Tulare County, California
Tulare County is a county in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 442,179, its county seat is Visalia. The county is named for once the largest freshwater lake west of the Great Lakes. Drained for agricultural development, the site is now in Kings County, created in 1893 from the western portion of the larger Tulare County. Tulare County comprises CA Metropolitan Statistical Area; the county is located south of Fresno, spanning from the San Joaquin Valley east to the Sierra Nevada. Sequoia National Park is located in the county, as are part of Kings Canyon National Park, in its northeast corner, part of Mount Whitney, on its eastern border; as of the 2010 census, the population was 442,179, up from 368,021 at the 2000 census. The land was occupied for thousands of years by varying cultures of indigenous peoples. Beginning in the eighteenth century, Spain established missions to colonize California and convert the American Indians to Christianity. Comandante Pedro Fages, while hunting for deserters in the Central Valley in 1772, discovered a great lake surrounded by marshes and filled with rushes.
It is from this lake. The root of the name Tulare is found in the Nahuatl word tullin, designating cattail or similar reeds. After Mexico achieved independence, it continued to rule California. After the Mexican Cession and the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848, the area became part of the United States. Tulare County was soon formed from parts of Mariposa County only 4 years in 1852. There were two early attempts to split off a new Buena Vista County in 1855, Coso County in 1864, but both failed. Parts of the county's territory were given to Fresno County in 1856, to Kern County and to Inyo County in 1866 and to Kings County in 1893; the infectious disease Tularemia caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis is named after Tulare County. In 1908 Colonel Allen Allensworth and associates founded Allensworth as a black farming community, they intended to develop a place. It was the only community in California founded and governed by African Americans. While its first years were successful, the community encountered environmental problems from dropping water tables which caused it to fail.
Today the historic area is preserved as the Colonel Allensworth State Historic Park, listed on the National Register of Historic Places. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 4,839 square miles, of which 4,824 square miles is land and 14 square miles is water. Fresno County—north Inyo County—east Kern County—south Kings County—west Blue Ridge National Wildlife Refuge Giant Sequoia National Monument Inyo National Forest Kings Canyon National Park Pixley National Wildlife Refuge Sequoia National Forest Sequoia National Park Sequoia National Park is a national park in the southern Sierra Nevada, east of Visalia, it was established in 1890 as the second U. S. national park, after Yellowstone. The park spans 404,051 acres. Encompassing a vertical relief of nearly 13,000 feet, the park contains among its natural resources the highest point in the contiguous 48 United States, Mount Whitney, at 14,505 feet above sea level; the park is south of and contiguous with Kings Canyon National Park.
Tulare County is a general law county under the California Constitution. That is, it does not have a county charter; the county is governed by a five-member Board of Supervisors. Supervisors are elected by districts for four-year terms. There are no term limits in effect; the Chairman and Vice-Chairman are elected annually by the Board of Supervisors from among its members. The Tulare County Sheriff provides court protection, county jail operation and detective functions in the unincorporated areas of the county. Incorporated towns have municipal police departments or contract with the Sheriff for their police operations. State Route 43 State Route 63 State Route 65 State Route 99 State Route 180 State Route 190 State Route 198 Tulare County Transit provides a countywide bus service linking the population centers. A connection to Delano in Kern County is operated; the cities of Tulare and Visalia have their own local bus services. Greyhound and Orange Belt Stages provide intercity bus service; the Porterville Municipal Airport located 3 nautical miles from Downtown Porterville has limited commercial passenger service with WestAir.
The airport offers general aviation to the public, it is home to Porterville Air Attack Base on the south part of the airport. The Visalia Municipal Airport is a city-owned airport for the city of California. Mefford Field is a city-owned general aviation airport located in Tulare; the nearest full operation commercial airports are Bakersfield's Meadows Field Airport to the South, Fresno's Fresno Yosemite International Airport to the North. The following table includes the number of incidents reported and the rate per 1,000 persons for each type of offense; the 2010 United States Census reported that Tulare County had a population of 442,179. The racial makeup of Tulare County was 265,618 White, 7,196 African American, 6,993 Native American, 15,176 Asian, 509 Pacific Islander, 128,263 from other races, 18,424 from two or more races. There were 268,065 people of Hispanic or Latino
Bend City, California
Bend City is a former settlement in Inyo County, California. It was located on the Owens River near the modern-day town of Kearsarge. Founded in the 1863, Bend City was a mining camp. Bend City was the site of the first county bridge spanning the Owens River; the 1872 Lone Pine earthquake changed the course of the river away from the townsite, which had declined. The site is now registered as California Historical Landmark #209. Bend City from www.ghosttowns.com Photos from the site
Sierra Nevada (U.S.)
The Sierra Nevada is a mountain range in the Western United States, between the Central Valley of California and the Great Basin. The vast majority of the range lies in the state of California, although the Carson Range spur lies in Nevada; the Sierra Nevada is part of the American Cordillera, a chain of mountain ranges that consists of an continuous sequence of such ranges that form the western "backbone" of North America, Central America, South America and Antarctica. The Sierra runs 400 miles north-to-south, is 70 miles across east-to-west. Notable Sierra features include the largest alpine lake in North America; the Sierra is home to three national parks, twenty wilderness areas, two national monuments. These areas include Yosemite and Kings Canyon National Parks; the character of the range is shaped by its ecology. More than one hundred million years ago during the Nevadan orogeny, granite formed deep underground; the range started to uplift four million years ago, erosion by glaciers exposed the granite and formed the light-colored mountains and cliffs that make up the range.
The uplift caused a wide range of elevations and climates in the Sierra Nevada, which are reflected by the presence of five life zones. Uplift continues due to faulting caused by tectonic forces, creating spectacular fault block escarpments along the eastern edge of the southern Sierra; the Sierra Nevada has a significant history. The California Gold Rush occurred in the western foothills from 1848 through 1855. Due to inaccessibility, the range was not explored until 1912; the Sierra Nevada lies in Central and Eastern California, with a small but important spur extending into Nevada. West-to-east, the Sierra Nevada's elevation increases from 1,000 feet in the Central Valley to heights of about 14,000 feet at its crest 50–75 miles to the east; the east slope forms the steep Sierra Escarpment. Unlike its surroundings, the range receives a substantial amount of snowfall and precipitation due to orographic lift; the Sierra Nevada's irregular northern boundary stretches from the Susan River and Fredonyer Pass to the North Fork Feather River.
It represents where the granitic bedrock of the Sierra Nevada dives below the southern extent of Cenozoic igneous surface rock from the Cascade Range. It is bounded on the west by California's Central Valley and on the east by the Basin and Range Province; the southern boundary is at Tehachapi Pass. Physiographically, the Sierra is a section of the Cascade-Sierra Mountains province, which in turn is part of the larger Pacific Mountain System physiographic division; the California Geological Survey states that "the northern Sierra boundary is marked where bedrock disappears under the Cenozoic volcanic cover of the Cascade Range." The range is drained on its western slope by the Central Valley watershed, which discharges into the Pacific Ocean at San Francisco. The northern third of the western Sierra is part of the Sacramento River watershed, the middle third is drained by the San Joaquin River; the southern third of the range is drained by the Kings, Kaweah and Kern rivers, which flow into the endorheic basin of Tulare Lake, which overflows into the San Joaquin during wet years.
The eastern slope watershed of the Sierra is much narrower. From north to south, the Susan River flows into intermittent Honey Lake, the Truckee River flows from Lake Tahoe into Pyramid Lake, the Carson River runs into Carson Sink, the Walker River into Walker Lake. Although none of the eastern rivers reach the sea, many of the streams from Mono Lake southwards are diverted into the Los Angeles Aqueduct which provides water to Southern California; the height of the mountains in the Sierra Nevada increases from north to south. Between Fredonyer Pass and Lake Tahoe, the peaks range from 5,000 feet to more than 9,000 feet; the crest near Lake Tahoe is 9,000 feet high, with several peaks approaching the height of Freel Peak. Farther south, the highest peak in Yosemite National Park is Mount Lyell; the Sierra rises to 14,000 feet with Mount Humphreys near Bishop, California. Near Lone Pine, Mount Whitney is at 14,505 feet, the highest point in the contiguous United States. South of Mount Whitney, the elevation of the range dwindles.
The crest elevation is 10,000 feet near Lake Isabella, but south of the lake, the peaks reach to only a modest 8,000 feet. There are several notable geographical features in the Sierra Nevada: Lake Tahoe is a large, clear freshwater lake in the northern Sierra Nevada, with an elevation of 6,225 ft and an area of 191 sq mi. Lake Tahoe lies between a spur of the Sierra. Hetch Hetchy Valley, Yosemite Valley, Kings Canyon, Kern Canyon are examples of many glacially-scoured canyons on the west side of the Sierra. Yosemite National Park is filled with notable features such as waterfalls, granite domes, high mountains and meadows. Groves of Giant Sequoia
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
The Owens River is a river in eastern California in the United States 183 miles long. It drains into and through the Owens Valley, an arid basin between the eastern slope of the Sierra Nevada and the western faces of the Inyo and White Mountains; the river terminates at the endorheic Owens Lake south of Lone Pine, at the bottom of a 2,600 sq mi watershed. In the early 1900s the Owens was the focus of the California Water Wars, fought between the city of Los Angeles and the inhabitants of Owens Valley over the construction of the Los Angeles Aqueduct. Since 1913, the Owens River has been diverted to Los Angeles, causing the ruin of the valley's economy and the drying of Owens Lake. In winter 2006, the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power restored 5% of the pre-aqueduct flow to the river, by court order, allowing the Owens River Gorge, the river bed in the valley, Owens Lake to contain a small amount of water; the river rises in the Sierra Nevada in southwestern Mono County 15 miles south of Mono Lake and 35 miles east of Yosemite Valley.
It flows southeast across the Long Valley Caldera, through Lake Crowley reservoir descends through the 20-mile-long Owens River Gorge, emerging at the north end of the Owens Valley northwest of Bishop. In the area around Bishop, it is diverted through many ditches to irrigate the surrounding farming region, it flows south-southeast through the Owens Valley between the Sierra Nevada on the west and the White and Inyo Mountains on the east, past Big Pine. 14 miles south-southeast of Big Pine, most of the remaining river is diverted into the Los Angeles Aqueduct, completed in 1913 to supply municipal and agricultural water to Los Angeles. The remaining river flows through the southern valley, flanked by the Los Angeles Aqueduct, past Lone Pine, entering the lake bed of predominantly dry Owens Lake at the southern end of Owens Valley; the river flows through two major valleys of the extreme southwestern Great Basin – the Long Valley and Owens Valley. The north to south drainage basin is in portions of Mono and Inyo counties and terminates in the now-dry Owens Lake.
To the northwest of the valley is the Long Valley Caldera, only a fraction of the size of the Owens Valley. The Owens River enters Owens Valley from the northwest, while the Spring Valley Wash drains the northernmost part of the valley, extending a tiny portion of the basin into Nevada; the river flows on the east side of the valley, because alluvial deposits from Sierra Nevada streams have forced the river channel in that direction. Vertical relief in the basin is immense – elevations range from 14,505 feet at Mount Whitney, the highest peak in the continental United States, to 3,556 feet on the bed of Owens Lake; the Owens River itself heads at an elevation of 7,291 feet. Few people inhabit open grasslands and steep mountainsides of the watershed; the largest city on the river is Bishop, with a population of just under 4,000. Other significant towns include Lone Pine, Big Pine, Independence; the Owens River flows through part of the Range Province of North America's Great Basin. The Owens Valley is a graben or rift valley, a section of land that has dropped down between two parallel faults, while the land on either side has risen.
This has resulted in steep, towering walls of the present-day valley. With the Sierra Nevada on the west side and the Inyo Mountains and White Mountains on the east, with the highest peaks of either range rising to over 14,000 feet and the floor of the valley at a comparatively low 3,000 to 4,000 feet, the Owens River flows in one of the deepest valleys in the United States. Further to the north, the Owens River basin encompasses predominantly igneous rocks and vast remnants of past volcanic activity; the upper 30 miles of the river run through the Long Valley Caldera, an enormous 20-mile -wide crater formed by a volcanic eruption some 760,000 years ago. The eruption's resulting ash cloud covered much of the southwestern United States, including parts of ten U. S. states. Mammoth Mountain, to the southwest formed from eruptions related to the Long Valley Caldera. To the north of the Caldera, extending to the Mono Lake area, lie the chain of Mono-Inyo Craters, which range in age from 400,000 to 500 years old.
During the Pleistocene at the end of the last glacial period, melting glaciers in the Sierra Nevada and Inyo/White Mountains fed prodigious amounts of runoff into the Owens River, causing it to expand to many times its current size. The increased volume of the river caused Owens Lake to rise as well spilling out the south side of the valley into the Mojave Desert. Ancient, now-abandoned river channels suggest that the extended Owens River ran south to China Lake east into Searles Lake, north into the Panamint Valley and east into Death Valley and the ancient Lake Manly; this great inland sea was fed by the Mojave River from the south, the Amargosa River from the east and the Death Valley Wash from the north. During this short time, the Owens River became part of a vast interior drainage system that stretched east to west covering over 8,000 square miles. During the peak of runoff, water from this massive basin may have escaped to the Colorado River through a valley leading to the southeast.
For thousands of years the Owens River valley was inhabited by the seminomadic Owens Valley Northern Paiute and the Shoshone tribes
Inyo County, California
Inyo County is a county in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 18,546; the county seat is Independence. Inyo County is on the east side of the Sierra Nevada and southeast of Yosemite National Park in Central California, it contains the Owens River Valley. With an area of 10,192 square miles, Inyo County is the second-largest county by area in California, after San Bernardino County. One-half of that area is within Death Valley National Park. However, with a population density of 1.8 people per square mile, it has the second-lowest population density in California, after Alpine County. Mount Whitney, the highest peak in the contiguous United States, is on Inyo County's western border; the Badwater Basin in Death Valley National Park, the lowest place in North America, is in eastern Inyo County. The difference between the two points is about 14,700 feet, they are not visible from each other, but both can be observed from the Panamint Range on the west side of Death Valley, above the Panamint Valley.
Thus, Inyo County has the greatest elevation difference among all of the counties and county-equivalents in the contiguous United States. Present day Inyo county has been the historic homeland for thousands of years of the Mono tribe, Coso people and Kawaiisu Native Americans, they spoke the Mono language with Mono traditional narratives. The descendants of these ancestors continue to live in their traditional homelands in the Owens River Valley and in Death Valley National Park. Inyo County was formed in 1866 out of the territory of the unorganized Coso County, created on April 4, 1864 from parts of Mono and Tulare Counties, it acquired more territory from Mono County in 1870 and Kern County and San Bernardino County in 1872. For many years it has been believed that the county derived its name from the Mono tribe of Native Americans name for the mountains in its former homeland; the name came to be thought of, mistakenly, as the name of the mountains to the east of the Owens Valley when the first whites there asked the local Paiutes what the name of the mountains to the east was.
The local Paiutes responded that, the land of Inyo. They meant by this that those lands belonged to the Shoshone tribe headed by a man whose name was Inyo. Inyo was the name of the headman of the Panamint band of Paiute-Shoshone people at the time of contact when the first whites, the Manly expedition of 1849, lost, into Death Valley on their expedition to the gold fields of western California; the Owens Valley whites misunderstood the local Paiute and thought that Inyo was the name of the mountains when it was the name of the chief, or headman, of the tribe that had those mountains as part of their homeland. "Indian George", a fixture of many of the stories of early Death Valley days, was Inyo's son. Indian George's Shoshone name was "Bah-Vanda-Sa-Va-Nu-Kee", which means "The Boy Who Ran Away", a name he was given when he became terrified of the whites and their wheeled wagons and huge buffalo, none of which the Shoshone had seen before when they came wandering down Furnace Creek Wash in December 1849.
In 1940, when Bah-vanda was around 100 years old, JC Boyles, a Panamint Shoshone who had become educated, came back to the Panamint Valley and interviewed Bah-Vanda at length about the early days of his life, including the events of 1849, it is in this interview that Bah-vanda refers to his father, Inyo. In order to provide water needs for the growing City of Los Angeles, water was diverted from the Owens River into the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913; the Owens River Valley cultures and environments changed substantially. From the 1910s to 1930s the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power purchased much of the valley for water rights and control. In 1941 the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power extended the Los Angeles Aqueduct system further upriver into the Mono Basin. Inyo County is host to a number of natural superlatives. Among them are: Mount Whitney, with an elevation of 14,505 feet, is the highest point in the contiguous United States, the 12th highest peak in the U. S. and the 24th highest peak in North America.
Badwater Basin, in Death Valley, the lowest point in North America Methuselah, an ancient Bristlecone pine tree and one of the oldest living trees on Earth Owens Valley, the deepest valley on the American continents Two mountain ranges exceeding 14,000 feet in elevation: The Sierra Nevada and the White Mountains Thirteen of California's fifteen peaks which exceed 14,000 feet in elevation. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 10,227 square miles, of which 10,181 square miles is land and 46 square miles is water, it is the second-largest county by the ninth-largest in the United States. Death Valley National Park Inyo National Forest Manzanar National Historic SiteThere are 22 official wilderness areas in Inyo County that are part of the National Wilderness Preservation System; this is the second-largest number of any county, exceeded only by San Bernardino County's 35 wilderness areas. Most of these are managed by the Bureau of Land
Independence is a census-designated place in Inyo County, California. Independence is located 41 miles south-southeast of Bishop, at an elevation of 3930 feet, it is the county seat of California. The population of this census-designated place was 669 at the 2010 census, up from 574 at the 2000 census; the tiny village of Independence is bisected by U. S. Route 395, the main north-south highway through the Owens Valley; the Sierra Nevada mountains to the west lie within the John Muir Wilderness Area. Onion Valley, one of the principal entry routes to the John Muir Wilderness, is accessed via the Onion Valley road which heads directly west out of Independence; this trail takes hikers to Kings Canyon/Sequoia National Parks which protect the Sierra Nevada west of the divide between the Owens Valley on the east and the rivers which drain into the San Joaquin Valley to the west. Independence is a popular resupply location for hikers trekking the 2,650 mile long Pacific Crest Trail which extends from the Mexican border to Canada along the crest of the Sierra Nevada and Cascade Ranges.
The highest pass along the entire trail, 13,153 foot Forester Pass, is directly west of Independence. According to the United States Census Bureau, Independence covers an area of 4.9 square miles, over 99% of it land. The elevation of Independence is 3,925 feet above sea level. Independence, as well as most of the Owens Valley, has a high desert climate with hot summers and cool winters. January temperatures range from an average high of 54.0 °F to an average low of 27.4 °F. July temperatures range from an average high of 97.6 °F to an average low of 63.9 °F. The highest recorded temperature was 115 °F in June 2017; the lowest recorded temperature was −5 °F on January 9, 1937. There are an average of 97.7 days annually with highs of 90 °F or higher and an average of 88.1 days with lows of 32 °F or less. Annual precipitation averages only 5.82 inches. The most precipitation in one month was 23.9 inches in February 1904. The most precipitation in 24 hours was 5.27 inches on December 6, 1966. Snowfall varies from year to year, averaging only 5.5 inches.
The most snow in one month was 112.0 inches in February 1904. Charles Putnam founded a trading post at the site in 1861, it became known as Putnam's, Little Pine from the Little Pine Creek. Independence began as the US Army Camp Independence established by Lieutenant Colonel George S. Evans on July 4, 1862. Colonel Evans established the camp at the request of local settlers; the camp was soon closed, but was re-established as Fort Independence when hostilities resumed in 1865. The fort was abandoned in 1877, it is a reservation for the Fort Independence Indian Community of Paiute Indians. Independence became the seat of Inyo County in 1866 when its chief competitor for the honor, a mining camp called Kearsarge, disappeared under an avalanche; the first post office at Independence was established in 1866. United States Army General John K. Singlaub was born in Independence; the Eastern California Museum with extensive collections and programs. The home of author Mary Austin, the author of The Land of Little Rain, is preserved as a museum located at 235 Market Street in Independence.
The Inyo County Free Library is in the Inyo County Courthouse. The 2010 United States Census reported that Independence had a population of 669; the population density was 137.4 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Independence was 493 White, 6 African American, 98 Native American, 8 Asian, 1 Pacific Islander, 28 from other races, 35 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 93 persons; the Census reported that 603 people lived in households, 8 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 58 were institutionalized. There were 301 households, out of which 57 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 131 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 20 had a female householder with no husband present, 8 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 13 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 3 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 122 households were made up of individuals and 47 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.00.
There were 159 families. The population was spread out with 100 people under the age of 18, 54 people aged 18 to 24, 117 people aged 25 to 44, 259 people aged 45 to 64, 139 people who were 65 years of age or older; the median age was 51.1 years. For every 100 females, there were 105.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 106.2 males. There were 389 housing units at an average density of 79.9 per square mile, of which 301 were occupied, of which 210 were owner-occupied, 91 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 5.8%. 410 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 193 people lived in rental housing units. As of the census of 2000, there were 574 people, 272 households, 161 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 143.6 people per square mile. There were 342 housing units at an average density of 85.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 88.9% White, 3.5% N