Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, was a British philosopher, mathematician, writer, social critic, political activist, Nobel laureate. At various points in his life, Russell considered himself a liberal, a socialist and a pacifist, although he confessed that his skeptical nature had led him to feel that he had "never been any of these things, in any profound sense." Russell was born in Monmouthshire into one of the most prominent aristocratic families in the United Kingdom. In the early 20th century, Russell led the British "revolt against idealism", he is considered one of the founders of analytic philosophy along with his predecessor Gottlob Frege, colleague G. E. Moore and protégé Ludwig Wittgenstein, he is held to be one of the 20th century's premier logicians. With A. N. Whitehead he wrote Principia Mathematica, an attempt to create a logical basis for mathematics, the quintessential work of classical logic, his philosophical essay "On Denoting" has been considered a "paradigm of philosophy".
His work has had a considerable influence on mathematics, set theory, artificial intelligence, cognitive science, computer science and philosophy the philosophy of language and metaphysics. Russell was a prominent anti-war activist and he championed anti-imperialism, he advocated preventive nuclear war, before the opportunity provided by the atomic monopoly had passed and "welcomed with enthusiasm" world government. He went to prison for his pacifism during World War I. Russell concluded that war against Adolf Hitler's Nazi Germany was a necessary "lesser of two evils" and criticised Stalinist totalitarianism, attacked the involvement of the United States in the Vietnam War and was an outspoken proponent of nuclear disarmament. In 1950, Russell was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature "in recognition of his varied and significant writings in which he champions humanitarian ideals and freedom of thought". Bertrand Russell was born on 18 May 1872 at Ravenscroft, Monmouthshire, into an influential and liberal family of the British aristocracy.
His parents and Viscountess Amberley, were radical for their times. Lord Amberley consented to his wife's affair with their children's tutor, the biologist Douglas Spalding. Both were early advocates of birth control at a time. Lord Amberley was an atheist and his atheism was evident when he asked the philosopher John Stuart Mill to act as Russell's secular godfather. Mill died the year after Russell's birth, his paternal grandfather, the Earl Russell, had been asked twice by Queen Victoria to form a government, serving her as Prime Minister in the 1840s and 1860s. The Russells had been prominent in England for several centuries before this, coming to power and the peerage with the rise of the Tudor dynasty, they established themselves as one of the leading British Whig families, participated in every great political event from the Dissolution of the Monasteries in 1536–1540 to the Glorious Revolution in 1688–1689 and the Great Reform Act in 1832. Lady Amberley was Lady Stanley of Alderley. Russell feared the ridicule of his maternal grandmother, one of the campaigners for education of women.
Russell had two siblings: brother Frank, sister Rachel. In June 1874 Russell's mother died followed shortly by Rachel's death. In January 1876, his father died of bronchitis following a long period of depression. Frank and Bertrand were placed in the care of their staunchly Victorian paternal grandparents, who lived at Pembroke Lodge in Richmond Park, his grandfather, former Prime Minister Earl Russell, died in 1878, was remembered by Russell as a kindly old man in a wheelchair. His grandmother, the Countess Russell, was the dominant family figure for the rest of Russell's childhood and youth; the countess was from a Scottish Presbyterian family, petitioned the Court of Chancery to set aside a provision in Amberley's will requiring the children to be raised as agnostics. Despite her religious conservatism, she held progressive views in other areas, her influence on Bertrand Russell's outlook on social justice and standing up for principle remained with him throughout his life, her favourite Bible verse, became his motto.
The atmosphere at Pembroke Lodge was one of frequent prayer, emotional repression, formality. Russell's adolescence was lonely, he contemplated suicide, he remarked in his autobiography that his keenest interests were in religion and mathematics, that only his wish to know more mathematics kept him from suicide. He was educated at home by a series of tutors; when Russell was eleven years old, his brother Frank introduced him to the work of Euclid, which he described in his autobiography as "one of the great events of my life, as dazzling as first love."During these formative years he discovered the works of Percy Bysshe Shelley. Russell wrote: "I spent all my spare time reading him, learning him by heart, knowing no one to whom I could speak of what I thought or felt, I used to reflect how wonderful it would have been to know Shelley, to wonder whether
Planck was a space observatory operated by the European Space Agency from 2009 to 2013, which mapped the anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background at microwave and infra-red frequencies, with high sensitivity and small angular resolution. The mission improved upon observations made by the NASA Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. Planck provided a major source of information relevant to several cosmological and astrophysical issues, such as testing theories of the early Universe and the origin of cosmic structure. Since the end of its mission, Planck has defined the most precise measurements of several key cosmological parameters, including the average density of ordinary matter and dark matter in the Universe and the age of the universe; the project was started around 1996 and was called COBRAS/SAMBA: the Cosmic Background Radiation Anisotropy Satellite/Satellite for Measurement of Background Anisotropies. It was renamed in honour of the German physicist Max Planck, who derived the formula for black-body radiation.
Built at the Cannes Mandelieu Space Center by Thales Alenia Space, created as a medium-sized mission for ESA's Horizon 2000 long-term scientific programme, Planck was launched in May 2009. It reached the Earth/Sun L2 point by July 2009, by February 2010 it had started a second all-sky survey. On 21 March 2013, the mission's first all-sky map of the cosmic microwave background was released with an additional expanded release including polarization data in February 2015; the final papers by the Planck team were released in July 2018. At the end of its mission Planck was put into a heliocentric orbit and passivated to prevent it from endangering any future missions; the final deactivation command was sent to Planck in October 2013. The mission had a wide variety of scientific aims, including: high resolution detections of both the total intensity and polarization of primordial CMB anisotropies, creation of a catalogue of galaxy clusters through the Sunyaev–Zel'dovich effect, observations of the gravitational lensing of the CMB, as well as the integrated Sachs–Wolfe effect, observations of bright extragalactic radio and infrared sources, observations of the Milky Way, including the interstellar medium, distributed synchrotron emission and measurements of the Galactic magnetic field, studies of the Solar System, including planets, asteroids and the zodiacal light.
Planck had a higher resolution and sensitivity than WMAP, allowing it to probe the power spectrum of the CMB to much smaller scales. It observed in nine frequency bands rather than WMAP's five, with the goal of improving the astrophysical foreground models, it is expected that most Planck measurements will be limited by how well foregrounds can be subtracted, rather than by the detector performance or length of the mission, a important factor for the polarization measurements. The dominant foreground radiation depends on frequency, but could include synchrotron radiation from the Milky Way at low frequencies, dust at high frequencies; the spacecraft carries two instruments: the Low Frequency Instrument and the High Frequency Instrument. Both instruments can detect both the total intensity and polarization of photons, together cover a frequency range of nearly 830 GHz; the cosmic microwave background spectrum peaks at a frequency of 160.2 GHz. Planck's passive and active cooling systems allow its instruments to maintain a temperature of −273.05 °C, or 0.1 °C above absolute zero.
From August 2009, Planck was the coldest known object in space, until its active coolant supply was exhausted in January 2012. NASA played a role in the development of this mission and contributes to the analysis of scientific data, its Jet Propulsion Laboratory built components of the science instruments, including bolometers for the high-frequency instrument, a 20-kelvin cryocooler for both the low- and high-frequency instruments, amplifier technology for the low-frequency instrument. The LFI has three frequency bands, covering the range of 30–70 GHz, covering the microwave to infra-red regions of the electromagnetic spectrum; the detectors use high-electron-mobility transistors. The HFI was sensitive between 100 and 857 GHz, using 48 bolometric detectors, manufactured by JPL/Caltech, optically coupled to the telescope through cold optics, manufactured by Cardiff University's School of Physics and Astronomy, consisting of a triple horn configuration and optical filters, a similar concept to that used in the Archeops balloon-borne experiment.
These detection assemblies are divided into 6 frequency bands, each with a bandwidth of 33%. Of these six bands, only the lower four have the capability to measure the polarisation of incoming radiation. On 13 January 2012, it was reported that the on-board supply of helium-3 used in Planck's dilution refrigerator had been exhausted, that the HFI would become unusable within a few days. By this date, Planck had completed five full scans of the CMB; the LFI was expected to remain operational for another six to nine months. A common service module was designed and built by Thales Alenia Space in its Turin plant, for both the Herschel Space Observatory and Planck missions, combined into one single program; the overall cost is estimated to be €700 million for the Planck and €1,100 million for the Herschel mission. Both figures include their mission's spacecraft and payload and mission expenses, science operations. Structurally, the Herschel and Planck SVMs are similar. Both SVMs are octagonal in shape and each panel is dedica
José Vasconcelos Calderón has been called the "cultural caudillo" of the Mexican Revolution. He was an important Mexican writer and politician, he is one of the most influential and controversial personalities in the development of modern Mexico. His philosophy of the "cosmic race" affected all aspects of Mexican sociocultural and economic policies. José Vasconcelos was born in Oaxaca on February 28, 1882, the son of a customs official. José's mother, a pious Catholic, died when José was sixteen; the family moved to the border town of Piedras Negras, where he grew up attending school in Eagle Pass, Texas. He became bilingual in Spanish, which opened doors to the English-speaking world; the family lived in Campeche during a period when the northern border area was unstable. His time in living on the Texas border contributed to fostering his idea of the Mexican "cosmic race" and rejection of Anglo culture, he married Serafina Miranda of Tlaxiaco in the state of Oaxaca in 1906. With her he had children José Carmen.
He had a long-term relationship with Elena Arizmendi Mejia and through life, many other shorter liaisons, including one with Berta Singerman. His troubled relationship with Antonieta Rivas Mercado led to her suicide inside Paris' Notre Dame Cathedral in 1931; when his wife of forty years died in 1942, their daughter Carmen is reported saying "When the coffin was lowered into the ground, Vasconcelos sobbed bitterly. At that moment he must have known and felt who he had as a wife, he remarried pianist Esperanza Cruz and they had a child, Héctor. Although Vasconcelos was interested in studying philosophy, Mexican universities during the Porfiriato focused on the sciences, influenced by French positivism. Vasconcelos attended the National Preparatory School in Mexico City, an elite high school, going on to Escuela de Jurisprudencia in Mexico City. In law school, he became involved with radical students organized as the Ateneo de la Juventud; the Ateneo de Juventud was led by a Dominican citizen, Pedro Henríquez Ureña, who had read Uruguayan essayist José Enrique Rodó's Ariel, an influential work published in 1900, opposed to Anglo U.
S. cultural influence, but emphasized the redemptive power of education. The Ateneo de la Juventud had a diverse membership, composed of university professors, other professionals, students; some other members included Diego Rivera. It was opposed to the Díaz regime and formulated arguments against it and the regime's emphasis on positivism by employing French spiritualism, which articulated "a new vision of the relationship between individual and society."After graduating from law school, he joined a law firm of Warner and Galston in Washington, D. C. Vasconcelos joined the local Anti-Reelection Club in Washington, D. C.. The Anti-Reelectionistas supported the democratic movement to oust long-time President of Mexico Porfirio Díaz 1910, headed by Francisco I. Madero, the presidential candidate of the Anti-Re-electionista Party. Vasconcelos returned to Mexico City to participate more directly in the anti-reelectionist movement, becoming one of the party's secretaries and editing its newspaper, El Antireelectionista.
After Díaz was ousted by revolutionary violence followed by the election of Madero as elected president of Mexico, Vasconcelos led a structural change at the National Preparatory School, where he changed the academic programs, breaking with the positivistic influence of the past. After Madero's assassination in February 1913, Vasconcelos joined the broad based movement to defeat the military regime of Victoriano Huerta. Soon after, Vasconcelos was forced into exile in Paris, where he met Julio Torri, Doctor Atl, Gabriele D'Annunzio, other intellectuals and artists of the time. After Huerta was ousted in July 1914, Vasconcelos returned to Mexico; the Convention of Aguascalientes in 1914, the failed attempt of the factions that defeated the Huerta regime to find a political solution, but which split the factions. Leader of the Constitutionalists, Venustiano Carranza and General Álvaro Obregón split with more radical revolutionaries Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata. Vasconcelos chose the side of the Convention and served as Minister of Education during the brief presidential period of Eulalio Gutiérrez.
Pancho Villa was defeated by the Constitutionalist Army under Obregón in the Battle of Celaya in 1915 and Vasconcelos went into exile again. Venustiano Carranza became president of Mexico, but was ousted and killed by the Sonoran generals that had helped put him in power. Vasconcelos returned to Mexico during the interim presidency of Sonoran Adolfo de la Huerta was named rector the National Autonomous University of Mexico As rector, he had a great deal of power, but he accrued more by ignoring the standard structures, such as the University Council, to govern the institution. Rather, he exercised personalist power, began implementing his vision of the function of the university, he redesigned the logo of the university to show a map of Latin America, with the phrase "Por mi raza hablará el espíritu", an influence of Rodó's arielismo. An eagle and a condor with a background of the volcanic mountains in central Mexico. Vasconcelos is said to have declared "I have not come to govern the University but to ask the University to work for the people."
When Álvaro Obregón became president in 1920, he created the Secretariat of Public Education in 1921 and named Vasconcelos as its head. Under Obregón, the national budget had two key expenditures.
Sloan Digital Sky Survey
The Sloan Digital Sky Survey or SDSS is a major multi-spectral imaging and spectroscopic redshift survey using a dedicated 2.5-m wide-angle optical telescope at Apache Point Observatory in New Mexico, United States. The project was named after the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation. Data collection began in 2000; the main galaxy sample has a median redshift of z = 0.1. Data release 8, released in January 2011, includes all photometric observations taken with the SDSS imaging camera, covering 14,555 square degrees on the sky. Data release 9, released to the public on 31 July 2012, includes the first results from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey spectrograph, including over 800,000 new spectra. Over 500,000 of the new spectra are of objects in the Universe 7 billion years ago. Data release 10, released to the public on 31 July 2013, includes all data from previous releases, plus the first results from the APO Galactic Evolution Experiment spectrograph, including over 57,000 high-resolution infrared spectra of stars in the Milky Way.
DR10 includes over 670,000 new BOSS spectra of galaxies and quasars in the distant universe. The publicly available images from the survey were made between 1998 and 2009. SDSS uses a dedicated 2.5 m wide-angle optical telescope. The imaging camera was retired in late 2009, since the telescope has observed in spectroscopic mode. Images were taken using a photometric system of five filters; these images are processed to produce lists of objects observed and various parameters, such as whether they seem pointlike or extended and how the brightness on the CCDs relates to various kinds of astronomical magnitude. For imaging observations, the SDSS telescope used the drift scanning technique, which tracks the telescope along a great circle on the sky and continuously records small strips of the sky; the image of the stars in the focal plane drifts along the CCD chip, the charge is electronically shifted along the detectors at the same rate, instead of staying fixed as in tracked telescopes.. This method allows consistent astrometry over the widest possible field, minimises overheads from reading out the detectors.
The disadvantage is minor distortion effects. The telescope's imaging camera is made up of 30 CCD chips, each with a resolution of 2048×2048 pixels, totaling 120 megapixels; the chips are arranged in 5 rows of 6 chips. Each row has a different optical filter with average wavelengths of 355.1, 468.6, 616.5, 748.1 and 893.1 nm, with 95% completeness in typical seeing to magnitudes of 22.0, 22.2, 22.2, 21.3, 20.5, for u, g, r, i, z respectively. The filters are placed on the camera in the order r, i, u, z, g. To reduce noise, the camera is cooled to 190 kelvins by liquid nitrogen. Using these photometric data, stars and quasars are selected for spectroscopy; the spectrograph operates by feeding an individual optical fibre for each target through a hole drilled in an aluminum plate. Each hole is positioned for a selected target, so every field in which spectra are to be acquired requires a unique plate; the original spectrograph attached to the telescope was capable of recording 640 spectra while the updated spectrograph for SDSS III can record 1000 spectra at once.
Over the course of each night, between six and nine plates are used for recording spectra. In spectroscopic mode, the telescope tracks the sky in the standard way, keeping the objects focused on their corresponding fibre tips; every night the telescope produces about 200 GB of data. During its first phase of operations, 2000–2005, the SDSS imaged more than 8,000 square degrees of the sky in five optical bandpasses, it obtained spectra of galaxies and quasars selected from 5,700 square degrees of that imaging, it obtained repeated imaging of a 300 square degree stripe in the southern Galactic cap. In 2005 the survey entered a new phase, the SDSS-II, by extending the observations to explore the structure and stellar makeup of the Milky Way, the SEGUE and the Sloan Supernova Survey, which watches after supernova Ia events to measure the distances to far objects; the survey covers over 7,500 square degrees of the Northern Galactic Cap with data from nearly 2 million objects and spectra from over 800,000 galaxies and 100,000 quasars.
The information on the position and distance of the objects has allowed the large-scale structure of the Universe, with its voids and filaments, to be investigated for the first time. All of these data were obtained in SDSS-I, but a small part of the footprint was finished in SDSS-II; the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration obtained spectra of 240,000 stars in order to create a detailed three-dimensional map of the Milky Way. SEGUE data provide evidence for the age and phase space distribution of stars within the various Galactic components, providing crucial clues for understanding the structure, formation a
Philosophy of science
Philosophy of science is a sub-field of philosophy concerned with the foundations and implications of science. The central questions of this study concern what qualifies as science, the reliability of scientific theories, the ultimate purpose of science; this discipline overlaps with metaphysics and epistemology, for example, when it explores the relationship between science and truth. There is no consensus among philosophers about many of the central problems concerned with the philosophy of science, including whether science can reveal the truth about unobservable things and whether scientific reasoning can be justified at all. In addition to these general questions about science as a whole, philosophers of science consider problems that apply to particular sciences; some philosophers of science use contemporary results in science to reach conclusions about philosophy itself. While philosophical thought pertaining to science dates back at least to the time of Aristotle, philosophy of science emerged as a distinct discipline only in the 20th century in the wake of the logical positivism movement, which aimed to formulate criteria for ensuring all philosophical statements' meaningfulness and objectively assessing them.
Thomas Kuhn's 1962 book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions was formative, challenging the view of scientific progress as steady, cumulative acquisition of knowledge based on a fixed method of systematic experimentation and instead arguing that any progress is relative to a "paradigm," the set of questions and practices that define a scientific discipline in a particular historical period. Karl Popper and Charles Sanders Peirce moved on from positivism to establish a modern set of standards for scientific methodology. Subsequently, the coherentist approach to science, in which a theory is validated if it makes sense of observations as part of a coherent whole, became prominent due to W. V. Quine and others; some thinkers such as Stephen Jay Gould seek to ground science in axiomatic assumptions, such as the uniformity of nature. A vocal minority of philosophers, Paul Feyerabend in particular, argue that there is no such thing as the "scientific method", so all approaches to science should be allowed, including explicitly supernatural ones.
Another approach to thinking about science involves studying how knowledge is created from a sociological perspective, an approach represented by scholars like David Bloor and Barry Barnes. A tradition in continental philosophy approaches science from the perspective of a rigorous analysis of human experience. Philosophies of the particular sciences range from questions about the nature of time raised by Einstein's general relativity, to the implications of economics for public policy. A central theme is; that is, can chemistry be reduced to physics, or can sociology be reduced to individual psychology? The general questions of philosophy of science arise with greater specificity in some particular sciences. For instance, the question of the validity of scientific reasoning is seen in a different guise in the foundations of statistics; the question of what counts as science and what should be excluded arises as a life-or-death matter in the philosophy of medicine. Additionally, the philosophies of biology, of psychology, of the social sciences explore whether the scientific studies of human nature can achieve objectivity or are shaped by values and by social relations.
Distinguishing between science and non-science is referred to as the demarcation problem. For example, should psychoanalysis be considered science? How about so-called creation science, the inflationary multiverse hypothesis, or macroeconomics? Karl Popper called this the central question in the philosophy of science. However, no unified account of the problem has won acceptance among philosophers, some regard the problem as unsolvable or uninteresting. Martin Gardner has argued for the use of a Potter Stewart standard for recognizing pseudoscience. Early attempts by the logical positivists grounded science in observation while non-science was non-observational and hence meaningless. Popper argued; that is, every genuinely scientific claim is capable of being proven false, at least in principle. An area of study or speculation that masquerades as science in an attempt to claim a legitimacy that it would not otherwise be able to achieve is referred to as pseudoscience, fringe science, or junk science.
Physicist Richard Feynman coined the term "cargo cult science" for cases in which researchers believe they are doing science because their activities have the outward appearance of it but lack the "kind of utter honesty" that allows their results to be rigorously evaluated. A related question is what counts as a good scientific explanation. In addition to providing predictions about future events, society takes scientific theories to provide explanations for events that occur or have occurred. Philosophers have investigated the criteria by which a scientific theory can be said to have explained a phenomenon, as well as what it means to say a scientific theory has explanatory power. One early and influential theory of scientific explanation is the deductive-nomological model, it says that a successful scientific explanation must deduce the occurrence of the phenomena in question from a scientific law. This view has been subjected to substantial criticism, resulting in several acknowledged counterexamples to the theory.
It is challenging to characterize what is meant by an explanation when the thing to be explained cannot be deduc
Large quasar group
A large quasar group is a collection of quasars that form what are thought to constitute the largest astronomical structures in the known universe. LQGs are thought to be precursors to the sheets and filaments of galaxies found in the nearby universe. On January 11, 2013, the discovery of the Huge-LQG was announced by the University of Central Lancashire, as the largest known structure in the universe by that time, it comprises 74 quasars and has a minimum diameter of 1.4 billion light-years, but over 4 billion light-years at its widest point. According to researcher and author, Roger Clowes, the existence of structures with the size of LQGs was believed theoretically impossible. Cosmological structures had been believed to have a size limit of 1.2 billion light-years. List of largest cosmic structures Large-scale structure of the cosmos R. G. Clowes.