Biblioteca Nacional de España
The Biblioteca Nacional de España is a major public library, the largest in Spain, one of the largest in the world. It is located on the Paseo de Recoletos; the library was founded by King Philip V in 1712 as the Palace Public Library. The Royal Letters Patent that he granted, the predecessor of the current legal deposit requirement, made it mandatory for printers to submit a copy of every book printed in Spain to the library. In 1836, the library's status as Crown property was revoked and ownership was transferred to the Ministry of Governance. At the same time, it was renamed the Biblioteca Nacional. During the 19th century, confiscations and donations enabled the Biblioteca Nacional to acquire the majority of the antique and valuable books that it holds. In 1892 the building was used to host the Historical American Exposition. On March 16, 1896, the Biblioteca Nacional opened to the public in the same building in which it is housed and included a vast Reading Room on the main floor designed to hold 320 readers.
In 1931 the Reading Room was reorganised, providing it with a major collection of reference works, the General Reading Room was created to cater for students and general readers. During the Spanish Civil War close to 500,000 volumes were collected by the Confiscation Committee and stored in the Biblioteca Nacional to safeguard works of art and books held until in religious establishments and private houses. During the 20th century numerous modifications were made to the building to adapt its rooms and repositories to its expanding collections, to the growing volume of material received following the modification to the Legal Deposit requirement in 1958, to the numerous works purchased by the library. Among this building work, some of the most noteworthy changes were the alterations made in 1955 to triple the capacity of the library's repositories, those started in 1986 and completed in 2000, which led to the creation of the new building in Alcalá de Henares and complete remodelling of the building on Paseo de Recoletos, Madrid.
In 1986, when Spain's main bibliographic institutions - the National Newspaper Library, the Spanish Bibliographic Institute and the Centre for Documentary and Bibliographic Treasures - were incorporated into the Biblioteca Nacional, the library was established as the State Repository of Spain's Cultural Memory, making all of Spain's bibliographic output on any media available to the Spanish Library System and national and international researchers and cultural and educational institutions. In 1990 it was made an Autonomous Entity attached to the Ministry of Culture; the Madrid premises are shared with the National Archaeological Museum. The Biblioteca Nacional is Spain's highest library institution and is head of the Spanish Library System; as the country's national library, it is the centre responsible for identifying, preserving and disseminating information about Spain's documentary heritage, it aspires to be an essential point of reference for research into Spanish culture. In accordance with its Articles of Association, passed by Royal Decree 1581/1991 of October 31, 1991, its principal functions are to: Compile and conserve bibliographic archives produced in any language of the Spanish state, or any other language, for the purposes of research and information.
Promote research through the study and reproduction of its bibliographic archive. Disseminate information on Spain's bibliographic output based on the entries received through the legal deposit requirement; the library's collection consists of more than 26,000,000 items, including 15,000,000 books and other printed materials, 4,500,000 graphic materials, 600,000 sound recordings, 510,000 music scores, more than 500,000 microforms, 500,000 maps, 143,000 newspapers and serials, 90,000 audiovisuals, 90,000 electronic documents, 30,000 manuscripts. The current director of the Biblioteca Nacional is Ana Santos Aramburo, appointed in 2013. Former directors include her predecessors Glòria Pérez-Salmerón and Milagros del Corral as well as historian Juan Pablo Fusi and author Rosa Regàs. Given its role as the legal deposit for the whole of Spain, since 1991 it has kept most of the overflowing collection at a secondary site in Alcalá de Henares, near Madrid; the Biblioteca Nacional provides access to its collections through the following library services: Guidance and general information on the institution and other libraries.
Bibliographic information about its collection and those held by other libraries or library systems. Access to its automated catalogue, which contains close to 3,000,000 bibliographic records encompassing all of its collections. Archive consultation in the library's reading rooms. Interlibrary loans. Archive reproduction. Biblioteca Digital Hispánica, digital library launched in 2008 by the Biblioteca Nacional de España List of libraries in Spain Media related to Biblioteca Nacional de España at Wikimedia Commons Official site Official web catalog
Borso d'Este, Duke of Ferrara
Borso d'Este was Duke of Ferrara, the first Duke of Modena, which he ruled from 1450 until his death. He was a member of the House of Este, he was an illegitimate son of Niccolò III d'Este, Marquess of Ferrara and Reggio, his mistress Stella de' Tolomei. Borso succeeded Leonello d'Este in the marquisate on October 1, 1450. On May 18, 1452 he received confirmation over his fiefs, as Duke, by Emperor Frederick III. On April 12, 1471, in St. Peter's Basilica, he was appointed as Duke of Ferrara by Pope Paul II. Borso followed an expansionist policy for his state, one of ennobling for his family, he was allied with the Republic of Venice, enemy both to Francesco I Sforza and the Medici family. These rivalries led to the indecisive Battle of Molinella, he was in general appreciated by his subjects. One cause of grievance was his project to build a mountain from scratch in 1471— a folly he was forced to abandon. Borso's court was the center of the so-called Ferrarese school of painting, whose members include Francesco del Cossa, Ercole dei Roberti and Cosimo Tura.
Their most important commission during Borso's rule were the frescoes in the Palazzo Schifanoia and the Borso D'Este Bible. He protected numerous musicians, including Pietrobono del Chitarrino, Niccolò Todesco e Blasio Montolino. A man of little education, he had a pragmatic view of the arts as a powerful propaganda tool to promote his political ambitions by projecting an image of personal magnificence, he liked to portray himself as an ideal ruler, as for example in the frescoes in Palazzo Schifanoia. His traditional image as a magnanimous patron of arts, as proclaimed in Ludovico Ariosto's poem Orlando Furioso, is an idealized representation. While spending extravagantly on culture and spectacle to promote his political image, he was far from generous with the artists he patronized, whom he did not consider worthy of any special consideration. A notorious example of this attitude was his miserly treatment of Cossa, who abandoned Ferrara for Bologna, his personal Bible is one of the most magnificent illuminated manuscripts of Renaissance Italy and a fabulously costly work of art.
Borso never left no heirs. His successor was his half-brother Ercole I d'Este. Notes References Chiappini, Luciano. Gli Estensi. Ferrara
The Museo Correr is a museum in Venice, northern Italy. Located in St. Mark's Square, Venice, it is one of the 11 civic museums run by the Fondazione Musei Civici di Venezia; the museum extends along the southside of the square on the upper floors of the Procuratorie Nuove. With its rich and varied collections, the Museo Correr covers both the history of Venice; the Museo Correr originated with the collection bequeathed to the city of Venice in 1830 by Teodoro Correr. A member of a traditional Venetian family, Correr was a meticulous and passionate collector, dedicating most of his life to the collection of both works of art and documents or individual objects that reflected the history of Venice. Upon his death, all this material was donated to the city, together with the family's Grand Canal palace which housed it; the nobleman left the city funds to be used in conserving and extending the collections and in making them available to the public. The period when he was gathering his collections was a particular one, as the Republic of Venice had fallen in 1797 and for decades thereafter the city would be under foreign rulers and out of real necessity, many Venetian families were eager to sell off their valuable collections.
Several collections ended up being bought by foreigners, but in the early decades of the 19th century there were still many pieces on the market. An insatiable collector, from his youth bought all sorts of objects and dedicated all his resources in putting together an incredible amount of material. Correr would reveal himself to have a sharp eye, putting together a collection, undoubtedly original, he was explicit about his intention that the collections should be made available to the public, the museum was open in 1836. Over the years, the contents of the museum would be catalogued and organized to provide scholars with a study facility and the general public with the opportunity to see the best from each individual collection. Subsequent bequests and acquisitions would be added to the collection leading to various pieces being housed on other venues. Among the new pieces were the collections donated by several important Venetian families, such as the Molin, the Zoppetti, the Tironi, the Sagredo, the Cicogna, these included significant paintings, glass pieces, bronzes.
In 1887, the enlarged collection was moved from Palazzo Correr to the nearby Fondaco dei Turchi, where it was laid out in a new display. However, in 1922, the Museo Correr was moved again to its present location in Piazza San Marco. In the 1990s, the entire civic museums system was redesigned, all under a single municipal administration. In 1996, thanks to an agreement with the Italian Ministry of Culture, the St. Mark's Square Museums ticket was launched, granting entrance not only to the Museo Correr, but the Doge's Palace, the Museo Archeologico Nazionale and the Monumental Rooms of the Biblioteca Marciana. In March 2008, the Museo Correr became part of the Fondazione Musei Civici di Venezia system; the building that encloses the far end of the Piazza San Marco is known as the Napoleonic Wing. The design and early building works date from the period when Venice was part of the Kingdom of Italy, in which Napoleon was represented by the vice-regent Eugène de Beauharnais; the two long wings that run the length of the Square are the Procuratie Vecchie and the Procuratie Nuove, which had housed the offices and residences of some of the main individuals of the Venetian Republic.
When the city came under Napoleonic rule, the French emperor and his court realized that public representation of imperial power posed certain logistical and political problems. Having rejected the Doge's Palace because of its complex past, these turned to the Procuratie Nuove, the former residence of the Procuratore di San Marco, along the southern edge of the Square. Designed in 1582 by Vincenzo Scamozzi, this structure itself had at the time been intended to complete the vast project for the reorganization of the Piazza San Marco, which had begun with Sansovino in the mid-16th century. From 1586 to 1596, works were complete on the ten arcades that extended beyond Sansovino's Library, around 1640, the rest of the Procuratie Nuove was completed by Baldassarre Longhena, and this was the building which, by January 1807, Napoleon decreed should become the Imperial Palace. All the interiors within the Procuratie Nuove were changed with the re-decoration reflecting the taste for Neoclassicism, together with the Napoleonic Wing – which now stands opposite the St. Mark's Basilica –, designed by Giuseppe Soli and Lorenzo Santi and incorporated to the palace.
When Venice moved under Austrian dominion in 1814, the palace served as the House of Habsburg and emperor Francis I would stay there until 1815. In 1866, after Venice became part of unified Italy, the palace passed to the House of Savoy. In 1919, Victor Emmanuel III, king of Italy, handed it over to the State for use by the Ministry of Education. Hence, in 1920, part of the building was used to house the Museo Archeologico Nazionale, in 1922 another area became home to the Museo Correr. An antechamber leads into the Napoleonic Gallery. Comprising a Ballroom, Throne Room and Banqueting Hall, this is the core of the public area of the palace, exhibiting artworks by Antonio Canova; the first floor of the Museo Correr illustrates the life and culture of the Venetian Republic over the centuries of its political grandeur and independence. Rooms 6 and 7 illustrate the period when the Doge's power was at its highest and charts the decline of the figure during the last years of the Republic, including works by Giovanni da Asola, Andrea Mich
In Greek mythology, Calliope is the muse who presides over eloquence and epic poetry. Hesiod and Ovid called her the "Chief of all Muses". One account says Calliope was the lover of the war god Ares, bore him several sons: Mygdon, Edonus and Odomantus the founders of Thracian tribes known as the Mygdones, Edones and Odomantes. Otherwise these children were attributed to daughter of river-god Nestus. Calliope had two famous sons and Linus, by either Apollo or the king Oeagrus of Thrace, she taught Orpheus verses for singing. According to Hesiod, she was the wisest of the Muses, as well as the most assertive. Calliope married Oeagrus close to Olympus, she is said to have defeated the daughters of Pierus, king of Thessaly, in a singing match, to punish their presumption, turned them into magpies. In some accounts, Calliope was called the mother of the Corybantes by his father Zeus, she was sometimes believed to be Homer's muse for the Odyssey. The Roman epic poet, invokes her in the Aeneid. In some cases, she is said to be the Mother of sirens.
Calliope is seen with a writing tablet in her hand. At times, she is depicted wearing a gold crown, she would be seen with her children. The Italian poet, Dante Alighieri, in his Divine Comedy, refers to Calliope
Palazzo Schifanoia is a Renaissance palace in Ferrara, Emilia-Romagna built for the Este family. The name "Schifanoia" is thought to originate from "schivar la noia" meaning to "escape from boredom" which describes the original intention of the palazzo and the other villas in close proximity where the Este court relaxed; the highlights of its decorations are the allegorical frescoes with details in tempera by or after Francesco del Cossa and Cosmè Tura, executed ca 1469–70, a unique survival of their time. This palace forms part of a catalogue of pleasure palaces for the Este family, including the following: Delizia di Belriguardo a Voghiera Delizia del Verginese a Portomaggiore Castello di Mesola a Mesola Villa della Mensa a Sabbioncello San Vittore Delizia di Benvignante ad Argenta, ItalyThe Palace of Belfiore which once held the Studiolo of the Palazzo Belfiore, no longer exists; the palace had its origins in a single-storey structure without wings built for Alberto V d'Este, a small retreat intended for suppers and diversions, as a sort of banqueting house, with an urban front and a garden front.
As the equivalent of a Roman villa suburbana, the Palazzo Schifanoia long predated the first such pleasure villa built in Renaissance Rome, the Belvedere built for Nicholas V. In 1452 Borso d'Este received the title of Duke for the imperial fiefs of Modena and Reggio Emilia that he held from Emperor Frederick III; the occasion for the cycle of frescoes was the expected investiture of Borso d'Este as Duke of Ferrara in 1471 by Pope Paul II. The subtext of the festivities embodied in the fresco cycle is the right ordering of mankind and nature under the good government of the Duke, the guarantor of peace and prosperity in the Este dominions. Under the commissions of Borso d'Este, the architect Pietro Benvenuto degli Ordini was called upon to develop a ducal apartment on an upper level, providing the building with a salone suitable for presentations of ambassadors and delegations, a counterpart of the governing structure of Ferrara housed in the former Palazzo della Ragione, destroyed in World War II.
The palace was used by Marfisa d'Este, a great patron of the arts. There, in the Salone dei Mesi, Cosimo Tura's purely pagan cycle of the months presents the cycle of the year as an allegorical pageant with the appropriate Olympian gods presiding on their fanciful cars drawn by the beasts proper to each deity, with appropriate personifications of the constellations of the zodiac; the frescoes were realized circa 1469–70 by artisans of the d'Este household, the larger figures based on cartoons by Cosmé Tura, the vignettes of the labors of the year and the activities of the Ferrarese court under the benevolent eye of Borso d'Este, flanked by astrological figures to designs by Francesco del Cossa and Ercole de' Roberti. The learned and elaborate scheme of the allegorical presentations must have come from the immediate circle of Borso d'Este from the court astrologer, Pellegrino Prisciani, with some details drawn from Boccaccio's Genealogia deorum. In the Sala delle Virtù nearby, the sculptor Domenico di Paris painted the stucco reliefs in a frieze of putti and symbols of the Cardinal and Theological Virtues, under a painted compartmented ceiling.
The façade was decorated with a cornice of feigned battlements, its surface smoothly stuccoed and decorated with geometric designs of colorful imitation marbles, which have been lost, lending a somewhat dour public face to Palazzo Schifanoia, not what Borso d'Este intended. The rich white marble entrance door survives, though its tinted colors have weathered away and art historians disagree whether it is to be attributed to the painter-designer Francesco del Cossa or to Biagio Rossetti. Above the arched door, flanked by pilasters, the Este arms are displayed and the unicorn, a symbol of ducal benevolence and the source of patronage. In 1493 the terracotta cornice was added to designs by Biagio Rossetti, commissioned by Ercole I d'Este to extend the palace. From the Salone dei Mesi the visitor once passed directly into the gardens reached by a monumental stair from the summer loggia, structures that were demolished in the 18th century. After the Este left Ferrara in 1598, the palazzo was inherited through successive heirs by the Tassoni family, its frescoes whitewashed over.
During administration of the duchy as part of the Papal States, with a Habsburg garrison, it became a tobacco warehouse and manufactory. When Palazzo Schifanoia came into the possession of the comune of Ferrara in the aftermath of World War I, only seven of the months in the Salone remained legible. Palazzo Schifanoia forms part of the heritage of Ferrara conserved under the umbrella of the Musei Civici d'Arte Antica di Ferrara; the 14th and 15th century rooms contain collections of antiquities, a numismatic collection and medals cast by Pisanello and other Quattrocento artists to commemorate members of the Este family. Palazzo Schifanoia Gallery: details of the frescoes after Cossa's designs
Angelo Maccagnino known as Angelo da Siena, was an Italian Renaissance painter. He was from Siena but became a pupil of Rogier van der Weyden and from 1447 court painter to Leonello d'Este, Marquis of Ferrara. Working alongside Cosme Tura, he contributed to the paintings of Muses for the Studiolo of the Palazzo Belfiore, Ferrara
Painting is the practice of applying paint, color or other medium to a solid surface. The medium is applied to the base with a brush, but other implements, such as knives and airbrushes, can be used; the final work is called a painting. Painting is an important form in the visual arts, bringing in elements such as drawing, composition, narration, or abstraction. Paintings can be naturalistic and representational, abstract, symbolistic, emotive, or political in nature. A portion of the history of painting in both Eastern and Western art is dominated by religious art. Examples of this kind of painting range from artwork depicting mythological figures on pottery, to Biblical scenes Sistine Chapel ceiling, to scenes from the life of Buddha or other images of Eastern religious origin. In art, the term painting describes the result of the action; the support for paintings includes such surfaces as walls, canvas, glass, pottery, leaf and concrete, the painting may incorporate multiple other materials including sand, paper, gold leaf, as well as objects.
Color, made up of hue and value, dispersed over a surface is the essence of painting, just as pitch and rhythm are the essence of music. Color is subjective, but has observable psychological effects, although these can differ from one culture to the next. Black is associated with mourning in the West; some painters, theoreticians and scientists, including Goethe and Newton, have written their own color theory. Moreover, the use of language is only an abstraction for a color equivalent; the word "red", for example, can cover a wide range of variations from the pure red of the visible spectrum of light. There is not a formalized register of different colors in the way that there is agreement on different notes in music, such as F or C♯. For a painter, color is not divided into basic and derived colors. Painters deal with pigments, so "blue" for a painter can be any of the blues: phthalocyanine blue, Prussian blue, Cobalt blue, so on. Psychological and symbolical meanings of color are not speaking, means of painting.
Colors only add to the potential, derived context of meanings, because of this, the perception of a painting is subjective. The analogy with music is quite clear—sound in music is analogous to "light" in painting, "shades" to dynamics, "coloration" is to painting as the specific timbre of musical instruments is to music; these elements do not form a melody of themselves. Modern artists have extended the practice of painting to include, as one example, which began with Cubism and is not painting in the strict sense; some modern painters incorporate different materials such as sand, straw or wood for their texture. Examples of this are the works of Anselm Kiefer. There is a growing community of artists who use computers to "paint" color onto a digital "canvas" using programs such as Adobe Photoshop, Corel Painter, many others; these images can be printed onto traditional canvas. Jean Metzinger's mosaic-like Divisionist technique had its parallel in literature. I make a kind of chromatic versification and for syllables I use strokes which, variable in quantity, cannot differ in dimension without modifying the rhythm of a pictorial phraseology destined to translate the diverse emotions aroused by nature.
Rhythm, for artists such as Piet Mondrian, is important in painting as it is in music. If one defines rhythm as "a pause incorporated into a sequence" there can be rhythm in paintings; these pauses allow creative force to intervene and add new creations—form, coloration. The distribution of form, or any kind of information is of crucial importance in the given work of art, it directly affects the aesthetic value of that work; this is because the aesthetic value is functionality dependent, i.e. the freedom of perception is perceived as beauty. Free flow of energy, in art as well as in other forms of "techne", directly contributes to the aesthetic value. Music was important to the birth of abstract art, since music is abstract by nature—it does not try to represent the exterior world, but expresses in an immediate way the inner feelings of the soul. Wassily Kandinsky used musical terms to identify his works. Kandinsky theorized that "music is the ultimate teacher," and subsequently embarked upon the first seven of his ten Compositions.
Hearing tones and chords as he painted, Kandinsky theorized that, yellow is the color of middle C on a brassy trumpet. In 1871 the young Kandinsky learned to play the cello. Kandinsky's stage design for a performance of Mussorgsky's "Pictures at an Exhibition" illustrates his "synaesthetic" concept of a universal correspondence of forms and musical sounds. Music d