two leaders forge the successful Limited Test Ban Treaty of 1963. Despite his role as an advocate of liberalism, he jokingly expressed opposition to women entering the workforce. In 1939, upon learning that the number of women in the workforce was close to the number of unemployed males, he offered this solution: "Simply fire the women, who shouldn't be working anyway, hire the men. Presto! No unemployment. No relief rolls. No depression." In the 1950s, Cousins played a prominent role in bringing the Hiroshima Maidens, a group of twenty-five Hibakusha, to the United States for medical treatment. In the 1960s, he began the American-Soviet Dartmouth Conferences for peace process. Cousins wrote a collection of non-fiction books on the same subjects, such as the 1953 Who Speaks for Man?, which advocated a World Federation and nuclear disarmament. He served as president of the World Federalist Association and chairman of the Committee for Sane Nuclear Policy, which in the 1950s warned that the world was bound for a nuclear holocaust if the threat of the nuclear arms race was not stopped.
Cousins became an unofficial ambassador in the 1960s, his facilitating communication between the Holy See, the Kremlin, the White House helped lead to the Soviet-American test ban treaty, for which he was thanked by President John F. Kennedy and Pope John XXIII, the latter of whom awarded him his personal medallion. Cousins was awarded the Eleanor Roosevelt Peace Award in 1963, the Family Man of the Year Award in 1968, the United Nations Peace Medal in 1971, the Niwano Peace Prize and the Albert Schweitzer Prize for Humanitarianism, both in 1990, he served on the board of trustees for Science Service, now known as Society for Science & the Public, from 1972 to 1975. Cousins did research on the biochemistry of human emotions, which he long believed were the key to human beings' success in fighting illness, it was a belief he maintained as he battled in 1964 a sudden-onset case of a crippling connective tissue disease, referred to as a collagen disease. Experts at Dr. Rusk's rehabilitation clinic confirmed this diagnosis and added a diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis.
Told that he had one chance in 500 of recovery, Cousins developed his own recovery program. He took massive intravenous doses of Vitamin C and had self-induced bouts of la
Sulak Sivaraksa is a visiting professor, the founder of the Thai NGO and director of the Thai NGO"Sathirakoses-Nagapradeepa Foundation", named after two authorities on Thai culture and Nagapradeepa. He initiated a number of social, humanitarian and spiritual movements and organizations in Thailand, such as the College SEM. Sulak Sivaraksa is known in the West as one of the fathers of the International Network of Engaged Buddhists, established in 1989 with leading Buddhists, including the 14th Dalai Lama, the Vietnamese monk and peace-activist Thich Nhat Hanh, the Theravada Bhikkhu Maha Ghosananda, as its patrons; when Sulak Sivaraksa was awarded the Right Livelihood Award in 1995, he became known to a wider public in Europe and the US. Sulak was chair of the Asian Cultural Forum on Development and has been a visiting professor at UC Berkeley, the University of Hawaii, Cornell; the grandson of a Chinese immigrant whose surname was Lim and born into an affluent Sino-Thai family, Sulak Sivaraksa was educated in Bangkok and at the University of Wales, where he is now an honorary fellow in Buddhism.
He passed the Bar in London in 1961. Upon his return home, he became the editor of Social Science Review magazine. Many considered it the leading Thai intellectual journal of its time. By 1968 the Social Science Review had become "the intellectual voice of the nation". In 1968, Sulak founded the Sathirakoses-Nagapradipa Foundation, which publishes "the intellectual successor" to Social Science Review and acts as an umbrella organization for a group of NGOs. Soon after his return to Thailand, he directed his energies towards the development of sustainable models for a changing economic and social environment; the military coup of 1976 forced him into exile for two years. At this time he toured Canada, the US, Europe to lecture academic audiences; because of the coup, Sulak's commitment to peace was strengthened. Since he has championed nonviolence in war torn and repressed countries like Sri Lanka, his devotion to peace and nonviolence is demonstrated by his leadership and membership in international peace organizations like Buddhist Peace Fellowship, Peace Brigade International, Gandhi Peace Foundation.
After he returned to Thailand, Sulak was prompted to establish the Thai Inter-religious Commission for Development, soon thereafter Sulak was appointed chairperson of the Asian Cultural Forum on Development and the editor of its newsletter, Asia Action. In 1982, Sulak established the Thai Development Support Committee as a way to coordinate other nongovernmental organizations to better tackle large problems that they could not tackle alone; the foreign contacts he made while in exile proved beneficial when Sivaraksa was arrested in 1984 for lèse majesté, causing international protests which pressured the government to release him. Sivaraksa was again charged with lèse majesté in September 1991 after a talk he gave at Thammasat University about the repression of democracy in Thailand. Sivaraksa fled the county and went into exile until he was able to convince the courts of his innocence in 1995, he was awarded the Swedish Right Livelihood Award in 1995, the UNPO Award in 1998, the Indian Millennium Gandhi Award in 2001.
He was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize by the American Friends Service Committee in 1994. Sulak was a strong critic of deposed Thai Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra, he publicly accused Thaksin of adultery at rallies organized by the People's Alliance for Democracy. However, he has never cited any evidence for his claims. During a protest on 26 February 2006, Sulak called Thaksin a pitiful dog. Sulak's comments were condemned by Somsri Hananantasuk, former Chairperson of Amnesty International Thailand, who said that such words could provoke violence. In 2007, he spoke out against proposals to declare Buddhism Thailand's "national religion" in the new constitution, arguing that to do so would exacerbate the existing conflict in southern Thailand. Sulak Sivaraksa appears in the feature documentary film about the Dalai Lama entitled Dalai Lama Renaissance. Sulak Sivaraksa is an advocate for political change in Thailand, as well as globally. Sivaraksa has written several influential works that have both inspired people to work towards justice and provoked controversy from political leaders.
Nonetheless, Sulak Sivaraksa's speeches and other writings discuss political and economic corruption in Thai government, universal ethics, engaged Buddhism. Some of Sivaraksa's most influential works include his autobiography, Loyalty Demands Dissent, as well as Seeds of Peace: A Buddhist Vision for Renewing Society, Conflict, Change: Engaged Buddhism in a Globalizing World. Sulak Sivaraksa’s writings, as well the organizations he has created, express his desire for a moral and ethical world from a Buddhist perspective. Sivaraksa's religious faith is the foundation of all of his political and social beliefs, yet he uses his religious beliefs to create social change in a modernist fashion. Sulak was arrested on 6 November 2009 for lèse majesté, he was bailed out shortly thereafter. In 2014 Sulak was again charged with defamation of the monarchy after questioning the historicity of a 16th-century royal duel on elephantback, he was cleared of these charges in December 2017. Sulak Sivaraksa’s presents his view of Buddhism is his autobiography, Loyalty Demands Dissent.
Along with a first hand account of this life, he includes information about his views on the relationship between religion, and