Clapboard or clabbard called bevel siding, lap siding, weatherboard, with regional variation in the definition of these terms, is wooden siding of a building in the form of horizontal boards overlapping. Clapboard in modern American usage is a word for long, thin boards used to cover walls and roofs of buildings, it has been called clawboard and cloboard. In Australia and New Zealand, the term weatherboard is always used. An older meaning of clapboard is small, split pieces of oak imported from Germany for use as barrel staves, the name is a partial translation of Middle Dutch klapholt and related to German Klappholz. Clapboards were riven radially producing triangular or "feather-edged" sections, attached thin side up and overlapped thick over thin to shed water; the boards were radially sawn in a type of sawmill called a clapboard mill, producing vertical-grain clapboards. The more used boards in New England are vertical-grain boards. Depending on the diameter of the log, cuts are made from 4½" to 6½" deep along the full length of the log.
Each time the log turns for the next cut, it is rotated ⅝" until it has turned 360°. This gives the radially sawn clapboard its true vertical grain. Flat-grain clapboards are cut tangent to the annual growth rings of the tree; as this technique was common in most parts of the British Isles, it was carried by immigrants to their colonies in the Americas and in Australia and New Zealand. Flat-sawn wood does not hold paint as well as radially sawn wood. Chamferboards are an Australian form of weatherboarding using tongue-and-groove joints to link the boards together to give a flatter external appearance than regular angled weatherboards; some modern clapboards are made up of shorter pieces of wood finger jointed together with an adhesive. In North America clapboards were made of split oak and spruce. Modern clapboards are available in red pine. In some areas, clapboards were traditionally left as raw wood, relying upon good air circulation and the use of'semi-hardwoods' to keep the boards from rotting.
These boards go grey as the tannins are washed out from the wood. More clapboard has been tarred or painted—traditionally black or white due to locally occurring minerals or pigments. In modern clapboard these colors remain popular, but with a hugely wider variety due to chemical pigments and stains. Clapboard houses may be found in most parts of the British Isles, the style may be part of all types of traditional building, from cottages to windmills, shops to workshops, as well as many others. In New Zealand, clapboard housing dominates buildings before 1960. Clapboard, with a corrugated iron roof, was found to be a cost-effective building style. After the big earthquakes of 1855 and 1931, wooden buildings were perceived as being less vulnerable to damage. Clapboard is always referred to as'weatherboard' in New Zealand. Newer, cheaper designs imitate the form of clapboard construction as "siding" made of vinyl, fiber cement, or other man-made materials. Clinker Shiplap Siding § Wood siding Tongue and groove Research report containing photos of a clapboard roof in Virginia, U.
Theodore Robinson was an American painter best known for his Impressionist landscapes. He was one of the first American artists to take up Impressionism in the late 1880s, visiting Giverny and developing a close friendship with Claude Monet. Several of his works are considered masterpieces of American Impressionism. Robinson was born in Vermont, his family moved to Evansville and Robinson studied art in Chicago. In 1874 he journeyed to New York City to attend classes at the National Academy of Design and the Art Students League. In 1876 he traveled to Paris to study under Carolus-Duran and at the École des Beaux-Arts, with Jean-Léon Gérôme, he first exhibited his paintings at the 1877 Salon in Paris, spent the summer of that year at Grez-sur-Loing. After trips to Venice and Bologna, he returned to the United States in 1879 for several years. In 1881 he becomes a professional painter and art teacher. During this time Robinson painted in a realist manner, loosely brushed but not yet impressionistic depicting people engaged in quiet domestic or agrarian pursuits.
In 1884 Robinson returned to France where he lived for the next eight years, visiting America only occasionally. Robinson gravitated to Giverny, which had become a center of French impressionist art under the influence of Claude Monet. Historians are unclear when Robinson met Monet, but by 1888 their friendship was enough for Robinson to move in next door to the famous impressionist. Robinson's art shifted to a more traditional impressionistic manner during this time due to Monet's influence. While a number of American artists had gathered at Giverny, none were as close to Monet as Robinson. Monet offered advice to Robinson, he solicited Robinson for opinions on Monet's own works in progress. Not only did he take to heart Monet´s theoretical admonitions and his requirement to portray the beauties and mystery of nature in a manner stringently truthful to one's personal vision, but he studied works that were available to him in "The Master´s" studio. For instance, painted in 1890, was inspired by Monet´s paintings of the cliffs at Varengeville and Etretat and the rocks at Bell-Ile of the early 1880s.
At Giverny, Robinson painted. These depicted the surrounding countryside in different weather, in the plein air tradition, sometimes with women shown in leisurely poses. An example of his mature work during this period is La Débâcle in the collection of Scripps College, Claremont California. Robinson left Monet for the final time in 1892, although he meant to return. Back in America, Robinson obtained a teaching post with the Brooklyn Art School and conducted summer classes in Napanoch, New York, near the Catskill Mountains, where he painted several canal scenes, he taught at Evelyn College in Princeton, New Jersey, at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts in Philadelphia. With New York City as his base, Robinson circulated among a growing number of American artists pursuing Impressionism, he was close to John Henry Twachtman and Julian Alden Weir, spent time at the nearby Cos Cob Art Colony in Connecticut. There he painted a series of boat scenes at the Riverside Yacht Club which have come to be regarded as among his finest works.
While his reputation as an important American Impressionist was growing, Robinson still needed to teach to support himself. He harbored doubts about the quality of his work. Throughout his career, Theodore Robinson kept meticulous diaries, but only the last several years of the diaries are known to exist; these are in the collection of the Frick Art Reference Library in New York and available to scholars. The art historian Sona Johnson, of the Baltimore Museum of Art, plans to publish an annotated edition of the Robinson diaries. In the last year of his life he was asked to contribute to the book of essays titled Modern French Masters by the editor and art historian John Charles Van Dyke, he wrote an essay on the Barbizon painter Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot and, because of his friendship with the French Impressionist, he wrote and illustrated the essay on Claude Monet. The book was published in 1896 and his illustration of Monet was featured in the exhibition "In Monet's Light." In 1895, Robinson enjoyed a productive period in Vermont, in February 1896 he wrote to Monet about returning to Giverny, but in April he died of an acute asthma attack in New York City.
He was buried in his hometown of Wisconsin. He was 43 years old. Today Robinson's paintings are in the collections of many major museums including the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City. C.. Gerdts, William H.. American Impressionism, Second Edition. New York: Abbeville Press Publishers. ISBN 0-7892-0737-0. Larkin, Susan G.. The Cos Cob Art Colony. New York: the National Academy of Design. ISBN 0-300-08852-3. Johnson, Sona.. In Monet's Light: Theodore Robinson at Giverny. New York: Phillip Wilson Publishers. ISBN 0-85667-566-0. John C. Van Dyke, ed.. Modern French Masters. London: T. Fisher Unwin. Jeffrey Morseburg.. "Theodore Robinson". New York: Fine Art Connoisseur. Theodorerobinson.org, 150 works by Theodore Robinson Capri from Theodore Robinson, in YOUR CITY AT THE THYSSEN, a Thyssen Museum's project on Flickr "An American Trying to Capture Monet's Magic," by Grace Glueck, a review of "In Monet's Light: Theodore Robinson at Giverny" art exhibition in The New York Times, August 5, 2006 "When Your Neighbor is Monet" by Benjamin Genocchio, a review of "In Monet's Light: Theodore Robinson at Giverny" art exhibition in The New York Times, July 3
John Henry Twachtman
John Henry Twachtman was an American painter best known for his impressionist landscapes, though his painting style varied through his career. Art historians consider Twachtman's style of American Impressionism to be among the more personal and experimental of his generation, he was a member of "The Ten", a loosely allied group of American artists dissatisfied with professional art organizations, who banded together in 1898 to exhibit their works as a stylistically unified group. Twachtman was born in Cincinnati and received his first art training there under Frank Duveneck. Like most artists of the era, Twachtman proceeded to Europe to further his education, he studied at the Academy of Fine Arts in Munich from 1875 to 1877, visited Venice with Duveneck and William Merritt Chase. His landscapes from this time exhibit the loosely brushed, shadowy technique taught at Munich. Twachtman learned etching, sometimes carried etching plates with him that he could use to spontaneously record a scene. After a brief return to America, Twachtman studied from 1883 to 1885 at the Académie Julian in Paris, his paintings shifted towards a soft and green tonalist style.
During this time he painted what some art historians consider to be his greatest masterpieces, including Arques-la-Bataille, in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, Springtime, in the collection of the Cincinnati Art Museum. In 1886, he returned to America and settled in Connecticut buying a farm in Greenwich, he painted and exhibited with fellow artist Julian Alden Weir, spent considerable time at the art colony in Cos Cob. His presence was vital to the colony: "Twachtman's temperament—by turns gregarious and introspective and serene—was a major factor in preventing the Cos Cob art colony from becoming a backwater of nostalgic complacency, his lack of commercial success contributed to his artistic independence, freeing him from the temptation of producing salable pictures according to a proven formula. His art and teaching fueled the creative fires of his friends and students in Cos Cob." In addition to his oil paintings, Twachtman continued to create etchings as well as drawings in pastel.
Twachtman taught painting at the Art Students League from 1889 until his death in 1902. Twachtman was close friends with Julian Alden Weir and the two painted together and both had close associations with the Danish-born painter Emil Carlsen. In 1893, Twachtman received a silver medal in painting at the Columbian Exposition. In Connecticut his painting style shifted again, this time to a personal impressionist technique. Twachtman painted many landscapes of his farm and garden in Greenwich depicting the snow-covered landscape, he executed dozens of paintings of a small waterfall on his property, capturing the scene in different seasons and times of day. Late in life Twachtman visited Gloucester, another center of artistic activity in the late 19th century, produced a series of vibrant scenes that anticipated a more modernist style yet to gain prominence in American art. Twachtman died in Gloucester of a brain aneurysm, aged 49. Today, his works are in many museum collections including the Metropolitan Museum of New York.
C.. Among his pupils were the painter Katherine Langhorne Adams and the painter and pastellist Annie E. A. Walker, he was a major influence on painter Louise Zaring, who had worked with him in Indiana early in her career. The painter Ernest Lawson studied with Twachtman at the Art Students League in New York and at the Cos Cob, art colony. Art Students League Ten American Painters Society of American Artists Gerdts, William H.. American Impressionism. New York: Abbeville Press Publishers. ISBN 0-7892-0737-0. Larkin, Susan G.. The Cos Cob Art Colony. New York: the National Academy of Design. ISBN 0-300-08852-3. Peters, Lisa N.. John Henry Twachtman: An American Impressionist. Atlanta, Georgia: Hudson Hills Press. ISBN 1-55595-178-3. Peters, Lisa N. "John Twachtman: A'Painter's Painter,'" Spanierman Gallery, 2006 ISBN 0-945936-77-X www.johnhenrytwachtman.org 243 Works Biography and works, Cincinnati Art Museum John Henry Twachtman at Find a Grave John H. Twachtman Catalogue Raisonné UNCG American Publishers' Trade Bindings: John Henry Twachtman American impressionism and realism: a landmark exhibition from the Met, a 1991 exhibition catalog from the Metropolitan Museum of Art libraries
The Armory Show known as the International Exhibition of Modern Art, was a show organized by the Association of American Painters and Sculptors in 1913. It was the first large exhibition of modern art in America, as well as one of the many exhibitions that have been held in the vast spaces of U. S. National Guard armories; the three-city exhibition started in New York City's 69th Regiment Armory, on Lexington Avenue between 25th and 26th Streets, from February 17 until March 15, 1913. The exhibition went on to show at the Art Institute of Chicago and to The Copley Society of Art in Boston, due to a lack of space, all the work by American artists was removed; the show became an important event in the history of American art, introducing astonished Americans, who were accustomed to realistic art, to the experimental styles of the European avant garde, including Fauvism and Futurism. The show served as a catalyst for American artists, who became more independent and created their own "artistic language."
The origins of the show lie in the emergence of progressive groups and independent exhibitions in the early 20th century, which challenged the aesthetic ideals, exclusionary policies, authority of the National Academy of Design, while expanding exhibition and sales opportunities, enhancing public knowledge, enlarging audiences for contemporary art. On December 14, 1911 an early meeting of what would become the Association of American Painters and Sculptors was organized at Madison Gallery in New York. Four artists met to discuss the contemporary art scene in the United States, the possibilities of organizing exhibitions of progressive artworks by living American and foreign artists, favoring works ignored or rejected by current exhibitions; the meeting included Jerome Myers, Elmer Livingston MacRae and Walt Kuhn. In January 1912, Walt Kuhn, Walter Pach, Arthur B. Davies joined together with some two dozen of their colleagues to reinforce a professional coalition: AAPS, they intended the organization to "lead the public taste in art, rather than follow it."
Other founding AAPS members included D. Putnam Brinley, Gutzon Borglum, John Frederick Mowbray-Clarke, Leon Dabo, William J. Glackens, Ernest Lawson, Jonas Lie, George Luks, Karl Anderson, James E. Fraser, Allen Tucker, J. Alden Weir. AAPS was to be dedicated to creating new exhibition opportunities for young artists outside of the existing academic boundaries, as well as to providing educational art experiences for the American public. Davies served with Kuhn acting as secretary; the AAPS members spent more than a year planning their first project: the International Exhibition of Modern Art, a show of giant proportions, unlike any New York had seen. The 69th Regiment Armory was settled on as the main site for the exhibition in the spring of 1912, rented for a fee of $5,000, plus an additional $500 for additional personnel, it was confirmed that the show would travel to Chicago and Boston. Once the space had been secured, the most complicated planning task was selecting the art for the show after the decision was made to include a large proportion of vanguard European work, most of which had never been seen by an American audience.
In September 1912, Kuhn left for an extended collecting tour through Europe, including stops at cities in England, the Netherlands, France, visiting galleries and studios and contracting for loans as he went. While in Paris Kuhn met up with Pach, who knew the art scene there intimately, was friends with Marcel Duchamp and Henri Matisse. Together they secured three paintings that would end up being among the Armory Show's most famous and polarizing: Matisse's "Blue Nude" and "Madras Rouge,"and Duchamp's "Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2." Only after Davies and Kuhn returned to New York in December did they issue an invitation for American artists to participate. Pach was the only American artist to be affiliated with the Section d'Or group of artists, including Albert Gleizes, Jean Metzinger, Duchamp brothers Marcel Duchamp, Raymond Duchamp-Villon, Jacques Villon and others. Pach was responsible for securing loans from these painters for the Armory Show. Most of the artists in Paris who sent works to the Armory Show knew Pach and entrusted their works to him.
The Armory Show was the first, the only exhibition mounted by the AAPS. It displayed some 1,300 paintings and decorative works by over 300 avant-garde European and American artists. Impressionist and Cubist works were represented; the publicity that stormed the show had been well sought, with the publication of half-tone postcards of 57 works, including the Duchamp nude that would become its most infamous. News reports and reviews were filled with accusations of quackery, insanity and anarchy, as well as parodies, caricatures and mock exhibitions. About the modern works, former President Theodore Roosevelt declared, "That's not art!" The civil authorities did not, close down or otherwise interfere with the show. Among the scandalously radical works of art, pride of place goes to Marcel Duchamp's cubist/futurist style Nude Descending a Staircase, painted the year before, in which he expressed motion with successive superimposed images, as in motion pictures. Julian Street, an art critic, wrote that the work resembled "an explosion in a shingle factory", cartoonists satirized the piece.
Gutzon Borglum, one of the early organizers of the show who for a variety of reasons withdrew both his organizational prowess and his work, labeled this piece A
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
Alice Judson was an American painter who specialized in landscapes of Dutchess County and seascapes of Gloucester, Massachusetts. Judson was born in New York. She, along with her follow artist Carolyn Mase studied with impressionist landscape painter John Henry Twachtman at the Art Students League of New York. Judson made multiple trips to Europe Paris, in the early 20th century to continue her studies. Judson's painting career flourished in the 1930s, she was an instructor at the Pittsburgh School of Art. She had a studio in Beacon, New York, for the last 30 years of her life she maintained a studio in New York City at West 37th Street. Judson was a member of the Society of Independent Artists and the National Academy of Woman Painters and Sculptors Alice Judson died on April 3, 1948, is buried at St. Luke’s Episcopal Church Cemetery in Beacon. Alice Judson images on Mutual Art A portrait of Alice Judson by Sylvia Shaw Judson is included in the Art Institute of Chicago collection