The Assad-class corvette were built for Iraq during the Iran–Iraq War, by Fincantieri in Italy. Six ships were ordered in 1981, they were completed just before Operation Desert Storm, were never delivered because of the UN arms embargo. Four of the six ships were sold to the Malaysian Navy as Laksamana-class corvettes in 1995; the two remaining ships were laid up in La Spezia from 1990, but in 2005 it was announced they would be delivered to the New Iraqi Navy. The deal, however was cancelled due to the condition of the ships upon inspection. On 19 May 2017, it was reported that the remaining two vessels would be delivered to the Iraq Navy after 26 years, they left La Spezia on a semi-submersible carrier Eide Trader on 22 May and reached Iraq in June 2017. The Libyan Navy operated. Al Tadjier is believed to have been destroyed by US Navy aircraft; the other ships that served with the Libyan navy were Al Kalij and Al Hudud. All the ships entered service between 1977 and 1979. All the remaining ships were scrapped in 1993.
Conway's All the Worlds Fighting Ships 1947-1995
The Maestrale class is a class of frigates of the Italian Navy. The class is composed of eight vessels, all of which were built by Fincantieri S.p. A, Riva Trigoso, except for Grecale, built by Fincantieri S.p. A. – Muggiano, La Spezia. The Maestrale-class frigates were designed for anti-submarine warfare, however the ships are flexible so they are capable of anti-air and anti-surface operations. Ships of this class have been used in various international missions, either under NATO or UN flag, during normal operations of the Italian Navy; the first of these ships entered in service in early 1982. The rest of the fleet was launched over the next three years; the ships of the Maestrale class will be replaced by the Bergamini class. These ships were built with the experience and the technology developed for the previous Lupo class; the Maestrales were quite bigger and heavier, so they were slower, but still capable of around 32 knots. The ships have a large superstructure, with only one funnel. There are two enclosed pyramid masts, one of, quite low, the other much taller.
The superstructure continues without interruption until the hangar, is made, as usual, with light alloys. The propulsion system is based on two gas-turbine GE-Avio LM-2500 and two diesel engines, in a combined diesel or gas configuration, that make use of diesel for cruising and turbines for high speed; the only problem with this configuration, economical, is to make the diesel engines powerful enough to achieve sufficient cruising speed without overloading them, or assist them with a continuous use of the turbines. In this case, the solution developed for the Lupo-class ships, was successful; the ships have a maximum range of 6,000 nautical miles at 15 knots. The Maestrale class ships are armed with an array of systems. Mounted on the foredeck is an Oto Melara 127 mm/54 gun, capable of shooting 40 rounds per minute. Despite its large size, it was possible to fit it in the small hull, since the Lupo-class ships were fitted with the same weapon, it has 66 shells on three ready-fire carousels. It had low reaction times and high elevation, with a 32-kilogram shells and 23-kilometre range.
The ships carry the Albatross missile system, with an octuple cell capable of firing Sea Sparrow or Aspide missiles. This modern weapon contains a monopulse guide and a powerful rocket-engine, advanced flight controls; the ships carry a supply of 24 missiles, the system is reloaded by a Riva-Calzoni Automatic Handling System, capable of loading up to four missiles at once, making all the missiles in the magazine ready to be launched. After the turret there are two CIWS DARDO, with two 40 mm/L70 Bofors guns, they have rapid mechanical systems, depots with over 700 shells, can fire around 600 rounds per minute. The proximity fuses and the fire control systems help this unmanned turret to react to incoming missiles. On deck are four Otomat anti-ship missiles, capable of striking a target 180 km or more away, with a 210 kg warhead, they are fitted over the hangar. There are four torpedo-launchers, two triple ILAS-3 324 mm tubes, with 12 torpedoes available, the A.184, a wired torpedo with two launch tubes and six to eight torpedoes.
This is the main weapon for ASW tasks, but it be used as an anti-ship weapon though its propulsion system does not allow great speed and range. Compared to ASROC, this weapon has many advantages, does not require a bulky launcher, but needs several minutes at 35 knots, to reach 9 kilometres, while ASROC can do this in much less time; these ships have have several electronic systems: one radar air and surface search RAN10S is placed over the smaller tree, a radar of navigation and surface search SPN703 is fitted on the main tree, where a navigation radar is present as well, three radars: one RTN-10X for gun and Aspide control, two smaller RTN-20X for the DARDO systems, all fitted in the forward superstructure, separated from the aft by the funnel and the heat dissipaters. As to submarine search, there is a VDS DE 1164 sonar, DE1160B hull mounted. EW component is focused on Elettronica Spa MM/SLQ-746 and two SCLAR rocket-launchers that are capable of launching chaff, HE rockets up to 10 km. Several electronic and communication systems are fitted as well, an Selex ES IPN20 command and control system is present to integrate all the tactical information and use the weapons on board.
The Lupo class entered in service in 1977. The Maestrale class is an upgraded version of its predecessor. Maestrale shares the same slim hull but this was enlarged to accommodate many more systems; the Lupos are 3 kn faster, is equipped with eight OTOMAT. The Maestrales arranged differently. Endurance was increased with the Maestrale class from 5,000 to 6,000 miles; the Maestrales have half the OTOMATs of the Lupo class but twice as many torpedo launchers, twice the helicopters, twice the sonars, having a VDS. This, coupled with heavy torpedoes and two helicopters, improved the ASW capabilities; the use of more modern equipment and an Albatross missile system improved in some aspects the air defense. The Maestrale class has some shortcomings; the most prominent is th
Vienna is the federal capital and largest city of Austria, one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's primate city, with a population of about 1.9 million, its cultural and political centre. It is the 7th-largest city by population within city limits in the European Union; until the beginning of the 20th century, it was the largest German-speaking city in the world, before the splitting of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in World War I, the city had 2 million inhabitants. Today, it has the second largest number of German speakers after Berlin. Vienna is host to many major international organizations, including the United Nations and OPEC; the city is located in the eastern part of Austria and is close to the borders of the Czech Republic and Hungary. These regions work together in a European Centrope border region. Along with nearby Bratislava, Vienna forms a metropolitan region with 3 million inhabitants. In 2001, the city centre was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In July 2017 it was moved to the list of World Heritage in Danger.
Apart from being regarded as the City of Music because of its musical legacy, Vienna is said to be "The City of Dreams" because it was home to the world's first psychoanalyst – Sigmund Freud. The city's roots lie in early Celtic and Roman settlements that transformed into a Medieval and Baroque city, the capital of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, it is well known for having played an essential role as a leading European music centre, from the great age of Viennese Classicism through the early part of the 20th century. The historic centre of Vienna is rich in architectural ensembles, including Baroque castles and gardens, the late-19th-century Ringstraße lined with grand buildings and parks. Vienna is known for its high quality of life. In a 2005 study of 127 world cities, the Economist Intelligence Unit ranked the city first for the world's most liveable cities. Between 2011 and 2015, Vienna was ranked second, behind Melbourne. In 2018, it replaced Melbourne as the number one spot. For ten consecutive years, the human-resource-consulting firm Mercer ranked Vienna first in its annual "Quality of Living" survey of hundreds of cities around the world.
Monocle's 2015 "Quality of Life Survey" ranked Vienna second on a list of the top 25 cities in the world "to make a base within."The UN-Habitat classified Vienna as the most prosperous city in the world in 2012/2013. The city was ranked 1st globally for its culture of innovation in 2007 and 2008, sixth globally in the 2014 Innovation Cities Index, which analyzed 162 indicators in covering three areas: culture and markets. Vienna hosts urban planning conferences and is used as a case study by urban planners. Between 2005 and 2010, Vienna was the world's number-one destination for international congresses and conventions, it attracts over 6.8 million tourists a year. The English name Vienna is borrowed from the homonymous Italian version of the city's name or the French Vienne; the etymology of the city's name is still subject to scholarly dispute. Some claim that the name comes from Vedunia, meaning "forest stream", which subsequently produced the Old High German Uuenia, the New High German Wien and its dialectal variant Wean.
Others believe that the name comes from the Roman settlement name of Celtic extraction Vindobona meaning "fair village, white settlement" from Celtic roots, vindo-, meaning "bright" or "fair" – as in the Irish fionn and the Welsh gwyn –, -bona "village, settlement". The Celtic word Vindos may reflect a widespread prehistorical cult of a Celtic God. A variant of this Celtic name could be preserved in the Czech and Polish names of the city and in that of the city's district Wieden; the name of the city in Hungarian, Serbo-Croatian and Ottoman Turkish has a different Slavonic origin, referred to an Avar fort in the area. Slovene-speakers call the city Dunaj, which in other Central European Slavic languages means the Danube River, on which the city stands. Evidence has been found of continuous habitation in the Vienna area since 500 BC, when Celts settled the site on the Danube River. In 15 BC the Romans fortified the frontier city they called Vindobona to guard the empire against Germanic tribes to the north.
Close ties with other Celtic peoples continued through the ages. The Irish monk Saint Colman is buried in Melk Abbey and Saint Fergil served as Bishop of Salzburg for forty years. Irish Benedictines founded twelfth-century monastic settlements. Evidence of these ties persists in the form of Vienna's great Schottenstift monastery, once home to many Irish monks. In 976 Leopold I of Babenberg became count of the Eastern March, a 60-mile district centering on the Danube on the eastern frontier of Bavaria; this initial district grew into the duchy of Austria. Each succeeding Babenberg ruler expanded the march east along the Danube encompassing Vienna and the lands east. In 1145 Duke Henry II Jasomirgott moved the Babenberg family residence from Klosterneuburg in Lower Austria to Vienna. From that time, Vienna remained the center of the Babenberg dynasty. In 1440 Vienna became the resident city of the Habsburg dynasty, it grew to become the de facto capital of the Holy Roman Empire in 1437 and a cultural centre for arts and science and fine cuisine.
Hungary occupied the city between 1485 and 1490. In the 16th and 1
Punta del Este
Punta del Este is a city and resort on the Atlantic Coast in the Maldonado Department of southeastern Uruguay. Punta del Este is the name of the municipality to which the city belongs. Although the city has a year-round population of about 9,280, the summer season adds to this number; the city has been referred to as "the Monaco of the South", "The Pearl of the Atlantic", "the Hamptons of South America", "the St. Tropez of South America", being compared to Miami and Cannes. Popular landmarks in the area include the La Mano giant sculpture, the Santorini-styled complex Casapueblo, the Enjoy Punta del Este hotel and casino complex, the chic neighbourhood of La Barra, the iconic Puente Garzón, Gorriti Island, Arboretum Lussich, the Museum of the Sea; the Punta del Este World Trade Center complex is under construction. The city is located on the intersection of Route 10 with Route 39, southeast of the department capital Maldonado and about 140 kilometres east of Montevideo; the first Europeans to set foot in what is now Punta del Este were the Spanish at the beginning of the 16th century.
However, the colonization of the area began around Maldonado at the end of the 18th century due to Portuguese expansionism. Punta del Este and its surroundings at the end of the 19th century were kilometers of sand and dunes, but in 1896 Antonio Lussich bought 4,447 acres of uninhabited land and there he started a botanical garden, Arboretum Lussich, planted trees and plants from all over the world; the trees started to spread on their own, now the area is full of Pines, Eucalyptus and various species of bushes. On 5 July 1907, it was declared a "Pueblo" by Act of Ley 3.186. Its status was elevated to "Ciudad" on 2 July 1957 by the Act of Ley Nº 12.397. Punta del Este hosted an American Summit in 1967 attended by U. S. President Lyndon Johnson. In September 1986, Punta del Este played host to the start of the Uruguay Round of international trade negotiations; these negotiations led to the creation of the World Trade Organization in 1994. In 2011 Punta del Este city proper had a population of 23,954 households and apartments.
According to the Intendencia Departamental de Maldonado, the municipality of Punta del Este has an area of 48 km2 and a population of 15,000. Source: Instituto Nacional de Estadística de UruguayArgentines and Europeans are choosing Punta del Este as their permanent residence; some of the reasons are peace in the midst of increasing educational offerings. Punta del Este has an oceanic climate, with cool winters; because of the average temperature of the hottest month near 22 °C, the climate is close to a humid subtropical climate. It is similar to southeastern Australia; the precipitation is evenly distributed with an average of 1,010 mm. The hottest month, has an average temperature of 21.7 °C, the coldest month, has an average of 11.5 °C. The average yearly temperature is 16.4 °C. Punta del Este's scenic coastline is divided in two regions: Mansa; the limit between the two marks the end of the Río de la Plata and the beginning of the Atlantic Ocean, split is signaled by the Mano de Punta del Este, which the sculptor designed to warn swimmers about the danger of rough waves.
Beaches on the Mansa side feature thick and golden sand, while on the Brava side the sand is white and fine. Every beach of the peninsula has public access. La Barra is popular for nautical sports and fishing during the day. At hours, La Barra becomes a central attraction for the younger generation. Starting from the end of December through to the second week of January, this location becomes a place for the local people as well as tourists to gather at the night life festivities. Other areas include the resort of Montoya beach, Bikini beach and Manantiales beach; these beaches are a favourite spot for younger people as well as for many celebrities from both Uruguay and Argentina. Once abundant, southern right whales are re-colonizing in the area, which helped create a whale sanctuary off Latin America, whose establishment had been prevented for near a decade by whaling nations like Japan. Unlike the majority of Uruguayan coasts, appearances of orcas have been documented in the area; the city has much colonial architecture contrasting with more modern buildings.
Nowadays it has a scenic shore, typical resort houses, modern buildings, a port with mooring capacity, department stores and pubs. There are several large houses, gardens lined with plants. An iconic and historic building rises on the 19th stop of the Brava Beach, the famous Hotel L'Auberge with its 70 year old water tower, continues to be a leader in hospitality and gastronomy with its unique rooms and still serving its traditional Belgian waffles with home made sauces. Punta del Este is home to the only Conrad Hotel in South America famous for its casino. Gorlero Avenue, the main avenue of Punta del Este has commercial galleries, cinemas, shops. Artigas square, over Gorlero Ave is the place. Punta del Este is well known for organizing the summit; the Formula E has hosted several races, broadcast worldwide, in the city, based on its "absolutely landmark cityscape". In 2017, the China-Latin America Forum took place in the Punta del Este Convention Center. Enjoy Punta del Este is a hotel and cas
The International Maritime Organization number is a unique reference for ships, registered ship owners and management companies. IMO numbers were introduced to reduce maritime fraud, they consist of the three letters "IMO" followed by unique seven-digit numbers, assigned under the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea. In 1987 the IMO adopted resolution A.600, aimed at the "enhancement of maritime safety and pollution prevention and the prevention of maritime fraud" by assigning to each ship a permanent identification number. The IMO number remains linked to the hull for its lifetime, regardless of changes of names, flags, or owners; the IMO adopted the existing unique 7-digit numbers applied to ships by Lloyd's Register since 1969, which were modified from 6-digit numbers introduced in 1963. SOLAS regulation XI/3, adopted in 1994 and came into force on 1 January 1996, made IMO numbers mandatory, it was applied to cargo vessels that are at least 300 gross tons and passenger vessels of at least 100 gt.
In the SOLAS Convention, "cargo ships" means "ships which are not passenger ships". The IMO scheme does not however apply to: Vessels engaged in fishing Ships without mechanical means of propulsion Pleasure yachts Ships engaged on special service Hopper barges Hydrofoils, air cushion vehicles Floating docks and structures classified in a similar manner Ships of war and troopships Wooden ships In December 2002, the Diplomatic Conference on Maritime Security adopted a number of measures aimed at enhancing security of ships and port facilities; this included a modification to SOLAS Regulation XI-1/3 to require ships' identification numbers to be permanently marked in a visible place either on the ship's hull or superstructure as well as internally and on the ship's certificates. Passenger ships should carry the marking on a horizontal surface visible from the air. In May 2005, IMO adopted a new SOLAS regulation XI-1/3-1 on the mandatory company and registered owner identification number scheme, with entry into force on 1 January 2009.
The regulation provides that every ship owner and management company shall have a unique identification number. Other amendments require these numbers to be added to the relevant certificates and documents in the International Safety Management Code and the International Ship and Port Facility Security Code. Like the IMO ship identification number, the company identification number is a seven-digit number with the prefix IMO. For example, for the ship Atlantic Star, IMO 5304986 referred to the former ship manager Pullmantur Cruises Ship Management Ltd and IMO 5364264 to her former owner, Pullmantur Cruises Empress Ltd. IMO identification numbers for ships and registered owners are assigned by IHS Markit. For new vessels, the IMO number is assigned to a hull during construction upon keel laying. Many vessels which fall outside the mandatory requirements of SOLAS have numbers allocated by Lloyd's Register or IHS Markit in the same numerical series, including fishing vessels and commercial yachts.
An IMO number is made of the three letters "IMO" followed by a seven-digit number. This consists of a six-digit sequential unique number followed by a check digit; the integrity of an IMO number can be verified using its check digit. This is done by multiplying each of the first six digits by a factor of 2 to 7 corresponding to their position from right to left; the rightmost digit of this sum is the check digit. For example, for IMO 9074729: + + + + + = 139. Maritime Mobile Service Identity, used globally as a national alternate to the IMO number ENI number, a comparable system for European barges and other inland waterway vessels IMO Number Requests by IHS Maritime
Monte Carlo refers to an administrative area of the Principality of Monaco the ward of Monte Carlo/Spélugues, where the Monte Carlo Casino is located. Informally the name refers to a larger district, the Monte Carlo Quarter, which besides Monte Carlo/Spélugues includes the wards of La Rousse/Saint Roman, Larvotto/Bas Moulins, Saint Michel; the permanent population of the ward of Monte Carlo is about 3,500, while that of the quarter is about 15,000. Monaco has four traditional quarters. From west to east they are: Fontvieille, Monaco-Ville, La Condamine, Monte Carlo. Monte Carlo is situated on a prominent escarpment at the base of the Maritime Alps along the French Riviera. Near the quarter's western end is the world-famous Place du Casino, the gambling center which has made Monte Carlo "an international byword for the extravagant display and reckless dispersal of wealth", it is the location of the Hôtel de Paris, Café de Paris and Salle Garnier. The quarter's eastern part includes the community of Larvotto with Monaco's only public beach, as well as its new convention center, the Monte-Carlo Bay Hotel & Resort.
At the quarter's eastern border, one crosses into the French town of Beausoleil, just 8 kilometres to its east is the western border of Italy. By the 1850s Monaco's reigning family was bankrupt. At the time, a number of small towns in Europe were growing prosperous from the establishment of casinos, notably in German towns such as Baden-Baden and Homburg. In 1856 Charles III of Monaco granted a concession to Napoleon Langlois and Albert Aubert to establish a sea-bathing facility for the treatment of various diseases, to build a German-style casino in Monaco; the initial casino was not a success. The success of the casino grew largely due to the area's inaccessibility from much of Europe; the installation of the railway in 1868, brought with it an influx of people into Monte Carlo and saw it grow in wealth. Saint-Charles Church on Monte Carlo's Avenue Sainte-Charles was completed in 1883, it was restored in its centenary year. In 1911 when the Constitution divided the principality of Monaco in three municipalities, the municipality of Monte Carlo was created covering the existing neighborhoods of La Rousse/Saint Roman, Larvotto/Bas Moulins and Saint Michel.
The municipalities were merged into one in 1917, after accusations that the government was acting according to the motto "divide and conquer" and they were accorded the status of wards thereafter. Today, Monaco is divided into 10 wards, with an eleventh ward planned to encompass land reclaimed from the sea; the quarter of Monte Carlo was served by tramways from 1900 to 1953. In 2003 a new cruise ship pier was completed in the harbour at Monte Carlo. Monte Carlo has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate, influenced by oceanic climate and humid subtropical climate; as a result, it has mild, rainy winters. Monte Carlo is host to most of the Circuit de Monaco, on which the Formula One Monaco Grand Prix takes place, it hosts world championship boxing bouts, the European Poker Tour Grand Final and the World Backgammon Championship as well as the Monaco International Auto Show, fashion shows and other events. Although the Monte Carlo Masters tennis tournament is billed as taking place in the community, its actual location is in the adjacent French commune of Roquebrune-Cap-Martin.
Monte Carlo has been visited by royalty as well as the public and movie stars for decades. The Monte Carlo Rally is one of most respected car rallies; the rally, takes place outside the Monte Carlo quarter and is run on French roads. Monte Carlo is one of Europe's leading tourist resorts, although many of the key tourist destinations are in other parts of Monaco, including such attractions as Monaco Cathedral, the Napoleon Museum, the Oceanographic Museum and aquarium, the Prince's Palace, all of which are in Monaco-Ville; the Opéra de Monte-Carlo or Salle Garnier was built to designs of the architect Charles Garnier, who designed the Paris opera house now known as the Palais Garnier. Although much smaller, the Salle Garnier is similar in style with decorations in red and gold, frescoes and sculptures all around the auditorium, it was inaugurated on 25 January 1879 with a performance by Sarah Bernhardt dressed as a nymph. The first opera performed there was Robert Planquette's Le Chevalier Gaston on 8 February 1879, and, followed by three more in the first season.
With the influence of the first director, Jules Cohen and the fortunate combination of Raou
INS Deepak (A50)
INS Deepak is a Deepak-class fleet tanker built by Fincantieri. Deepak was launched on 13 February 2010 and commissioned on 21 January 2011; the Deepak-class tanker can carry 17,900 tonnes of cargo, including 15,500 tonnes tonnes of liquid cargo and 500 tonnes tonnes of solid cargo. It can handle 16 cargo containers on the upper deck and was equipped with an eight-bed hospital, with laboratory and X-ray facilities; the modern cargo handling facility on board the ship enables transfer of heavy solid cargo via a 30 tonnes capacity deck crane, simultaneous fuelling of multiple ships at sea, can refuel at the rate of 1,500 tonnes per hour. Workshop facilities on the ship can support other ships of the fleet and it is capable of supporting heavy helicopters. Deepak, along with INS Delhi took part in India-Brazil-South Africa Maritime during October 2012; this ships docked at Durban for three days as part of the deployment. INS Shakti INS Jyoti INS Aditya