Kayak fishing is fishing from a kayak. The kayak has long been a means of accessing fishing grounds. Kayak fishing has gained popularity in recent times. Kayaks were developed by indigenous people living in the Arctic regions, who used the boats to hunt on inland lakes and the coastal waters of the Arctic Ocean, North Atlantic, Bering Sea and North Pacific oceans; these first kayaks were constructed from stitched animal skins such as seal stretched over a wooden frame made from collected driftwood, as many of the areas of their construction were treeless. Archaeologists have found evidence indicating; the oldest still existing kayaks are exhibited in the North America department of the State Museum of Ethnology in Munich. See Fishing kayaksWhile native people of the Arctic regions did not rely on kayaks for fishing, in recent years sport fishing from kayaks has become popular in both fresh and salt water in warmer regions due to the ease of entry. Kayaks can have little maintenance cost. Kayaks can be launched quickly.
Kayak wheels and trailers can be purchased to assist in the transportation of kayaks. Many kayak anglers have started customizing their kayaks for fishing; these manufacturers offer special models for fishing that are designed and accessorized for this sport, including specially designed hatches, built-in coolers & rod holders, gps receivers and equipment mounts. Other accessories include anchor trolleys and running lights. Specially designed fishing kayaks have designs similar to those of recreational sit-in and sit-on-top kayaks characterized by wide beams that increase lateral stability; the increases stability allows for fish on the kayak. These kayaks provide a considerable space for storage inside their hulls which allow the angler to stow rods, fishing gear, batteries for fish finders, extra paddles and wheels to tow the kayak from vehicle to the water; the cutouts molded into the top of the kayaks are well-suited to hold milk crates with additional supplies. Some anglers equip their fishing kayaks with outriggers to further increase stability.
In recent years people have begun using kayaks for fly fishing, most models suited for upright fly casting include upright braces that allow you to safely stand up. The most popular kayaks for fishing are rotationally molded from polyethylene due to their durability and lower cost. Hard shell kayaks are preferred over inflatable kayaks, since they are not susceptible to lure punctures. Kayak fishermen look for stable and comfortable designs; the new generation of twinhull kayaks, introduced into the market is stable enough to enable both paddling and fishing in the standing position. This technological development solves some ergonomic problems that are associated with sitting for long hours without being able to change positions, frees kayakers from the need to sacrifice speed to stability, another problem that characterizes monohull kayaks. There are kayaks propelled by flippers or propellers and a foot mechanism; these kayaks offer hands all the benefits associated. Kayak Fishing has taken off in South Africa.
Game fish are caught along the coastline South of Durban. Large fish such as Marlin and Sailfish can be caught. On the east coast of the United States, the kayak is becoming a favorite method for accessing fishing spots in the Chesapeake Bay and the Intercoastal Waterway. Many of the techniques used in kayak fishing are the same as those used on other fishing boats; the difference is in the set-up, how each piece of equipment is fitted to the kayak, how each activity is carried out on such a small craft. Contemporary kayaks can be equipped with after-market fishing accessories such as anchor trolleys, rod holders, electronic fish-finders and live-bait containers. Kayak anglers target prized gamefish like snook, red drum, tarpon and cod and pelagics like amberjacks, sailfish, king mackerel, marlin. While bottom fishing or jigging can be done from small boats, it was long thought that effective trolling required speeds of five to ten knots, a speed well out of the range of someone paddling. However, the discovery that fish could be taken at much lesser speeds has increased the popularity of kayak fishing.
Another popular method of fishing from kayaks which has emerged is that of softbaiting. This involves plastic soft lures in the shapes of baitfish; this method is the predominant method now used in the Southern hemisphere, as it reduces the need to take messy livebaits on board the kayak. Some anglers launch kayaks from larger boats well, they find much excitement fighting a game fish. Kayak fishing has started to move inland to freshwater lakes and rivers, where anglers target gamefish like largemouth bass, smallmouth bass, trout and salmon; some of the biggest benefits of kayak fishing are in the ease of use and transportation, the affordability of the equipment compared to motorized boats, they're an eco-friendly watercraft, they provide fun and exercise. Kayak Kayaking Sea Kayaking Fishing Joseph Harrick Chad Hoover Routh, Cory Kayak Fishing: The Complete Guide No Nonsense Guides. ISBN 978-1-892469-19-9 Burnley, Ric The Complete Kayak Fisherman. Burford Books. ISBN 978-1-58080-147-8 Daubert, Ken Kayakfishing: The Revolution.
Coelacanth Pubns. ISBN 978-0-9678098-2-3 Null
Marlin fishing is considered by some game fishermen to be a pinnacle of offshore game fishing, due to the size and power of the four marlin species and their relative rareness. Fishing for marlin captured the imagination of some sport fishermen in the 1930s, when well-known angler/authors Zane Grey, who fished for black and blue marlin in the Pacific, Ernest Hemingway, who fished the Florida Keys and Cuba for Atlantic blue marlin and white marlin, wrote extensively about their pursuit and enthused about the sporting qualities of their quarry; these days a lot of resources are committed to the construction of private and charter billfishing boats to participate in the billfishing tournament circuit. These are expensive purpose-built offshore vessels with powerfully driven deep sea hulls, they are built to luxury standards and equipped with many technologies to ease the life of the deep sea recreational fisherman, including outriggers, flying bridges and fighting chairs, state of the art fishfinders and navigation electronics.
Marlin are part of the billfish family, of which 10 species are of the most interest to anglers: Atlantic and Pacific blue marlin, black marlin, white marlin, striped marlin, Atlantic sailfish, Pacific sailfish, longbill spearfish, shortbill spearfish, swordfish. The blue marlin of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans are more pursued by sport fishermen than any other marlin species, their wide distribution in tropical oceanic waters and seasonally into temperate zones makes them available to many anglers, their potential to reach great sizes and spectacular fighting ability makes them a desired catch to some anglers. Blue marlin are one of the world's largest bony fish and although adult males exceed 330 pounds, females may reach far larger sizes well in excess of 1,000 pounds. A Pacific blue weighing 1,805 pounds caught in 1970 by a party of anglers fishing out of Oahu, aboard the charter boat Coreene C skippered by Capt. Cornelius Choy still stands as the largest marlin caught on rod and reel.
This fish was found to have a yellowfin tuna of over 155 pounds in its belly. In the Atlantic, the heaviest sport-fishing capture is Paulo Amorim's 1,402-pound fish from Vitoria, Brazil. Commercial fishermen have boated far larger specimens, with the largest blue marlin brought into Tsukiji market in Tokyo weighing a massive 2,438 pounds. Large blue marlin have traditionally been amongst the most prized angling captures, a fish weighing 1,000 pounds, a "grander", has been regarded by blue and black marlin anglers as the benchmark for a outstanding catch. Today, much effort is still directed towards targeting big blue marlin, but smaller blues are sought by anglers fishing lighter conventional tackle and big-game fly fishing gear. Blue marlin occur in the tropical oceanic waters of the Atlantic and the Indo-Pacific, with many fish making seasonal migrations into the temperate waters of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres to take advantage of feeding opportunities as those waters in spring and summer.
Warm currents such as the Gulf Stream in the western Atlantic and the Agulhas Current in the western Indian Ocean serve as oceanic highways for blue marlin migration, have a major influence on their seasonal distribution. Blue marlin have a limited ability to thermoregulate, the lower limit of their temperature tolerance is thought to be in the region of about 20 °C although individual fish have been caught in cooler temperatures. Larger individuals have the greatest temperature tolerance, blue marlin encountered at the limits of their range tend to be large fish; this wide distribution brings blue marlin in contact with anglers in many parts of the world. Blue marlin are eclectic feeders preying on a wide range of prey sizes. Scientific examination of blue marlin stomach contents has yielded organisms as small as miniature filefish. Common food items include tuna-like fishes skipjack tuna and frigate mackerel, squid and scad. Of more interest to sport fishermen is the upper range of blue marlin prey size.
A 72-inch white marlin has been recorded as being found in the stomach of a 448 pounds blue marlin caught at Walker's Cay in the Bahamas, more during the 2005 White Marlin Open, a white marlin in the 70-pound class was found in the stomach of one of the money-winning blues. Shortbill spearfish of 30 to 40 pounds have been recorded as feed items by Kona blue marlin fishermen. Yellowfin and bigeye tuna of 100 pounds or more have been found in the stomachs of large blue marlin. Fishing styles and gear used in the pursuit of blue marlin vary, depending on the size of blue marlin common to the area, the size of fish being targeted, local sea conditions, local tradition; the main methods used by sport fishermen are fishing with artificial lures, rigged natural baits, or live bait. The pioneers of blue marlin angling employed natural baits swim. Today, rigged baits Spanish mackerel and horse ballyhoo continue to be used for blue marlin. Trolling for blue marlin with rigged baits, sometimes combined with an artificial lure or skirt to make "skirted baits" or "bait/lure combinations", is still practiced along the eastern seaboard of the United States and in the Bahamas, the Caribbean, Venezuela.
Rigged natural baits are used as "pitch baits" that are deployed after fish are raised to hookless lures or "teasers". Blue marlin are aggressive fish that respond well to the splash, bubble trail, and
Mahi-mahi are swift and acrobatic game fish with striking colours. These colours darken when the fish dies The current IGFA all tackle record is 39.91 kilograms, caught in 1998 in Exuma, Bahamas by Emily Seconi of Aiken, South Carolina. Catches average 7 to 13 kilograms, any mahi-mahi over 18 kilograms is exceptional. Males are larger than females. Mahi mahi are known as dorado or dolphin fish. However, they are not at all related to dolphins. Dolphins are air-breathing mammals, where as mahi mahi are water-breathing fish, distantly related to perch, they are similar in taste to flounder and other whitefish. Mahi-mahi are a blue-water, open ocean migratory schooling fish found around the world in tropical and subtropical waters at depths up to 85 metres, but more near 37 metres, they feed on forage fish, such as mackerel and squid, zooplankton and crustaceans. They are adapted to hunting flying fish, they spawn in warm ocean currents throughout much of the year, their young are found among seaweed.
They are a short lived species, with a life span of only four or five years. Mahi-mahi are among the fastest growing fish, with a minimum population doubling time under 15 months; this makes them resilient to fishing pressure. However, their current vulnerability is moderate to high. In earlier years, most mahi-mahi were caught accidentally, as bycatch in tuna and swordfish longline commercial fisheries. Now they are sought by both recreational fishermen. A typical fishing technique is to take a sport fishing boat to the edge of a reef in about 120 feet of water and troll near a line of floating sargasso weed. Mahi-mahi congregate around marine debris such as floating boards, palm trees and fronds found in association with such weed lines. Sargasso sometimes holds a complete ecosystem from microscopic creatures to seahorses, small crabs, juvenile triggerfish and other bait fish. Frigate birds dive for the food accompanying the sargasso. Other fish may be present in the area. Experienced fishermen can tell what species are around the debris by the birds' behaviour.
Mahi-mahi are taken by trolling ballyhoo on the surface with 30 to 50 pound line test tackle. Once a school of Mahi are encountered, casting with small jigs or Fly casting using a bait-and-switch technique can be successful. Ballyhoo or a net full of live sardines tossed into the water can be used to excite the mahi-mahis into a feeding frenzy. Hookless teaser lures can be employed in the same manner; the teasers or live chum are tossed into the water, the fly is thrown to the feeding mahi-mahi. Once hooked, mahi-mahi are acrobatic game fish displaying spectacular blue and green colours. A different technique uses land based kites, instead of boats and rods, as the mechanism for delivering the terminal tackle at the end of a fishing line; this method has been used to catch mahi-mahi from cliff tops in Hawaii. In French Polynesia, mahi-mahi are caught with a harpoon. Mahi-mahi don't dive. A designed boat, called the poti marara, is used; this boat is a powerful motorized V-bottom boat, optimized for high agility and speed, driven with a stick so that the pilot can hold his harpoon with his right hand.
Mahi-mahi are found around the world in all subtropical oceans. Around North America, mahi-mahi are fished recreationally along the Pacific coast in the Gulf of California, off the coast of Costa Rica, offshore in the Atlantic Ocean from New Jersey to Florida. Popular recreational fisheries for mahi-mahi are located in the Gulf of Mexico, along the Pacific coast of Costa Rica,along the Pacific coast of Panama and the Caribbean Sea, around Hawaiʻi, around Southeast Asia, along the coast of Oman in the Arabian Sea. Mahi-mahi, referred to as dorado, are the subject of a significant section of the Yann Martel novel Life of Pi. Martel describes a fight to catch the "writhing mass of pure muscle...with a bulging forehead that speaks of a forceful personality" as "giving me a ride like I imagine a bucking bronco would give a cowboy."
In the United Kingdom and Ireland coarse fishing refers to angling for freshwater fish which are traditionally considered undesirable as a food or game fish. Freshwater game fish are all salmonids—most salmon and char—so coarse fish known as rough fish, are freshwater fish that are not salmonids. There is disagreement over whether grayling should be classified as a coarse fish. Fly fishing is the technique used for freshwater game fishing, while other angling techniques are used for coarse fishing; the sport of coarse fishing and the techniques it uses are popular in the United Kingdom and mainland Europe, as well as in some former British Commonwealth countries and among British expatriates. The distinction between coarse fish and game fish has no taxonomic basis, it originated in the United Kingdom in the early 19th century. Prior to that time, recreational fishing was a sport of the gentry, who angled for salmon and trout and called them game fish. There was a view that other fish did not make as good eating, they were disdained as coarse fish.
Coarse fish have scales that are larger than the scales of game fish, they tend to inhabit warmer and stiller waters. A large array of baits can be used for a variety of fish. Baits used will vary accordingly to many factors; some of these deciding factors include the venue being fished, the species of fish being targeted, time of year, water colour. The options of either moving or still water plays a part in the size, colour or style of bait being used; when fishing on rivers for game fish, i.e. brown, rainbow and sea trout, salmon and in some cases grayling, artificial flies, small spinners and lures are a popular choice for many game anglers due to the way they intentionally mimic a fly or small fish on the surface and top layers of the water, enticing the fish into feeding as it sits among actual live flies and fish fry. Both floating and sinking flies and lures can be used to fish either on the surface or in the upper layers of the water. In summer months, a spinner or fly manoeuvred across the surface will bring about a take from a fish, due to the tendency of fish to move into the warmest part of the water, the surface and first layer of water below.
When fishing a river for coarse fish species such as chub, roach and bream, the favourite hook baits tend to be maggot, worm, pellets and luncheon meat. Loose feed can be any of the above baits with a particle bait fed by hand, in a feeder, or by catapult, sometimes in the form of hemp seed, a manufactures fishmeal ground bait. For stillwater fishing and commercial fisheries, a huge array of baits are available. Many of the old favourites are still as potent today as they have been. For most species, hook baits such as luncheon meat, maggot and pellets will work; when targeting more specific species such as specimen carp, large pellets, large bunches of maggots, large lungworm, tiger nuts, meat chunks from cat food can work well. Micro pellets softened along with groundbait can be fed alongside all hook baits mentioned. In the summer months, fish such as carp can be seen feeding off the surface. In this case, a floating dog biscuit or piece of bread floated on the surface can be ideal. For predatory fish, either dead or live bait is used in the form of a small fish, such as a live roach.
However, many venues do not allow this practice, so dead baiting is used for larger predators such as pike, zander and eels. A piece of mackerel bought from a fishmonger can be used as well. Spinning, the use of an artificial lure, is widely used for predators; these can come in all shapes and colours, to mimic injured fish and small fast fish. Used at all depths, these can be an exciting method to catch perch. For all anglers in England and Wales, anybody aged 12 and over must purchase a valid rod licence before fishing; this will enable anglers to fish in England and Wales for non migratory trout and coarse fish. A single rod licence will enable an angler to fish with up to three rods at any one time. Many specimen carp anglers fish with 3 or 4 rods at once on large lakes to maximise lake coverage and give greater chance of catching. Most commercial fisheries, some rivers are operated on a day ticket basis. In the UK, these can range in price depending on the venue, they are paid on the bank with a representative of the venue collecting the fees from anglers from the peg at some time during the day, or prior to commencing fishing.
In some cases, season tickets can be purchased. Some lakes and river stretches are operated by angling clubs. Application forms can be available from angling club websites. Waiting lists may indicate the waters operated by the club are sought after can be worth the wait. Other fishing venues can be operated by syndicates where membership is by invitation, they can sometimes be joined by contacting a senior member of the syndicate. Depending on the situation, different types of fishing tackle can be used. Most common is the rod and reel, the rod being between 8 and 13 feet long, manufactured of tubular carbon fibre or splits of Tonkin bamboo. A reel is attached near the base of the rod to hold a long length of line, run to the tip of the rod through eyelets. Once cast out, the line can be retrieved by winding a handle on the reel. However, the use of "poles" is now widespread. Here, the line is fixed to the tip of
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
Bass fishing is the activity of angling for the North American gamefish known colloquially as the black bass. There are numerous black bass species considered as gamefish in North America, including largemouth bass, smallmouth bass, spotted bass or Kentucky bass, Guadalupe bass. Black bass are members of the sunfish family. Modern bass fishing has evolved into a multibillion-dollar industry; the sport has changed drastically since its beginnings in the late 19th century. From humble beginnings, the black bass has become the most sought-after game fish in the United States; the sport has driven the development of all manner of fishing gear, including rods, lines, electronic depth and fish-finding instruments, drift boats, float tubes and boats specified for bass fishing. All black bass are fished recreationally. Depending upon species and various other factors such as water quality and availability of food, black bass may be found in lakes, ponds, streams, creeks roadside ditches. Largemouth are known for their greater overall size and resistance when hooked, favoring short, powerful runs and escape to cover such as submerged logs or weedbeds, while smallmouth bass tend to jump more and fight aggressively on the surface when hooked, in order to throw the hook.
The All-Tackle world record Largemouth was caught on June 2nd, 1932, on Montgomery Lake, GA by George Perry, weighing in at 22 lbs. 4 oz. George Perry’s record fish, which some consider the “Holy Grail” of all freshwater sport fishing records, was challenged by Japanese angler Manabu Kurita on July 22nd, 2009. Kurita’s catch was certified by the IGFA, weighing 22 lbs. 4 oz, the same weight as Perry’s legendary catch. Both Perry and Kurita share the All-Take world record. All black bass are scent as well as visual predators so care should be taken to ensure no foreign scents, like bug spray, or any outdoor chemicals, or any personal chemicals, like tobacco, contaminate one's hands when handling your line, rods, artificial baits, soft plastics. Bass are filleted when taken for the table. However, both avid and professional bass fisherman prefer to practice catch and release as a method of conservation. Bass fishing in the United States evolved on its own, was not influenced by angling developments in Europe or other parts of the world.
Indeed, modern British sea bass fishermen look to the United States freshwater bass techniques for inspiration for lure fishing and to the USA, Japan and China for tackle. During the early-to-mid-19th century, wealthy sport anglers in the United States confined themselves to trout and salmon fishing using fly rods. While smallmouth bass were sought by some fly fishermen, most bass fishing was done by sustenance anglers using poles and live bait; the working-class heritage of bass fishing influenced the sport and is manifested today in its terminology, hobbyist literature, media coverage. In the mid-19th century, the first artificial lure used for bass was developed in the form of an artificial fly. At first, these artificial fly patterns were derivations of existing trout and salmon flies; as time went on, new fly patterns were developed to fish for bass, as well as heavier spinner/fly lures that could be cast by the baitcasting and fixed-spool casting reels and rods available at the time. Floating wooden lures or poppers of lightweight cork or balsa were introduced around 1900, sometimes combined with hooks dressed with artificial fur or feathers.
Production of the plastic worm began in 1949, but it was not until the 1960s that its use became popular. The plastic worm revolutionized the sport of bass fishing. In the United States, the sport of bass fishing was advanced by the stocking of largemouth and smallmouth bass outside their native ranges in the latter portion of the 19th century; as the nation's railroad system expanded, large numbers of'tank' ponds were built by damming various small creeks that intersected the tracks in order to provide water for steam engines. Shippers found that black bass were a hardy species that could be transported in buckets or barrels via the railroad, sometimes using the spigot from the railroad water tank to aerate the fingerlings. Largemouth bass were stocked in tank ponds and warmer lakes, while smallmouth bass were distributed to lakes and rivers throughout the northern and western United States, as far west as California. Smallmouth were transplanted east of the Appalachians just before the Civil War, afterwards introduced into New England.
Largemouth bass populations boomed after the U. S. Department of Agriculture began to advise and assist farmers in constructing and stocking farm ponds with largemouth bass offering advice on managing various fish species. Soon, those who had stocked largemouth bass on their farm ponds began to pursue them on a burgeoning number of new reservoirs and impoundments built in the United States during the 1940s and 1950s; these impoundments coincided with a postwar fishing boom, additional funds from sales of fishing licenses for the first large-scale attempts at bass fisheries management. This was true in the southern United States, where the largemouth bass thrived in waters too warm or turbid for other types of gamefish. With increased industrialization and development, many of the nation's eastern trout rivers were dammed, polluted, or allowed to silt up, raising