Coryell County Courthouse
The Coryell County Courthouse is an historic building located at Courthouse Square in Gatesville, the seat of Coryell County. Built in 1897–98, it was the county's third courthouse. In his design, Dodson modified the traditional cross-axial plan to allow for the erection of a central tower. By moving the district courtroom to a position alongside the tower rather than centered underneath it, he was able to extend the masonry support walls to the ground and support the tower. An important feature of the court house is the Massive Classical porticos, differing somewhat in scale and treatment, define the north and south entries; the south portico has paired corner columns. The porticos rise from a one-story base of rusticated stone with arched entries in the lower level; the openings flanking the central arch are smaller on the north facade. Red sandstone Corinthian columns support white sandstone pediments, with the five pointed star of Texas inset in contrasting carved stone; the courthouse was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1977.
National Register of Historic Places listings in Coryell County, Texas Media related to Parker County Courthouse at Wikimedia Commons
Kiowa people are a Native American tribe and an indigenous people of the Great Plains. They migrated southward from western Montana into the Rocky Mountains in Colorado in the 17th and 18th centuries, into the Southern Plains by the early 19th century. In 1867, the Kiowa were moved to a reservation in southwestern Oklahoma. Today, they are federally recognized as Kiowa Tribe of Oklahoma with headquarters in Carnegie, Oklahoma; as of 2011, there were 12,000 members. The Kiowa language, part of the Tanoan language family, is still spoken today. Kiowa call themselves Ka'igwu, Cáuigù or Gaigwu, most given with the meaning "Principal People"; the first part of the name is the element Kae-, Cáui- or Gai- which means the Kiowa themselves – it may derive from the word ka' or from ka-a. The true origin is lost. Kae-kia means a Kiowa man; the second element -gua refers to "men or people", so the meaning of the two elements is "Kiowa people". Ancient names were Kútjàu or Kwu-da and Tep-da, relating to the tribal origin myth of a creator pulling people out of a hollow log until a pregnant woman got stuck.
They called themselves Kom-pa-bianta for "people with large tipi flaps", before they met Southern Plains tribes or before they met white men. Another explanation of their name "Kiowa" originated after their migration through what the Kiowa refer to as "The Mountains of the Kiowa" in the present eastern edge of Glacier National Park, just south of the border with Canada; the mountain pass they came through was populated by grizzly bear Kgyi-yo and Blackfoot people. Other tribes who encountered the Kiowa used sign language to describe them - by holding two straight fingers near the lower outside edge of the eye and moving these fingers back past the ear; this corresponded to the ancient Kiowa hairstyle cut horizontally from the lower outside edge of the eyes to the back of their ears. This was a functional practice to keep their hair from getting tangled while they shot an arrow from a bow string. George Catlin painted Kiowa warriors with this hairstyle. For a time, the Kiowa are thought to have shared land in present-day eastern Colorado, with the Arapaho.
An Arapaho name for the Kiowa is "creek people", the Arapaho word for "creek" is koh'owu', which when pronounced has some resemblance to the current name "Kiowa". For example, the Kiowa are referred to as "creek people" in an oral narrative recited in 1993 by native Arapaho speaker Paul Moss. "Kiowa" may have been a transliteration by European Americans of a name by which the tribe was known among the Arapaho. The Kiowa language is a member of the Kiowa-Tanoan language family; the relationship was first proposed by Smithsonian linguist John P. Harrington in 1910, was definitively established in 1967. Parker McKenzie, born 1897, was a noted authority on the Kiowa language, learning English only when he began school, he worked with John P. Harrington on the Kiowa language, he went on to discuss the etymology of words and insights of how the Kiowa language changed to incorporate new items of material culture. McKenzie's letters are in the National Anthropological Archives on pronunciation and grammar of the Kiowa language.
Kiowa /ˈkaɪ.əwə/ or Cáuijògà / Cáuijò:gyà is a Tanoan language spoken by the Kiowa Tribe of Oklahoma in Caddo and Comanche counties. Additionally, Kiowa were one of the numerous nations across the US, Canada and Mexico that spoke Plains Sign Talk. A trade language, it became a language within its own right that remained in use across North America; the Kiowa Tribe of Oklahoma is headquartered in Oklahoma. Their tribal jurisdictional area includes Caddo, Cotton, Kiowa and Washita Counties. Enrollment in the tribe requires a minimum blood quantum of ¼ Kiowa descent; as of 2011, their business committee is: Chairman: Matthew M. Komalty Vice-chairman: Charles Domebo Eisenberger Secretary: Rhonda J. Ahhaity Treasurer: Renee M. Plata Committeeman: Dave Geimausaddle Committeeman: Anita L. Onco Johnson Committeeman: Thomas Kaulaity Committeeman: Ronald Poolaw Sr; the Kiowa Tribe issues its own vehicle tags. As of 2011, the tribe owns one smoke shop, two casinos, the Kiowa Red River Casino, Morningstar Steakhouse and Grill, Morningstar Buffet, The Winner's Circle restaurant in Devol and Kiowa Bingo near Carnegie, Oklahoma.
The Kiowa were patrilineal with a chiefdom. They lived in semi-sedentary structures, they were hunters and gatherers, meaning they did not live in one area long enough to grow plants or crops, but did trade with sedentary tribes that grew crops. The Kiowa migrated seasonally with the American bison, they hunted antelope, deer and other wild game. The women collected varieties of wild berries and fruit, processing them with prepared meats to make pemmican. Dogs were used to pull rawhide parfleche that contained camping goods for short moves; the Kiowa tended to stay in areas for long periods of time. When they adopted the horse, acquired from Spanish rancherias south of the Rio Grande, the Kiowa revolutionized their economy, they had much larger ranges for their seasonal hunting, horses could carry some of their camping goods. By the time they arrived on the Plains, they were a mounted warrior nation; the Kiowa and Plains Apache established a homeland that lay in the southwestern plains adjacent to the Arkansas River in southeastern Colorado and western Kansas and the Red River drainage of the Texas Panhandle and
The Comanche are a Native American nation from the Great Plains whose historic territory consisted of most of present-day northwestern Texas and adjacent areas in eastern New Mexico, southeastern Colorado, southwestern Kansas, western Oklahoma, northern Chihuahua. The Comanche people are federally recognized as the Comanche Nation, headquartered in Lawton, Oklahoma; the Comanche were the dominant tribe on the southern Great Plains in the 19th centuries. They are characterized as "Lords of the Plains" and, reflecting their prominence, they presided over a large area called Comancheria which a modern historian has characterized as the "Comanche Empire." Comanche power was based on bison, horses and raiding. They hunted the bison of the Great Plains for food and skins, they took captives from weaker tribes during warfare, using them as slaves or selling them to the Spanish and Mexican settlers. They took thousands of captives from the Spanish and American settlers and incorporated them into Comanche society.
Decimated by European diseases and encroachment by Americans on Comancheria, the Comanche were defeated by the United States army in 1875 and confined to a reservation in Oklahoma. In the 21st century, the Comanche Nation has 17,000 members, around 7,000 of whom reside in tribal jurisdictional area around Lawton, Fort Sill, the surrounding areas of southwestern Oklahoma; the Comanche Homecoming Annual Dance is held annually in Oklahoma, in mid-July. The Comanche language is a Numic language of the Uto-Aztecan family, sometimes classified as a Shoshoni dialect. Only about 1% of Comanches speak their language today; the name "Comanche" is from the Ute name for them, kɨmantsi, but known to the French as Padoucas, an adaption of their Sioux name, among themselves as Nʉmʉnʉ. The Comanche Nation is headquartered in Oklahoma, their tribal jurisdictional area is located in Caddo, Cotton, Jefferson, Kiowa and Tillman Counties. Membership of the tribe requires a 1/8 blood quantum; the tribe issues tribal vehicle tags.
They have their own Department of Higher Education awarding scholarships and financial aid for members' college educations. Additionally, they operate the Comanche Nation College in Lawton, they own four casinos. The casinos are Comanche Nation Casino in Lawton. In 2002, the tribe founded a two-year tribal college in Lawton, it has since closed. Each July, Comanches from across the United States gather to celebrate their heritage and culture in Walters at the annual Comanche Homecoming powwow; the Comanche Nation Fair is held every September. The Comanche Little Ponies host two annual dances—one over New Year's and one in May; the Comanche emerged as a distinct group shortly before 1700, when they broke off from the Shoshone people living along the upper Platte River in Wyoming. In 1680, the Comanche acquired horses from the Pueblo Indians after the Pueblo Revolt, they separated from the Shoshone after this, as the horses allowed them greater mobility in their search for better hunting grounds. The horse was a key element in the emergence of a distinctive Comanche culture.
It was of such strategic importance that some scholars suggested that the Comanche broke away from the Shoshone and moved southward to search for additional sources of horses among the settlers of New Spain to the south The Comanche may have been the first group of Plains natives to incorporate the horse into their culture and may have introduced the animal to the other Plains peoples. From Natchitoches in Spanish Louisiana, Athanase de Mézières reported in 1770 that the Comanches were "so skilful in horsemanship that they have no equal, so daring that they never ask for or grant truces, in possession of such a territory that... they only just fall short of possessing all of the conveniences of the earth, have no need to covet the trade pursued by the rest of the Indians."Their original migration took them to the southern Great Plains, into a sweep of territory extending from the Arkansas River to central Texas. They reached present-day New Mexico and the Texas Panhandle by 1700, forcing the Lipan Apache people southward, defeating them in a nine-day battle along the Rio del Fierro in 1723.
The river may be the location mentioned by Athanase de Mézières in 1772, containing "a mass of metal which the Indians say is hard, thick and composed of iron", which they "venerate...as an extraordinary manifestation of nature", the Comanche's calling it Ta-pic-ta-carre, Po-i-wisht-carre, or Po-a-cat-le-pi-le-carre, the general area containing a "large number of meteoric masses". By 1777, the Lipan Apache had retreated to the Mescalero Apache to Coahuila. During that time, their population increased because of the abundance of buffalo, an influx of Shoshone migrants, their adoption of significant numbers of women and children taken captive from rival groups; the Comanche never formed a single cohesive tribal unit, but were divided into a dozen autonomous groups, called bands. These groups shared the same language and culture, fought each other, they were estimate
The Edwards Plateau is a region of west-central Texas, bounded by the Balcones Fault to the south and east, the Llano Uplift and the Llano Estacado to the north, the Pecos River and Chihuahuan Desert to the west. San Angelo, San Antonio and Del Rio outline the area; the eastern portion of the plateau is known as the Texas Hill Country. According to the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, the following 41 counties comprise the Edwards Plateau: The bedrock consists of limestone, with elevations ranging between 100 and 3000 ft. Caves are numerous; the landscape of the plateau is savanna scattered with trees. It lacks deep soil suitable for farming, though the soil is fertile mollisols and some cotton, grain sorghum, oats are grown. For the most part, the thin soil and rough terrain areas are grazing regions, with cattle and Angora goats predominant. Several rivers cross the region, which flow to the south and east through the Texas Hill Country toward the Gulf of Mexico; the area is well drained.
Rainfall varies from 15 to 33 inches per year, on average, from northwest to southeast, the area has a moderate temperature and a reasonably long growing season. Trees of the savanna include juniper and oak species scattered over grasses, a vegetation type shaped by droughts and regular fires; some pecan trees are found near the rivers. The Balcones Fault is associated with the Edwards Plateau formation; this fault line is an ecological demarcation for the range definition of a number of species. Caves of the Edwards Plateau are important habitats for a great deal of wildlife; the area is home to some of the largest colonies of bats in the world, including millions of Mexican free-tailed bats. The largest colony of these inhabits Bracken Cave near San Antonio, while the Congress Avenue Bridge in Austin is the summer home for over half a million and is the largest bat colony anywhere in an urban area; the Edwards Plateau is home to at least 14 endemic freshwater fishes, including two subterranean species of catfish and 13 fish species considered to be spring-associated.
Mechanisms for spring association of fishes is not understood, but thought to mediated by water temperature. The large numbers of reptiles and birds include breeding populations of the Texan endemic golden-cheeked warbler. Nearly all the natural habitat of the plateau has been converted to ranchland, farmland, or urban areas, such as Austin and San Antonio, with only about 2% remaining in scattered fragments to the east of the plateau. Further alteration to the savanna has incurred though the encroachment of shrubs now that grassland fires are controlled. Small areas of intact habitat remain around Austin, where areas are protected, such as the Balcones Canyonlands National Wildlife Refuge. Another important area for wildlife is Fort Hood military base. Earliest human settlement of this area was by Native Americans. First it was used and wandered about by Jumano and Coahuiltecan groups the Apacheria extended into the Southern Plains by the forerunners of the Lipan and Mescalero Apaches. After the expulsion of the Apachean groups from the Plains by the Comanche, this area was dominated by the Penateka band of the Southern Comanche.
Texas Hill Country Balcones Canyonlands National Wildlife Refuge Colorado River Mount Bonnell List of ecoregions in the United States Johnson, E. H.. "Edwards Plateau". TSHA Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. "Plateaus and Canyonlands". Texas Beyond History. University of Texas at Austin. Texas counties map showing the ecoregion
Bosque County, Texas
Bosque County is a county located on the Edwards Plateau in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 18,212, its county seat is Meridian, while Clifton is the largest city and the cultural/financial center of the county. The county is named for the Bosque River, which runs through the center of the county north to south; the Brazos River makes up the eastern border along with the Lake Whitney reservoir. Since 2015, Bosque County has been represented in the Texas House of Representatives by the Republican DeWayne Burns; the previous 10-year representative was the Republican Rob Orr of Burleson. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,003 square miles, of which 983 square miles is land and 20 square miles is water. State Highway 6 State Highway 22 State Highway 144 State Highway 174 Somervell County Johnson County Hill County McLennan County Coryell County Hamilton County Erath County As of the census of 2000, there were 17,204 people, 6,726 households, 4,856 families residing in the county.
The population density was 17 people per square mile. There were 8,644 housing units at an average density of 9 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 90.75% White, 1.92% Black or African American, 0.55% Native American, 0.11% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 5.17% from other races, 1.47% from two or more races. 12.23% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 6,726 households out of which 29.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.6% were married couples living together, 8.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.8% were non-families. 25.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 2.95. A Williams Institute analysis of 2010 census data found there were about 2.5 same-sex couples per 1,000 households in the county. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.4% under the age of 18, 6.2% from 18 to 24, 23.8% from 25 to 44, 25.0% from 45 to 64, 20.5% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females there were 95.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was $34,181, the median income for a family was $40,763. Males had a median income of $31,669 versus $21,739 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,455. About 8.9% of families and 12.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.8% of those under age 18 and 14.6% of those age 65 or over. Bosque County is listed as part of the Dallas-Fort Worth DMA. Local media outlets include: KDFW-TV, KXAS-TV, WFAA-TV, KTVT-TV, KERA-TV, KTXA-TV, KDFI-TV, KDAF-TV, KFWD-TV. Although located in Central Texas and a neighboring county of the Waco and Killeen – Temple – Fort Hood metropolitan areas. Meaning all of the Waco/Temple/Killeen market stations provide coverage for Bosque County, they include: KCEN-TV, KWTX-TV, KXXV-TV, KDYW, KWKT-TV. Clifton Cranfills Gap Iredell Meridian Morgan Valley Mills Walnut Springs Laguna Park Cayote Kopperl Mosheim Womack Norse Jacob De Cordova, land agent, Texas House of Representatives, 1808–1868 Calvin M. Cureton, Texas Attorney General from 1919 to 1921, Texas Chief Justice 1921-1940.
James T. Draper, Jr. Texas Southern Baptist clergyman was a pastor in Iredell in Bosque County in the late 1950s. James E. Ferguson 26th Governor of Texas. Miriam A. Ferguson, James' wife and the 29th and 32nd Governor of Texas. Earle B. Mayfield, Texas State Senator, United States Senator. John Lomax, American musicologist and folklorist. National Register of Historic Places listings in Bosque County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Bosque County Bosque County History Book Committee, Bosque County and People. Bosquerama, 1854-1954: Centennial Celebration of Bosque County, Texas. William C. Pool, A History of Bosque County. William C. Pool, Bosque Territory. Official website for Bosque County Bosque County, Texas from the Handbook of Texas Online Bosque County from the Texas Almanac Bosque County from the TXGenWeb Project Bosque County Collection The Archives of the Bosque County Historical Commission. View historic materials from the Bosque County Historical Commission, hosted by the Portal to Texas History
Texas's 25th congressional district
Texas District 25 of the United States House of Representatives is a Congressional district that stretches from Fort Worth to Austin. The current Representative from District 25 is Roger Williams. For the 2004 elections, it had an elongated shape stretching from deep south Texas at the U. S.-Mexico border to Austin as a result of mid-decade 2003 gerrymandering of Texas congressional districts. The district was redrawn again for the 2006 elections as the result of a lawsuit. In July 2011, Texas Governor Rick Perry signed into law a redistricting plan, approved by the Texas legislature in June, which gave the 25th district a different geography for the 2012 elections, including part of Travis County, stretching north as far as southern Tarrant County near Fort Worth; the redistricting split Travis County into five districts, four of which were Republican. As a result, the only realistic place for Representative Lloyd Doggett to run was the new 35th district. For a number of years, there was a consolidated lawsuit against the redistricting.
In March 2017, a panel of federal judges ruled that the new 35th district and two others were illegally drawn with discriminatory intent. However, the district was allowed to stand in the Supreme Court's 2018 Perez ruling. On June 28, 2006, the U. S. Supreme Court declared that the Texas legislature's 2003 redistricting plan violated the Voting Rights Act in the case of District 23; the main basis for the ruling was that the old 23rd was a protected majority-Hispanic district—in other words, if the 23rd was redrawn in a way to put Hispanics in a minority, a new majority-Hispanic district had to be created. Since the 25th was not compact enough to be an acceptable replacement, the 23rd had to be struck down; the size of the 23rd required the redrawing of nearly every district from El Paso to San Antonio. As a result, on August 4, 2006, a three-judge panel announced replacement district boundaries for 2006 election for the 23rd district, as well as for the 15th, 21st, 25th and 28th districts. On election day in November, these five districts held open primaries.
Otherwise, a runoff election in December decided the seat. The redrawn 25th was more compact and restricted to Central Texas, comprising more of Travis County, most of Bastrop County, all of Hays, Fayette, Gonzales and Colorado Counties. Incumbent congressman Doggett faced Republican Grant Rostig, independent candidate Brian Parrett, Libertarian Party Barbara Cunningham, won re-election. In the 2008 election Doggett faced Republican George Morovich, a structural engineer from La Grange and Libertarian Jim Stutsman, a retired Army veteran. Doggett won with 65.8% of the vote to Morovich's 30.5% and Stutsman's 3.7%. Doggett won 73.8% of the vote in his Austin-based stronghold of Travis County. Dogget faced Republican and "Tea Party favorite" Donna Campbell, again held his seat, though by a small margin; the new district boundaries were more favorable to Republicans. Julie Oliver ran a strong campaign against incumbent Roger Williams, but fell short. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress.
New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c