HLN (TV network)
HLN is an American pay television news channel, owned by CNN. Branded as CNN2, CNN Headline News, the channel was structured to broadcast a tightly-formatted 30-minute newswheel 24 hours a day, with freshly updated information that covered various areas of interest. Since 2005, its format has shifted to long-form tabloid-, opinion-, crime-, entertainment news-related programming. In 2014, the network further re-focused with an emphasis on social media, but this practice was dropped by 2016 in favor of focusing more towards traditional news programming, with the remainder of its lineup dedicated to true crime programming, drawing from the library of defunct sister network Court TV, as well as new original programs within the genre; as of July 2015, HLN is available to 97 million American households in the United States making it the most distributed American subscription network. Since the mid-2000s, HLN has been available internationally on pay television providers in parts of Asia, the Caribbean, Latin America, Middle East, North Africa and in Canada.
The channel was launched at midnight Eastern Time on January 1, 1982, as CNN2. The channel's launch was simulcast nationwide on sister networks CNN and Superstation WTBS, starting at 11:45 p.m. on December 31, 1981, as a preview for cable providers that had not yet reached agreements to carry CNN2. Following a preview reel by original CNN anchor Lou Waters and an introduction by founder and then-Turner Broadcasting CEO Ted Turner, Chuck Roberts and Denise LeClair – anchored the channel's first newscast; the channel's programming was formatted around the idea that a viewer could tune in at any time of day or night, receive up-to-date information on the top national and international stories in just 30 minutes. This "Headline News Wheel" format featured::00 - national and world news. The:25/:55 lifestyle segment was designed to allow local cable systems the option of pre-empting it with a local headline "capsule" from an associated regional cable news channel or a local television station. Another regular feature, the "Hollywood Minute", was fitted-in after the "Headline Sports" segment.
In the channel's early years, a two-minute recap of the hour's top stories, the "CNN Headlines," would run after the sports segment. In January of the following year, it was renamed Headline News. From around that point until 1992, the channel was abbreviated as "HN". During its first year, Headline News had a competitor in the form of ABC/Group W's Satellite News Channel, which operated from June 21, 1982 to October 27, 1983. After its shutdown, SNC's satellite slot was purchased by Ted Turner to expand Headline News' reach further into additional homes. Jon Petrovich was hired in the mid-1980s by Turner to lead Headline News. In 1990, Headline News developed Local Edition, a six-minute-long local newscast, whose content was produced by a local broadcast station in the participating market, airing at the end of each half-hour of Headline News' rolling news block; the channel included the "CNN" branding in its name intermittently for most of its history, before being incorporated on a regular basis from 1997 to 2007.
In 1989, Headline News introduced a ticker that appeared at the lower one-third of the screen – except during commercial breaks, which showed stock market data with indexes of the major stock exchanges and quotes for major companies during trading hours, which were updated on a 15-minute delay. In 1992, the channel added the "Headline News SportsTicker", which showed sports scores and schedules for the day's upcoming games, creating the first continuous news ticker on television; the redesign resulted in video of the rolling newscasts becoming pillarboxed with blue bars on the left and right wings of the screen, before it returned to a full-screen format, with the ticker becoming a translucent black background overlaid on the lower third of the video, as part of a 1994 update to the channel's graphics package that added weather forecasts for select major U. S. cities to the ticker. On January 8, 1992, Headline News became the victim of a hoax; when President George H. W. Bush fainted at a state dinner in Tokyo, Japan, a person claiming to be the president's physician called into the channel's Atlanta headquarters and claimed that Bush had died.
At 9:45 a.m. anchor Don Harrison prepared to break the story, stating "This just in to CNN Headline News, we say right off the bat, we have not confirmed this through any other sources..." Executive producer Roger Bahre, w
Sirius XM NFL Radio
SiriusXM NFL Radio is a station on Sirius XM Radio channel 88, dedicated to the National Football League. Its personalities include several former players and front office executives including Gil Brandt, Derrick Brooks, Tim Brown, Rich Gannon, Pat Kirwan, James Lofton, John Madden, Anthony "Booger" McFarland, Jim Miller, Scott Pioli, Bill Polian, LaDainian Tomlinson, Ross Tucker, Amani Toomer and Solomon Wilcots. Hosts on the channel include Bob Papa, Bruce Murray, Alex Marvez, Jack Arute, Vic Carucci, Howard David, Dan Leberfeld, Steve Torre, Zig Fracassi and Jeff Rickard; the channel had been known as "Sirius NFL Radio", but after the Sirius/XM merger, the channel name was changed. It was added to XM on September 20, 2008 as part of its "Premier" package and broadcasts on channel 88; the programming on SiriusXM NFL Radio can variate during the offseason, due to live coverage of the NFL Combine, the NFL Owners' Meetings, the NFL Draft, the Pro Football Hall of Fame induction ceremonies. The current NFL Radio lineup is as follows:Weekdays 6-8 am ET, 6-7 am ET - The Morning Kickoff with Ross Tucker 8-11 am ET, 7-11 am ET - The Opening Drive with Bob Papa, Ross Tucker, David Diehl, Amani Toomer, Booger McFarland 11 am-3 pm ET - The SiriusXM Blitz with Bruce Murray, Rich Gannon and James Lofton 3-7 pm ET - Movin' the Chains with Pat Kirwan and Jim Miller 7-11 pm ET, 8-11 pm - Late Hits with Alex Marvez, Bill Polian, Phil Savage, Mark Dominik and Gil Brandt 7-8 pm ET - Simms and the Mad Dog with Phil Simms and Chris "Mad Dog" Russo Football Diehards with Mike Dempsey and Bob Harris Saturdays The Weekend Kickoff 8-11 am ET - Howard David and Amani Toomer Press Coverage 11 am-2 pm ET - Vic Carucci and Dan Leberfeld The End Zone 5-8 pm ET - Jim Miller and Pat Kirwan Chalk Talk - Various Times - Saturday & Sunday Sunday The Sunday Kickoff 7-9 am ET SiriusXM NFL Radio Tailgate Show 9 am-12 pm ET The Sunday Drive 12-8 pm ET - Steve Torre and Bill Lekas NFL Rewind Sunday 8 pm-12 am ET - Jack Arute and Tim Brown The SiriusXM NFL Radio channel does not air games on Sunday afternoons.
Instead, it airs The Sunday Drive, which recaps all games being played on Sunday afternoon, while breaking into radio broadcasts of any games where pertinent action is taking place. The games themselves are aired on the reserved play-by-play channels and other channels not being used; the channel instead carries national radio broadcasts produced by the NFL on Westwood One for Sunday Night Football, Monday Night Football, Thursday Night Football. Through the 2010 season, when games were carried on this channel, the internet simulcast would carry alternative content due to the NFL's Field Pass exclusivity; when SiriusXM renewed its contract to carry NFL games through the 2015 season, it gained the rights to stream games online to satellite radio subscribers, starting with the 2011 season. Sirius XM NFL Radio
MSNBC is an American pay television network that provides news coverage and political commentary from NBC News on current events. MSNBC is owned by the NBCUniversal News Group, a unit of the NBCUniversal Television Group division of NBCUniversal. MSNBC and its website were founded in 1996 under a partnership between Microsoft and General Electric's NBC unit, hence the network's naming. Although they had the same name, msnbc.com and MSNBC maintained separate corporate structures and news operations. Msnbc.com was headquartered on the Microsoft campus in Redmond, Washington while MSNBC operated out of NBC's headquarters in New York City. Microsoft divested its stakes in the MSNBC channel in 2005 and in msnbc.com in July 2012. The general news site was rebranded as NBCNews.com, a new msnbc.com was created as the online home of the cable channel. In the late summer of 2015, MSNBC revamped its programming. MSNBC sought to sharpen its news image by entering into a dual editorial relationship with its organizational parent NBC News.
MSNBC Live, the network's flagship daytime news platform, was expanded to cover over eight hours of the day. Phil Griffin is the president and director of day-to-day operations at MSNBC. Pat Burkey, Janelle Rodriguez, Jonathan Wald oversee programming and news operations, with Brian Williams serving as the channel's chief anchor of breaking news coverage; as of February 2015 94,531,000 households in the United States were receiving MSNBC. Commentators have described MSNBC as having a bias towards left-leaning politics and the Democratic Party. In November 2007, a New York Times article stated that MSNBC's prime-time lineup is tilting more to the left. Fox News media analyst Howard Kurtz, while in the same role at The Washington Post, stated that the channel's evening lineup "has gravitated to the left in recent years and seems to regard itself as the antithesis of Fox News". MSNBC was established under a strategic partnership between Microsoft. NBC executive Tom Rogers was instrumental in developing this partnership.
James Kinsella, a Microsoft executive, served as president of the online component, MSNBC.com, represented the tech company in the joint venture. Microsoft invested $221 million for a 50 percent share of the cable channel. MSNBC and Microsoft shared the cost of a $200 million newsroom in Secaucus, New Jersey, for msnbc.com. The network took over the channel space of NBC's 2-year-old America's Talking network, although in most cases cable carriage had to be negotiated with providers who had never carried AT. MSNBC was launched on July 15, 1996; the first show was anchored by Jodi Applegate and included news and commentary. During the day, rolling news coverage continued with The Contributors, a show that featured Ann Coulter and Laura Ingraham, as well as interactive programming coordinated by Applegate, John Gibson, John Seigenthaler. Stories were longer and more detailed than the stories CNN was running. NBC highlighted their broadcast connections by airing stories directly from NBC's network affiliates, along with breaking news coverage from the same sources.
MSNBC increased its emphasis on politics. After completing its seven-year survey of cable channels, the Project for Excellence in Journalism said in 2007 that, "MSNBC is moving to make politics a brand, with a large dose of opinion and personality."In January 2001, Mike Barnicle's MSNBC show started, but it was canceled in June 2001 because of high production costs. In June, Microsoft chief executive officer Steve Ballmer said that he would not have started MSNBC had he foreseen the difficulty of attracting viewers. After the September 11, 2001 attacks, NBC used MSNBC as an outlet for the up-to-the-minute coverage being provided by NBC News as a supplement to the longer stories on broadcast NBC. With little financial news to cover, CNBC and CNBC Europe ran MSNBC for many hours each day following the attacks; the year boosted the profile of Ashleigh Banfield, present during the collapse of Building 7 while covering the World Trade Center on September 11. Her Region In Conflict program capitalized on her newfound celebrity and showcased exclusive interviews from Afghanistan.
In the aftermath of September 11, MSNBC began calling itself "America’s NewsChannel" and hired opinionated hosts like Alan Keyes, Phil Donahue, Pat Buchanan, Tucker Carlson. On December 23, 2005, NBC Universal announced its acquisition of an additional 32 percent share of MSNBC from Microsoft, which solidified its control over television operations and allowed NBC to further consolidate MSNBC's backroom operations with NBC News and its other cable properties. NBC exercised its option to purchase Microsoft's remaining 18 percent interest in MSNBC. In late 2005, MSNBC began attracting liberal and progressive viewers as Keith Olbermann began critiquing and satirizing conservative media commentators during his Countdown With Keith Olbermann program, he focused his attention on the Fox News Channel and Bill O'Reilly, its principal primetime commentator. On June 7, 2006, Rick Kaplan resigned as president of MSNBC after holding the post for two years. Five days Dan Abrams, a nine-year veteran of MSNBC and NBC News, was named general manager of MSNBC with immediate effect.
NBC News senior vice president Phil Griffin would oversee MSNBC, while continuing to oversee NBC News’ Today program, with Abrams reporting to Griffin. On June 29, 2006, Abrams annou
Public Radio Exchange
The Public Radio Exchange is a nonprofit web-based platform for digital distribution and licensing of radio programs. The organization claims to be the largest on-demand catalog of public radio programs available for broadcast and Internet use. According to PRX's site, its mission "is to build a fair market for creative audio content and an online community of increasing gains. PRX catalogs thousands of pieces and allows users to search by topic, format and time of the year; the site provides a community space open to public radio listeners and stations, where users can discover and review pieces. In addition to providing feedback, the rating system brings work to the attention of stations, who are able to sort pieces by their rating; when a piece is licensed by a station PRX provides the producer with a royalty. PRX provides stations and producers with tools to manage and monitor transactions, usage statistics and payments within their individual and group accounts; the PRX site and services launched in September 2003 after a two-year planning and development phase supported by the Corporation for Public Broadcasting, the National Endowment for the Arts, the Ford Foundation.
Since PRX has received additional support from the NTIA Technology Opportunities Program, the MacArthur Foundation, the Open Society Institute, the Surdna Foundation, Google Grants. PRX offices are located in Cambridge, MA. On February 28, 2007 PRX and the Corporation for Public Broadcasting announced the Public Radio Talent Quest; this competition is an open search for new public radio talent, gives producers the chance to produce a pilot show for public radio. Finalists will be chosen after a five-round competition voted on by fans, public radio professionals and celebrity judges. On May 14, the first round of submissions ended with 1,452 entries; as of May 22, 2007, the Public Radio Talent Quest site had over 14,600 registered users. On April 9, 2008 The MacArthur Foundation selected PRX as one of its 2008 recipients of the MacArthur Award for Creative and Effective Institutions. In late November of that year, PRX soft launched PRX 3.0. The launch included their Remix Radio project which provides a sampling of the content available for licensing on the site.
On January 1, 2009, PRX, Inc became a Massachusetts 501c3 nonprofit corporation. PRX had been a project area of the Station Resource Group, a Maryland nonprofit. On January 28, PRX Remix was added to XM Satellite Radio on channel 136; that year, on July 19, PRX launched the Public Radio Player 2.0, an iPhone app for public radio developed by PRX, NPR and other public radio partners, funded by the Corporation for Public Broadcasting. On August 11, PRX was included in CPB's agreement with SoundExchange through 2015 as a covered public radio entity for music webcasting royalties. In 2010 PRX launched two iPhone apps: the This American Life app on February 1 and the WBUR Boston app on July 7; that same year, PRX won a Peabody Award for The Moth Radio Hour Also, PRX was announced as a winner of the 2010 Knight News Challenge for Story Exchange, a crowdfunding journalism project, on June 16. On September 8, 2010 PRX announced $2.7M in new funding from the Corporation for Public Broadcasting, the MacArthur Foundation, the Ford Foundation.
On December 8, 2011, PRX announced $2.5M in funding from Knight Foundation to create the Public Media Accelerator. In May 2014, PRX received a Peabody Award for the Reveal show "The VA's Opiate Overload". Known as Public Radio Remix; as of 2011, two radio stations, KPBZ in Spokane, Washington and WREM in Canton, New York, air a full-time schedule of programming from PRX, branded as Public Radio Remix. Both stations are owned by the same organizations as their markets' primary National Public Radio affiliates. PRX Remix airs on Sirius XM Channel 123. Several other public radio stations air some, but not all, Public Radio Exchange programming in their schedules; as of May 22, 2007 PRX has 12,167 available radio pieces, 28,149 members, including 445 radio stations, 2,782 individual producers Regular series distributed by PRX include: 12th Street Jump 99% Invisible American Parlor Songbook American Routes Bioneers Big Picture Science Exploring Music Folk Alley Global Village Hearts of Space HowSound Inside Europe from Deutsche Welle Ken Rudin's Political Junkie L.
A. Theatre Works Live Wire Radio Milk Street Radio The Moth Radio Hour New Letters on the Air On Being Open Source Ozark Highlands Radio Philosophy Talk Planetary Radio Reveal Weekly Says You! The Score with Edmund Stone Sea Change Radio Sound Opinions This American Life To the Best of Our Knowledge A Way with Words Zorba Paster on Your Health American Public Media National Public Radio Public Radio International Official website PRX animated 4-minute overview PRX's YouthCast podcast Public Radio Talent Quest Remix Radio Public Radio Player iPhone application developed by PRX and partners
The Score Satellite Radio
The Score Satellite Radio was a Canadian sports radio channel and operated by Score Media, owners of its sister television network of the same name. The channel broadcasts on Sirius Satellite Radio channel 158, is available to subscribers in Canada, it was offered to U. S. subscribers but removed in February 2007. It has been added back to the Sirius channel listing for U. S. listeners since then. Formally known as Hardcore Sports Radio, the channel re-branded as The Score Satellite Radio in September 2010 to unify its branding with that of its television and internet operations In September 2011, Sirius is pulling the station from its lineup; as posted on The Score's Twitter feed on 2 August 2011, they will no longer be broadcasting on Sirius channel 158 as of 1 September 2011. The Score The Score Satellite Radio Listen to The Score Satellite Radio Online ScoreSIRIUS Twitter feed Sirius Backstage Forum
The Eternal Word Television Network, more known by its initialism EWTN, is an American basic cable television network which presents around-the-clock Catholic-themed programming. It was founded by Mother Angelica, PCPA, in 1980 and began broadcasting on August 15, 1981, from a garage studio at the Our Lady of the Angels Monastery in Irondale, which Mother Angelica founded in 1962, she hosted her own show, Mother Angelica Live, until suffering a major stroke and other health issues in September 2001. Repeats now air as either the Best of Mother Angelica Mother Angelica Live Classics. From until her death on Easter Sunday of 2016, she led a cloistered life at the Shrine of the Most Blessed Sacrament in Hanceville, Alabama; the network, through diocesan television channels in other Catholic countries, advertises itself as the EWTN: The Global Catholic Network. Regular programs include a daily Holy Mass and sometimes Tridentine Mass format, the traditional Stations of the Cross, a taped daily recitation of the Rosary, daily and weekly news and Catechetical programs for both adults and children.
Christmas and Easter programming. EWTN has a presence on satellite and shortwave radio. Spanish language broadcasts are available on all platforms. On December 8, 2009, EWTN began broadcasting in high-definition; the network's current chairman of the board and chief executive officer is Michael P. Warsaw. While the network has trustees, it does not have owners. A majority of the network's funding is from viewer donations about which it advertises 100% viewer supported, which keeps it from advertising secular or non-Catholic programming, its traditional plea for donations is "Keep us between your gas and electric bill". EWTN contributes to the publication of the National Catholic Register newspaper, which it acquired in January 2011, to reports of Catholic News Agency, which it owns; the network maintains an online presence through its primary site, EWTN.com, it has a dedicated commercial site, EWTNReligiousCatalogue.com. As of 2017, Michael P. Warsaw, a consultor to the Vatican's Secretariat for Communications, leads EWTN.
Mother Angelica made her profession of vows in 1953. In 1962 she established Our Lady of the Angels monastery. During the 1970s, she was produced pamphlets and audio and video tapes, she had been a guest on local station WBMG, on shows on the Christian Broadcasting Network and the Trinity Broadcasting Network. After she gave an interview on then-Christian station WCFC in Chicago, she decided she wanted her own network. "I walked in, it was just a little studio, I remember standing in the doorway and thinking,'It doesn't take much to reach the masses'. I just stood there and said to the Lord,'Lord, I've got to have one of these'". Mother Angelica purchased satellite space and EWTN began broadcasting on August 15, 1981, with four hours of daily programming, which included her own show, Mother Angelica Live, a Sunday Mass, reruns of older Catholic programs such as Archbishop Fulton J. Sheen's Life Is Worth Living; the remainder of the time was filled with shows produced by dioceses across the country, shows from Protestant sources which Mother Angelica determined were in concert with Catholic teachings, children's shows such as Joy Junction and The Sunshine Factory.
About one-third of programming time consisted of secular content, such as re-runs of The Bill Cosby Show, public domain films, cooking and western-themed shows. EWTN increased its broadcast schedule to six hours per day and to eight hours per day by 1986. Secular content was reduced from 1986 to 1988, satellite distribution was expanded late in 1987, after which EWTN acquired a far more desirable satellite channel and began broadcasting around the clock. At this point, EWTN began broadcasting the praying of the rosary on a daily basis and added a number of educational shows. In-house production of original programming increased; the Mass became televised daily in 1991 from a chapel on the monastery grounds. Most shows from non-Catholic sources were eliminated and a more theological image developed. In 1992, EWTN established the largest owned shortwave radio station, WEWN, in the vicinity of Birmingham, Alabama. In 1996, Mother Angelica announced that EWTN would make its radio signal available via satellite to AM and FM stations throughout the United States at no cost.
In 1999, programs included "Life Is Worth Living" with Fulton J. Sheen. WGSN in North Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, was an affiliate. Current radio programs include Open Line in which callers can have their questions regarding the Catholic Faith answered. In 2004, EWTN announced an agreement with Sirius Satellite Radio, which thereafter merged with XM Radio to become Sirius XM Radio. EWTN broadcasts on Channel 130 on Sirius XM Radio; as of 2016, EWTN Radio is affiliated with more than 350 stations in the United States and more than 500 stations globally. In January 2011, EWTN acquired the National Catholic Register, a newspaper founded in Denver, Colorado, in 1924 as a periodical for local Catholics, which became a national publication three years later. EWTN assumed total control on February 1, 2011. EWTN owns ‘Catholic News Agency’, a Catholic news service with bureaus across America, Latin America and Europe; the EWTN news department produces a daily news service for television and radio, featuring news sources including Vatican Radio.
It produces The World Over Live, which reports re
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000