New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad
The New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad known as the New Haven, was a railroad that operated in the New England region of the United States from 1872 to 1968, dominating the region's rail traffic for the first half of the 20th century. Beginning in the 1890s and accelerating in 1903, New York banker J. P. Morgan sought to monopolize New England transportation by arranging the NH's acquisition of 50 companies, including other railroads and steamship lines, building a network of electrified trolley lines that provided interurban transportation for all of southern New England. By 1912, the New Haven operated more than 2,000 miles of track, with 120,000 employees, monopolized traffic in a wide swath from Boston to New York City; this quest for monopoly angered Progressive Era reformers, alienated public opinion, resulted in high prices for acquisitions, increased construction costs. Debt soared from $14 million in 1903 to $242 million in 1913, while the advent of automobiles and buses reduced railroad profits.
In 1913, the federal government filed an anti-trust lawsuit that forced the NH to divest its trolley systems. The line became bankrupt in 1935, was reorganized and reduced in scope, went bankrupt again in 1961, in 1969 was merged with the Penn Central system, formed a year earlier by the merger of the New York Central Railroad and Pennsylvania Railroad. S. until the Enron Corporation superseded it in 2001. The remnants of the system now comprise Metro-North Railroad's New Haven Line, Amtrak's Northeast Corridor, Shore Line East, parts of the MBTA, numerous freight operators such as CSX and the Providence and Worcester Railroad; the majority of the system is now owned publicly by the states of Connecticut, Rhode Island, Massachusetts. The New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad was formed on July 24, 1872, through the consolidation of the New York and New Haven Railroad and Hartford and New Haven Railroad, it owned a main line from New York City to Springfield, Massachusetts via New Haven and Hartford and leased other lines, including the Shore Line Railway to New London.
The company leased more lines and systems forming a virtual monopoly in New England south of the Boston and Albany Railroad. The first line of the original system to open was the Hartford and New Haven Railroad, opened from Hartford to New Haven, with steamship connections to New York in 1839, to Springfield, with rail connections to Worcester and Boston, in 1844; the New York and New Haven was built as it ran parallel to the Long Island Sound coast and required many bridges over rivers. It opened in 1848, using trackage rights over the New York and Harlem Railroad from Woodlawn in the Bronx south to Manhattan. With the opening of Grand Central Terminal in 1913, New Haven's New York City terminal was moved there/ About the beginning of the 20th century, New York investors led by J. P. Morgan gained control, in 1903 installed Charles S. Mellen as President. Charles Francis Murphy's New York Contracting and Trucking company was awarded a $6 million contract in 1904 to build rail lines in the Bronx for the New York, New Haven, Hartford Railroad.
An executive at the railroad said. In response to this contract, the New York State Legislature amended the city's charter so that franchise-awarding power was removed from the city board of aldermen and given to the Board of Estimate and Apportionment, which only became defunct in 1989. Morgan and Mellen achieved a complete monopoly of transportation in southern New England, purchasing other railroads and steamship and trolley lines. More than 100 independent railroads became part of the system before and during these years, reaching 2,131 miles at its 1929 peak. Substantial improvements to the system were made during the Mellen years, including electrification between New York and New Haven. Morgan and Mellen went further and attempted to acquire or neutralize competition from other railroads in New England, including the New York Central's Boston and Albany Railroad, the Rutland Railroad, the Maine Central Railroad, the Boston and Maine Railroad, but the Morgan-Mellen expansion left the company financially weak.
In 1914, 21 directors and ex-directors of the railroad were indicted for "conspiracy to monopolize interstate commerce by acquiring the control of all the transportation facilities of New England." Under the stress of the Great Depression the company became bankrupt in 1935, remaining in trusteeship until 1947. Common stock was voided and creditors assumed control. After 1951 both freight and passenger service lost money; the earlier expansion had left NH with a network of low-density branch lines that could not pay their own maintenance and operating costs. The freight business was short-haul, requiring switching costs that could not be recovered in short-distance rates, they had major commuter train services in New York and Boston, but these always lost money, unable to recover their investment providing service just twice a day during rush hour. The demise of the New Haven may have been hastened by the opening of the Connecticut Turnpike in 1958 and other interstate highways. With decades of inadequate investment, the New Haven could not compete against automobiles or trucks.
In 1954 the flashy Patrick B. McGinnis led a proxy fight against incumbent president Frederic C. "Buck" Dumaine Jr. vowing to re
Stamford is a city in Fairfield County, United States. According to the 2010 census, the population of the city is 122,643; as of 2017, according to the Census Bureau, the population of Stamford had risen to 131,000, making it the third-largest city in the state and the seventh-largest city in New England. 30 miles from Manhattan, Stamford is in the Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk Metro area, a part of the Greater New York metropolitan area. Stamford is home to four Fortune 500 Companies, nine Fortune 1000 Companies, 13 current 100 Companies, as well as numerous divisions of large corporations; this gives Stamford the largest financial district in the New York metropolitan region outside New York City itself and one of the largest concentrations of corporations in the United States. Stamford was known as Rippowam by the Native American inhabitants to the region, the first European settlers to the area referred to it as such; the present name is after the town of Stamford, England. The deed to Stamford was signed on July 1, 1640 between Captain Turner of the New Haven Colony and Chief Ponus.
By the 18th century, one of the primary industries of the town was merchandising by water, possible due to Stamford's proximity to New York. In 1692, Stamford was home to a less famous witch trial than the well-known Salem witch trials, which occurred in 1692; the accusations were less fanatical and smaller-scale but grew to prominence through gossip and hysterics. New Canaan separated from Stamford when it incorporated as a town in 1801, followed by Darien in 1820. Starting in the late 19th century, New York residents built summer homes on the shoreline, back there were some who moved to Stamford permanently and started commuting to Manhattan by train, although the practice became more popular later. Stamford incorporated as a city in 1893. In 1950, the Census Bureau reported the city's population as 94.6 % 5.2 % black. In the 1960s and 1970s, Stamford's commercial real estate boomed as corporations relocated from New York City to peripheral areas. A massive urban redevelopment campaign during that time resulted in a downtown with many tall office buildings.
The F. D. Rich Co. was the city-designated urban renewal developer of the downtown in an ongoing redevelopment project, contentious, beginning in the 1960s and continuing through the 1970s. The company put up what was the city's tallest structure, One Landmark Square, at 21 floors high, the GTE building, along with the Marriott Hotel, the Stamford Town Center and many of the other downtown office buildings. One Landmark Square has since been dwarfed by the new 34-story Trump Parc Stamford condominium tower, again by the Atlantic Station development, another project by the Rich Company in partnership with Cappelli Enterprises. Over the years, other developers have joined in building up the downtown, a process that continued, with breaks during downturns in the economy, through the 1980s, 1990s and into the new century. Since 2008, an 80-acre mixed-use redevelopment project for the Stamford's Harbor Point neighborhood has added additional growth south of the city's Downtown area. Once complete, the redevelopment will include 6,000,000 square feet of new residential, retail and hotel space, a marina.
As of July 2012 900 of the projected 4,000 Harbor Point residential units had been constructed. New restaurants and recreational activities have come up in the Harbor Point area, considered as New Stamford. Stamford is situated on the Long Island Sound, it comprises a number of neighborhoods and villages including Cove, East Side, North Stamford, West Side, Turn Of River, Springdale, Ridgeway, South End, Shippan and Palmers Hill. North of the Merritt Parkway is considered the North Stamford section of the city. North Stamford encompasses the largest land mass in Stamford, however it is the least densely populated area of the city. North Stamford functionally and acts as one municipality with the City of Stamford. Towns surrounding Stamford include Pound Ridge, New York to the north, Greenwich to the west, both Darien and New Canaan to the east; the city has an area of 52.09 square miles, making it the largest city by area in the state. Under the Köppen climate classification, Stamford has a temperate climate, with long, hot summers, cool to cold winters.
Stamford, like the rest of coastal Connecticut, lies in the broad transition zone between the continental climates of New England and southeast Canada to the north, the milder temperate and subtropical climates to the south. The warm/hot season in Stamford is from mid-April through early November. Late day thundershowers are common in the hottest months, despite the sunny skies; the cool/cold season is from late November though mid March. Winter weather is far more variable than summer weather along the Connecticut coast, ranging from sunny days with higher temperatures to cold and blustery conditions with occasional snow. Like much of the Connecticut coast and nearby Long Island, NY, some of the winter precipitation is rain or a mix and rain and wet snow in Stamford. Stamford averages about 30 inches of snow annually, compared to inland areas like Hartford and Albany which average 45–60 inches of snow annually. Although infrequent, tropical cyclones have struck the Stamford metropolitan area.
Hurricane landfalls have occurred along the Connecticut coast in 1903, 1938, 1944, 1954, 1
Cos Cob, Connecticut
Cos Cob is a neighborhood and census-designated place in the town of Greenwich, Connecticut. It is located at 41.033 north, 73.6 west, on the Connecticut shoreline in southern Fairfield County. It had a population of 6,770 at the 2010 census. Cos Cob is located on the western side of the mouth of the Mianus River; the American Impressionist Cos Cob Art Colony flourished in the late early 20th centuries. An offshoot of the group, the Greenwich Art Society, continues to support local artists in town; the town of Greenwich is one political and taxing body, but consists of several distinct sections or neighborhoods, such as Banksville, Cos Cob, Mianus, Old Greenwich and Greenwich. Of these neighborhoods, three have separate postal names and ZIP codes. From 1883 to 1885, the official post office name of Cos Cob was Bayport. In 2015, Forbes ranked Cos Cob the 287th wealthiest place in the US with a median sales price of $1,329,107; the Cos Cob Library is a cultural center and community hub providing art gallery space and lecture series, free WiFi access.
Although of recent construction, the building evokes Richardsonian Romanesque design and is set in a pocket park landscaped by local volunteers. The neighborhood's zip code is 06807, it has one post office. There are two public schools in Cos Cob: Cos Cob Elementary School, 390 pupils, Central Middle School, 710 pupils, though school boundaries cut across zip code boundaries and many students who live in Cos Cob attend other public schools in town. Cos Cob has a fire department staffed by both professional volunteers. Cos Cob station is served by the New Haven Line of the Metro-North Railroad, a commuter rail service that runs between New Haven and New York City; the community is situated on Cos Cob Harbor, a sheltered area on the north side of Long Island Sound. Cos Cob's role as a commercial shipping port, supplying potatoes and apples to New York City, disappeared with the appearance of the railroad and damming of the Mianus River; the river is now one source of the town's drinking water. From 1883 to 1885, the official post office name of Cos Cob was Bayport.
The Cos Cob train station and the Mianus River Railroad Bridge are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. "On Christmas Day, 1848, the last rails were laid over the Cos Cob Bridge, thereby supplying the last link needed to complete the railroad from New Haven to New York," according to the Stamford Historical Society Web site. "The first trial run was made on that day."Editors of two Stamford newspapers reported on the event. William H. Holly, Esq. founder of the Stamford Sentinel and a guest on the first trial run, wrote: "The train had to remain at Cos Cob Bridge some three hours for the last rails to be laid over it and the delay gave ample opportunity to the people to come and witness the wonderful feat. The general impression among them seemed to be, that the first train that attempted to cross this pass would be the last."Edgar Hoyt, editor of the Stamford Advocate, wrote: "The citizens of the village as well as the horses, etc. were nearly frightened out of their propriety... by such a horrible scream as was never heard to issue from any other than a metallic throat.
Animals of every description went careening round the fields, snuffling the air in their terror." The coal-fired steam turbine Cos Cob Power Plant built by Westinghouse in 1907 was a Mission Style structure. It was designated a Historic Mechanical Engingeering Landmark in 1982 by the ASME and the IEEE. Despite being listed on the National Register of Historic Places and local and national debate, the plant was decommissioned in 1987 and demolished in 2001. Ernest Thompson Seton lived in Cos Cob on an estate, now a town park. Over 75 years ago what would become the Boy Scouts of America was in part founded by him here. On June 28, 1983, a 100-foot elevated portion of Interstate 95 collapsed and injuring several motorists. Interstate 95 is the principal highway between Maine and Florida, one of the most traveled roads in the country; because the road was not reopened for six months, it created a bottleneck which affected the New York to Boston transportation corridor. In 2006 NRG Energy Inc. of La Jolla, proposed adding additional capacity of 40 megawatts to the current 60 megawatt plant to supplement Connecticut Light and Power during peak periods in southwestern Fairfield County.
Two additional jet turbines would be added to the existing plant in 2008. Edwin Booth, brother of John Wilkes Booth and a famous actor of his day Orestes H. Caldwell, one of the first members of the Federal Radio Commission Gary Dell'Abate, producer for The Howard Stern Show Jim Himes, Democratic congressman Finn Murphy, author of The Long Haul Barbara O'Neil, actress Anya Seton, author of historical romances Barbara Tuchman, historian Bush-Holley House, the only National Historic Landmark in Greenwich. 1730-1938. Hollywood Golden Age film star Gene Marshall, a doll designed by artist Mel Odom, spent her formative years in Cos Cob Cos Cob Library Larkin, Susan G.. The Cos Cob Art Colon
A side platform is a platform positioned to the side of a pair of tracks at a railway station, tram stop, or transitway. Dual side platform stations, one for each direction of travel, is the basic station design used for double-track railway lines. Side platforms may result in a wider overall footprint for the station compared with an island platform where a single width of platform can be shared by riders using either track. In some stations, the two side platforms are connected by a footbridge running above and over the tracks. While a pair of side platforms is provided on a dual-track line, a single side platform is sufficient for a single-track line. Where the station is close to a level crossing the platforms may either be on the same side of the crossing road or alternatively may be staggered in one of two ways. With the'near-side platforms' configuration, each platform appears before the intersection and with'far-side platforms' they are positioned after the intersection. In some situations a single side platform can be served by multiple vehicles with a scissors crossing provided to allow access mid-way along its length.
Most stations with two side platforms have an'Up' platform, used by trains heading towards the primary destination of the line, with the other platform being the'Down' platform which takes trains heading the opposite way. The main facilities of the station are located on the'Up' platform with the other platform accessed from a footbridge, subway or a track crossing. However, in many cases the station's main buildings are located on whichever side faces the town or village the station serves. Larger stations may have two side platforms with several island platforms in between; some are in a Spanish solution format, with two side platforms and an island platform in between, serving two tracks. Island platform Split platform
National Register of Historic Places listings in Greenwich, Connecticut
This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Greenwich, Connecticut. This is intended to be a complete list of the properties and districts on the National Register of Historic Places in Greenwich; the locations of National Register properties and districts for which the latitude and longitude coordinates are included below, may be seen in an online map. There are 286 districts listed on the National Register in Fairfield County; this list covers the 34 properties located or in Greenwich. Ones in Bridgeport or Stamford are covered in National Register of Historic Places listings in Bridgeport, Connecticut, or in National Register of Historic Places listings in Stamford, Connecticut; the remainder are covered in National Register of Historic Places listings in Fairfield County, Connecticut. National Register of Historic Places listings in Fairfield County, Connecticut National Register of Historic Places listings in Stamford, Connecticut National Register of Historic Places listings in Bridgeport, Connecticut List of National Historic Landmarks in Connecticut
Grand Central Terminal
Grand Central Terminal is a commuter rail terminal located at 42nd Street and Park Avenue in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. Grand Central is the southern terminus of the Metro-North Railroad's Harlem and New Haven Lines, serving the northern parts of the New York metropolitan area, it contains a connection to the New York City Subway at Grand Central–42nd Street. The terminal is the third-busiest train station in North America, after Toronto Union Station and New York Penn Station; the distinctive architecture and interior design of Grand Central Terminal's station house have earned it several landmark designations, including as a National Historic Landmark. Its Beaux-Arts design incorporates numerous works of art. Grand Central Terminal is one of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions, with 21.9 million visitors in 2013, excluding train and subway passengers. The terminal's main concourse is used as a meeting place, is featured in films and television. Grand Central Terminal contains a variety of stores and food vendors, including a food court on its lower-level concourse.
Grand Central Terminal was named for the New York Central Railroad. Opened in 1913, the terminal was built on the site of two named predecessor stations, the first of which dates to 1871. Grand Central Terminal served intercity trains until 1991, when Amtrak began routing its trains through nearby Penn Station; the East Side Access project, which will bring Long Island Rail Road service to a new station beneath the terminal, is expected to be completed in late 2022. Grand Central covers 48 acres and has 44 platforms, more than any other railroad station in the world, its platforms, all below ground, serve 26 on the lower. 43 tracks are in use for passenger service. Another eight tracks and four platforms are being built on two new levels deep underneath the existing station as part of East Side Access. Unlike most stations in the Metro-North system, Grand Central Terminal is owned by Midtown Trackage Ventures, a private company, rather than by the Metropolitan Transportation Authority, which operates Metro-North and most of its stations, including Grand Central.
Grand Central Terminal was named by and for the New York Central Railroad, which built the station and its two precursors on the site. It has "always been more colloquially and affectionately known as Grand Central Station", the name of its immediate precursor that operated from 1900 until 1910 and which shares its name with the nearby U. S. Post Office station at 450 Lexington Avenue and, with the Grand Central–42nd Street subway station next to the terminal. Grand Central Terminal serves some 67 million passengers a year, more than any other Metro-North station. At morning rush hour, a train arrives at the terminal every 58 seconds. Three of Metro-North's five main lines terminate at Grand Central: Harlem Line to Wassaic, New York Hudson Line to Poughkeepsie, New York New Haven Line to New Haven, Connecticut New Canaan Branch to New Canaan, Connecticut Danbury Branch to Danbury, Connecticut Waterbury Branch to Waterbury, ConnecticutThrough these lines, the terminal serves Metro-North commuters traveling to and from the Bronx in New York City.
The New York City Subway's adjacent Grand Central–42nd Street station serves these routes: 4, 5, 6, <6> trains, situated diagonally under the Pershing Square Building, 42nd Street, Grand Hyatt New York 7 and <7> trains, under 42nd Street between Park Avenue and west of Third Avenue S train, under 42nd Street between Madison Avenue and Vanderbilt AvenueThese MTA Regional Bus Operations buses stop near Grand Central: NYCT Bus: M1, M2, M3, M4 and Q32 local buses at Madison Avenue and Fifth Avenue X27, X28, X37, X38, SIM4C, SIM6, SIM8, SIM8X, SIM11, SIM22, SIM25, SIM26, SIM30, SIM31 and SIM33C express buses at Madison Avenue X27, X28, X37, X38, SIM4C, SIM8, SIM8X, SIM25, SIM31 and SIM33C express buses at Fifth Avenue M42 local bus at 42nd Street M101, M102 and M103 local buses at Third Avenue and Lexington Avenue X27, X28, X63, X64 and X68 express buses at Third Avenue SIM6, SIM11, SIM22 and SIM26 express buses at Lexington Avenue MTA Bus: BxM3, BxM4, BxM6, BxM7, BxM8, BxM9, BxM10, BxM18, BM1, BM2, BM3, BM4 and BM5 express buses at Madison Avenue and Fifth Avenue BxM1 express bus at Lexington Avenue BxM1, QM21, QM31, QM32, QM34, QM35, QM36, QM40, QM42 and QM44 express buses at Third Avenue Academy Bus: SIM23 and SIM24 express buses at Madison Avenue and Fifth Avenue The terminal and its predecessors were designed for intercity service, which operated from the first station building's completion in 1871 until Amtrak ceased operations in the terminal in 1991.
Through transfers, passengers could connect to all major lines in the United States, including the Canadian, the Empire Builder, the San Francisco Zephyr, the Southwest Limited, the Crescent, the Sunset Limited under Amtrak. Destinations included San Francisco, Los Angeles, New Orleans and Montreal. Another notable former train was New York Central's 20th Century Limited, a luxury service that oper
Penn Central Transportation Company
The Penn Central Transportation Company abbreviated to Penn Central, was an American Class I railroad headquartered in Philadelphia, that operated from 1968 until 1976. It was created by the 1968 merger of the New York Central railroads; the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad was added to the merger in 1969. S. history. The Penn Central was created as a response to challenges faced by all three railroads in the late 1960s; the Northeast United States is the most densely populated region of the U. S. While railroads elsewhere in North America drew a sizable percentage of revenues from the long-distance shipment of commodities such as coal, lumber and iron ore, northeastern railroads traditionally depended on a more heterogeneous mix of services, including: commuter rail/passenger rail service Railway Express Agency freight service Break-bulk freight service via boxcars Consumer goods and perishables These labor-intensive, short-haul services were vulnerable to competition from automobiles and trucks where facilitated by four-lane highways.
In 1956, the U. S. Congress passed the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956; this law authorized construction of the Interstate Highway System, which provided an economic boost to the trucking industry. Another problem was the inability to respond to market conditions. At the time, U. S. railroads were regulated by the Interstate Commerce Commission, which did not allow railroads to change rates it charged both shippers and passengers. Reducing costs was the only way to survive and become profitable, but the ICC restricted what cost-cutting could take place. A merger seemed to be a promising way out of a difficult situation; the Pennsylvania Railroad and New York Central Railroad had been significant rivals for most of the 20th century. Both railroads had physical plant not being utilized to capacity. Talks of a merger had been announced as early as 1957; the initial reaction in the industry was utter surprise. Every merger proposal for decades had tried to balance the two giant railroads against each other and create two, three, or four more-or-less equal systems in the east.
Traditionally, the PRR had been allied with the Wabash railroads. Any remaining players were swept up with the Nickel Plate. In addition, tradition favored end-to-end mergers rather than those of parallel railroads. Planning and justifying the merger took nearly a decade, during which time the eastern railroad scene changed in large measure because of the impending merger of the NYC and PRR; the Erie merged with the DL&W to create the Erie Lackawanna Railway in 1960, the Chesapeake & Ohio Railway acquired control of the B&O, the N&W took in several railroads, including the Nickel Plate and Wabash. The merger formally closed on February 1, 1968. On that date, the PRR — the nominal survivor of the merger — changed its name to Pennsylvania New York Central Transportation Company, it shortened its name to Penn Central Company on May 8, 1968. On October 1, 1969, Penn Central reorganized as a holding company, with its railroad interests under a wholly owned subsidiary, Penn Central Transportation Company.
The ICC approved the merger on the following conditions: The new company had to take over the freight and passenger operations of the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad. That occurred on December 31, 1968. PC had to absorb Susquehanna & Western Railway. PC and NYS&W could not agree on a price, NYS&W became part of the Delaware Otsego System. PC had to make the Lehigh Valley Railroad available for merger by either N&W or C&O or, if neither of those railroads wanted it, merge it into PC. LV entered bankruptcy only three days after PC did; the merger was not a success. An implementation plan was drawn up, but not carried out. Attempts to integrate operations and equipment were unsuccessful, due to clashing corporate cultures, incompatible computer systems and union contracts. Little thought had been given to unifying the two railroads, which had different styles of operation. In the decade prior to the merger, the NYC had trimmed its physical plant and assembled a young, eager management group under the leadership of Alfred E. Perlman.
The PRR, headed by Stuart T. Saunders, had been a more traditional operation. Many of NYC's management people saw that the PRR was dominant in PC management and soon left for other positions; those who departed had said the different corporate philosophies could never have merged successfully. The network was so poorly integrated. In addition to the problems of unification, the industrial states of the Northeast and Midwest were fast becoming the Rust Belt; as industries shut down and relocated, railroads found themselves with excess capacity. The PRR was burdened with excess trackage. Though this track was no longer needed, it was still on the tax rolls. West of the Allegheny Mountains, the NYC and PRR duplicated each other at every major point.