John Costello (pastoralist)
John Costello was a pioneer and pastoralist in outback Queensland. Born in Yass, New South Wales, Costello was the fifth child of Mary Costello, his father was a store-keeper and grazier who had come to Australia with his wife from Ireland in 1837. All four of his siblings died en route to Australia, the family had a daughter named Mary; the family had settled in Yass in 1851 after selling their store and acquired 1,000 acres in the area. Costello became a renowned stockman. In 1863 his younger sister, married Patrick Durack. Costello and Durack both shared a hunger for land and were fascinated by stories of explorers travelling through outback Queensland. In 1863 the pair met William Landsborough and decided to lead a party to acquire land in south west Queensland. Drought conditions killed the men, but Costello was encouraged by his wife Mary Scanlan, whom he married in 1865; the Costellos along with Durack formed a depot at Warroo Springs in outback New South Wales later moved north to Mobel Creek.
The Costellos had a son that died of fever, they had a daughter. In 1867 Costello overlanded 200 horses from Mobel Creek through uncharted territory to Kapunda, South Australia. Earning £3000 on the sale, Costello returned and acquired the lease to Mobel Springs, a holding of 40,000 acres. Costello and Durack moved north again and established both Kyabra and Thylungra Station in 1868 with 100 cattle. In 1869 both drought and depression were taking their toll on the state but Costello continued to acquire lands around the Channel Country and stock them; the 1870s saw better seasons in the area and buyers moved in to acquire land controlled by Costello and Durack. Costello himself held leases over 13,000 square miles of lands through the Channel Country of Queensland. Costello established many stations through the Channel Country including Kyabra, Davenport Downs, Morney Plains and Connemara Stations. In 1877 Costello sold Kyabra and bought a racing stud, near Rockhampton and another property near Galdstone.
But in 1879 he went back to the bush and acquired Lake Nash Station, which straddles the Northern Territory and Queensland border. While drought was taking its toll on his coastal properties Costello acquired another 2,000 square miles in the Northern Territory
In Old Norse, ǫ́ss is a member of the principal pantheon in Norse religion. This pantheon includes Odin, Thor, Baldr and Týr; the second pantheon is known as the Vanir. In Norse mythology, the two pantheons wage war against each other, which results in a unified pantheon; the cognate term in Old English is ōs denoting a deity in Anglo-Saxon paganism. The Old High German is ans, plural ensî; the Gothic language had ans-. The reconstructed Proto-Germanic form is *ansuz; the ansuz rune, ᚫ, was named after the Æsir. Unlike the Old English word god, the term ōs was never adopted into Christian use. Æsir is the plural of áss, óss "god", attested in other Germanic languages, e.g. Old English ōs, Old Dutch ans and Gothic anses "half-gods"; these all stem from Proto-Germanic *ansuz, which itself comes from Proto-Indo-European *h₂énsus "life force" (cf. Avestan aŋhū "lord, it is accepted that this word is further related to *h₂ens- "to engender". Old Norse áss has the accusative æsi and ásu. In genitival compounds, it takes the form ása-, e.g. in Ása-Þórr, besides ás- found in ás-brú "gods' bridge", ás-garðr, ás-kunnigr "gods' kin", ás-liðar "gods' leader", ás-mogin "gods' might", ás-móðr "divine wrath" etc.
Landâs "national god" is a title of Thor, as is allmáttki ás "almighty god", while it is Odin, "the" ás. The feminine suffix -ynja is known from a few other nouns denoting female animals, such as apynja "female monkey", vargynja "she-wolf"; the word for "goddess" is not attested outside Old Norse. The latinization of Danish Aslak as Ansleicus, the name of a Danish Viking converted to Christianity in 864 according to the Miracles de St. Riquier, indicates that the nasalization in the first syllable persisted into the 9th century; the cognate Old English form to áss is ōs, preserved only as a prefix Ōs- in personal names and some place-names, as the genitive plural ēsa. In Old High German, Old Dutch and Old Saxon, the word is only attested in personal and place names, e.g. Ansebert, Ansfrid, Vihans. Jordanes has anses for the gods of the Goths; the interaction between the Æsir and the Vanir has provoked an amount of scholarly theory and speculation. While other cultures have had "elder" and "younger" families of gods, as with the Titans versus the Olympians of ancient Greece, the Æsir and Vanir were portrayed as contemporaries.
The two clans of gods fought battles, concluded treaties, exchanged hostages. An áss like Ullr is unknown in the myths, but his name is seen in a lot of geographical names in Sweden, may appear on the 3rd century Thorsberg chape, suggesting that his cult was widespread in prehistoric times; the names of the first three Æsir in Norse mythology, Vili, Vé and Odin all refer to spiritual or mental state, vili to conscious will or desire, vé to the sacred or numinous and óðr to the manic or ecstatic. A second clan of gods, the Vanir, is mentioned in Norse mythology: the god Njörðr and his children and Freyja, are the most prominent Vanir gods who join the Æsir as hostages after a war between Æsir and Vanir; the Vanir appear to have been connected with cultivation and fertility and the Æsir were connected with power and war. In the Eddas, the word Æsir is used for gods in general, while Asynjur is used for the goddesses in general. For example, in the poem Skírnismál, Freyr was called "Prince of the Æsir".
In the Prose Edda, Njörðr was introduced as "the third among the Æsir", among the Asynjur, Freyja is always listed second only to Frigg. In surviving tales, the origins of many of the Æsir are unexplained. There are just three: Odin and his brothers Vili and Vé. Odin's sons by giantesses are counted as Æsir. Heimdallr and Ullr's connection with the Æsir is not mentioned. Loki is a jötunn, Njörðr is a Vanir hostage, but they are ranked among the Æsir. Given the difference between their roles and emphases, some scholars have speculated that the interactions between the Æsir and the Vanir reflect the types of interaction that were occurring between social classes within Norse society at the time. According to another theory, the Vanir may be more archaic than that of the more warlike Æsir, such that the mythical war may mirror a half-remembered religious conflict; this argument was first suggested by Wilhelm Mannhardt in 1877. On a similar note, Marija Gimbutas argues that the Æsir and the Vanir represent the displacement of an indigenous Indo-European group by a tribe of warlike invaders as part of her Kurgan hypothesis.
See her case in The Living Goddess for more details. Another historical theory is that the inter-pantheon interaction may be an apotheosisation of the conflict between the Roman Kingdom and the Sabines; the noted comparative religion scholar Mircea Eliade speculated that this conflict is a version of an Indo-European myth concerning the conflict between and eventual integration of a pantheon
New Years Day (band)
New Years Day is an American rock band formed in Anaheim, California in 2005. After building a reputation through promotion on the social networking website MySpace, the band released its debut self-titled EP in 2006 and their first full-length album My Dear in 2007. Six years after their initial debut, Victim to Villain was released, shortly followed by Malevolence in 2015. Malevolence peaked at No. 45 on the band's highest charting thus far. New Years Day formed in late 2005. Lohrbach carried over the many emotional elements present in Home Grown's final 2004 EP When it All Comes Down and cultivated it into new material for New Years Day. Meeting with lead vocalist Ashley "Ash" Costello and guitarist/keyboardist Keith Drover, the three friends wrote and rehearsed songs about their difficult and emotional relationship break-ups. Soon after, the group produced a two-song demo and invited a mutual friend of the group, Eric Seilo, to play bass during their 2005 tours. Seilo left New Years Day at the end of 2005 to pursue higher education.
After acquiring former Wakefield guitarist Mike Schoolden and drummer Russell Dixon, the group decided to call themselves New Years Day. The name was chosen in 2005 as a symbol of the fresh start they all desired for as a band, they have said they are influenced by artists such as Black Sabbath, Linkin Park, Depeche Mode, Sisters of Mercy, Joy Division, The Misfits, Marilyn Manson, Rob Zombie, Avenged Sevenfold, Pantera, Machine Head, Iron Maiden, Judas Priest and Nirvana. The band built a strong online presence through showcasing and posting songs on MySpace. New Years Day was featured on the MySpace Records, Volume 1 compilation CD and on the video game soundtrack for Saints Row. After considering an offer from Pete Wentz's Decaydance Records label, the band decided to sign with TVT Records instead and released their first self-titled EP in 2006. Referred to as Razor, the EP was marketed as a digital release accessible through downloading services, although CD hard copies were sold to fans at live shows.
New Years Day performed at the South by Southwest music festival the following year. By May 8, 2007, New Years Day released its debut album My Dear, self-financed, self-produced and recorded over an eight-month period by friend and producer Eugene Perreras; the album included collaborations with members of Motion City Soundtrack. During this period of time, the band toured with fellow artists, The Fall of Troy, The Red Jumpsuit Apparatus and Hawthorne Heights. Guitarist Keith Drover left the band shortly after touring to move to Sweden; the band directed by Shane Drake. Notably, the video won the MTVU "Freshman Face" poll and was added to the channel's ongoing playlist. In 2008, TVT was forced to sell its recording assets to The Orchard. My Dear lacked the proper promotion required to succeed and Schoolden and Lohrbach both left the band shortly thereafter. Despite the small setbacks, the remaining members continued writing new material. Around September 2009, New Years Day posted two brand new songs on MySpace.
When asked about the upcoming EP, Costello remarked, "The EP is in its demo phase right now and we are still writing for it and recording it at the same time. The EP should be out in the spring of 2010." On March 12, 2010, Alternative Press announced that New Years Day would be joining the 2010 Vans Warped Tour. On July 2, 2010, the band released its Japanese debut album, Headlines & Headstones under Spinning Inc. Headlines & Headstones included music from New Years Day, My Dear, new songs from their upcoming sophomore U. S. album and a cover of Lady Gaga's Bad Romance. New Years Day welcomed Matthew Lindblad as its newest member on January 31, 2011, he replaced former guitarist Dan Arnold. Soon after Lindblad joined, the band brought in Jake Jones as an additional guitarist. On May 15, 2011, Hollywood Waste announced New Years Day as its newest addition to label; the band's new EP, entitled "The Mechanical Heart," was released on June 21, 2011 and received a majority of positive reviews from fans and fellow musicians alike.
From October to December, the band toured in support of Blood on the Dance Floor on the "All the Rage Tour". Nikki Misery joined the band on this tour as its lead guitarist, replacing Matthew Lindblad, more interested in pursuing a solo career. Nikki Misery was a recent graduate of Musicians Institute, hailing from Santa Ana with roots in New Orleans, his imposing looks, fierce chops and dramatic stage presence made him an immediate fan favorite. After some anticipation, New Years Day released its second album Victim to Villain in June 2013 through Century Media Records; the band joined the 2013 Vans Warped Tour and performed all 40 shows, "the longest-running touring music festival in North America" to this day. The band jumped on back-to-back tours with Otep and Stolen Babies in Fall 2013 and William Control and Combichrist in Spring 2014. In early 2014, Nick Turner and Jake Jones left the band and were replaced by Nick Rossi and Tyler Burgess, respectively. New Years Day embarked on a European tour with Escape the Fate and Glamour of the Kill in the following months.
The band graciously parted ways with their previous label, Century Media Records and released of the first single off their upcoming Epidemic EP titled "Other Side" through Grey Area Records on November 18, 2014. When asked about the new EP, Costello commented in an Alternative Press interview, "We've taken what we have experienced in the past year
Richard de Clare, 2nd Earl of Pembroke
Richard de Clare, 2nd Earl of Pembroke, Lord of Leinster, Justiciar of Ireland was an Anglo-Norman nobleman notable for his leading role in the Anglo-Norman invasion of Ireland. Like his father, Richard fitz Gilbert has since become known by his nickname Strongbow which may be a mistranscription or mistranslation of Striguil, his son Gilbert de Striguil, or Strigoil, died unmarried before 1189. As a minor, he never became an earl, thus the earldom was passed with Richard's daughter Isabel to her spouse William Marshall. Richard's cognomen Strongbow has become the name he is best known by, but it is unlikely that he was called that at the time. Cognomens of other Cambro-Norman and Norman lords were Norman-French as the nobility spoke French and, with few exceptions, official documents were written in Latin during this period; the confusion seems to have arisen. In the Domesday Exchequer annals between 1300 and 1304 it was written as "Ricardus cognomento Stranghose Comes Strugulliae." This chronicler erroneously has attributed Stranghose as a cognomen, where it is much more a variant spelling or mistranscription of Striguil, called Strangboge, Stranboue or Stranbohe in other transcriptions.
It is in the fourteenth century that we have Richard's name rendered as Strongbow "Earl Richard son of Gilbert Strongbow." Richard was the son of 1st Earl of Pembroke and Isabel de Beaumont. Richard's father died in about 1148, when he was 18 years old, Richard inherited the title'count of Strigoil' Earl of Pembroke, it is probable that this title was not recognized at Henry II's coronation in 1154. As the son of the first'earl', he succeeded to his father's estates in 1148, but was deprived of the title by King Henry II of England in 1154 for siding with King Stephen of England against Henry's mother, the Empress Matilda. Richard was in fact, called by his contemporaries Count Striguil, for his marcher lordship of Striguil where he had a fortress at a place now called Chepstow, in Monmouthshire on the River Wye, he saw an opportunity to reverse his bad fortune in 1168 when he met Diarmait Mac Murchada, the deposed King of Leinster. In 1167, Diarmait Mac Murchada was deprived of the Kingdom of Leinster by the High King of Ireland – Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair.
The grounds for the dispossession were that Mac Murchada had, in 1152, abducted Derbforgaill, the wife of the King of Breifne, Tiernan O'Rourke. To recover his kingdom, Mac Murchada solicited help from the King of England – Henry II; the deposed king embarked for Bristol from near Bannow on 1 August 1166. He met Henry in Aquitaine in the Autumn of 1166. Henry could not help him at this time, but provided a letter of comfort for willing supporters of Mac Murchada's cause in his kingdom. However, after his return to Wales, he failed to rally any forces to his standard, he met the count of Striguil and other barons of the Welsh Marches. Mac Murchada came to an agreement with Richard de Clare: for the Earl's assistance with an army the following spring, he could have Aoife, Mac Murchada's eldest daughter in marriage and the succession to Leinster; as Henry's approval or licence to Mac Murchada was a general one, the count of Striguil thought it prudent to obtain Henry's specific consent to travel to Ireland: he waited two years to do this.
The licence he got was to aid Mac Murchada in the recovery of his kingdom of Leinster. Mac Murchada and Richard de Clare raised a large army, which included Welsh archers and arranged for Raymond FitzGerald to lead it; the force took the Ostman towns of Wexford and Dublin in rapid succession between 1169 and 1170. Richard de Clare, was not with the first invading party and arrived in August 1170. In May 1171, Diarmait Mac Murchada died and his son, Donal MacMurrough-Kavanagh, claimed the kingdom of Leinster in accordance with his rights under the Brehon Laws. Richard de Clare claimed the kingship in the right of his wife. At this time, Strongbow sent his uncle, Hervey de Montmorency, on an embassy to Henry II; this was necessary to appease the King, growing restive at the count's increasing power. Upon his return, de Montmorency conveyed the King's terms – the return of Richard de Clare's lands in France and Wales as well as leaving him in possession of his Irish lands. In return, Richard de Clare surrendered Dublin and other fortresses to the English king.
Henry's intervention was successful and both the Gaelic and Norman lords in the south and east of Ireland accepted his rule. Henry stayed in Ireland six months, he put his own men into Richard keeping only Kildare. In 1173 Richard went in person to France to help Henry II during the rebellion by his sons, being reinstated in Leinster as a reward. In 1174 he advanced into Connaught and was defeated, but subsequently Raymond FitzGerald re-established his supremacy in Leinster. By an unknown mistress, Richard de Clare fathered two daughters: Aline de Clare, who married William FitzMaurice FitzGerald, baron of Naas Basilia de Clare, who married Robert de Quenci, Constable of LeinsterOn about 26 August 1171 in Reginald's Tower, Richard de Clare married MacMurrough's daughter, Aoife MacMurrough, their children were: Gilbert de Clare, 3rd Earl of Pemb
Jerry Francis Costello is the former U. S. Representative for Illinois's 12th congressional district, he represented Illinois's 21st congressional district, served in Congress from 1988 to 2013. He is a member of the Democratic Party and was the dean of Illinois's 21-member congressional delegation. In October 2011, Costello announced that he would not seek another term in Congress in 2012, he was succeeded by William Enyart. Costello was born in East St. Louis and attended Catholic schools, graduating from Assumption High School, he was educated at Maryville College of the Sacred Heart in St. Louis, from which he earned a bachelor's degree. Costello worked in the law enforcement field, he served St. Clair County, Illinois as a court bailiff, deputy sheriff, director of court services and probation. Costello was chief investigator for the Illinois State Attorney’s office. In 1980, he was elected the St. Clair County Board chairman. Costello served in this capacity as county executive until his election to the House.
Costello took office on in August 1988, after winning a special election with 51% of the vote, to fill the seat of the deceased Melvin Price. He was elected to a full term that November with 53% of the vote. After that, he never won re-election with less than 60% of the vote. Costello was the most senior member of Illinois' House delegation during his final term in office. On October 4, 2011, he announced he would not seek reelection in 2012. Costello was succeeded by William Enyart, elected on November 6, 2012. Costello served on the National Leadership Committee of then-Senator Barack Obama's National Catholic Advisory Council during his 2008 election campaign. Shortly after the election of Barack Obama as President of the United States, Costello was prominently mentioned as a possible cabinet choice for Secretary of Transportation. In 2011, Costello co-sponsored HR 3, the No Taxpayer Funding for Abortion Act, which would limit the situations in which abortion could be paid for by public funds.
1997 ethics complaintIn 1996, federal prosecutors alleged that Costello was an unindicted co-conspirator in a plan to build a riverboat casino. At the end of an investigation and trial, a longtime friend of Costello's was sentenced to six years in prison for obstruction of justice. Costello testified before a grand jury in regard to the matter, but was not indicted or charged in the case, he denied any involvement. In 1997, the Congressional Accountability Project filed an ethics complaint requesting investigation of Costello which resulted in no action. Committee on Science and Technology Subcommittee on Energy and Environment Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure Subcommittee on Aviation Subcommittee on Railroads and Hazardous Materials Subcommittee on Water Resources and Environment Biography at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress Profile at Vote Smart Financial information at the Federal Election Commission
John A. Costello
John Aloysius Costello was an Irish Fine Gael politician who served as Taoiseach from 1948 to 1951 and from 1954 to 1957, Leader of the Opposition from 1951 to 1954 and from 1957 to 1959, Attorney General of Ireland from 1926 to 1932. He served as a Teachta Dála from 1933 to 1943 and from 1944 to 1969. Costello was born on 20 June 1891, in Dublin, he was a younger son of John Costello senior, a civil servant, Rose Callaghan. He was educated at St. Joseph's Secondary C. B. S. Fairview, moved to O'Connell School, for senior classes, attended University College Dublin and graduated with a degree in modern languages and law, he studied at King's Inns to become a barrister, winning the Victoria Prize there in 1913 and 1914. Costello was called to the bar in 1914, practised as a barrister until 1922. In 1922, Costello joined the staff of the Attorney General in the newly established Irish Free State. Three years he was called to the inner bar, the following year, 1926, he became Attorney General of Ireland, upon the formation of the Cumann na nGaedheal government, led by W. T. Cosgrave.
While serving in this position he represented the Free State at Imperial Conferences and League of Nations meetings. He was elected a Bencher of the Honourable Society of King's Inns. Costello lost his position as Attorney General of Ireland, when Fianna Fáil came to power in 1932; the following year, however, he was elected to Dáil Éireann as a Cumann na nGaedheal Teachta Dála. Cumann na nGaedheal soon merged with other parties to form Fine Gael). On 28 February 1934, during a Dáil debate on a bill to outlaw the wearing of uniforms, Costello made a speech opposing the bill that has generated controversy since. In response to an assertion by Minister for Justice P. J. Ruttledge, that the Blueshirts had fascist leanings like the Italian Blackshirts and German Brownshirts, that other European nations had taken similar actions against similar organisations, Costello stated: The remark was a small part of a much longer speech whose main point was that the bill was an unconstitutional over-reaction by the Fianna Fáil government and an unfair scapegoating of the Blueshirts movement.
However, the quote has since been the subject of much historical debate regarding the extent to which the Blueshirts, by extension Fine Gael – and Costello himself – had ties to European fascist movements. During the Dáil debate on the Emergency Powers Act 1939, Costello was critical of the Act's arrogation of powers, stating that He lost his seat at the general election of 1943, but regained it when de Valera called a snap election in 1944. From 1944 to 1948, he was the Fine Gael front-bench Spokesman on External Affairs. In 1948, Fianna Fáil had been in power for sixteen consecutive years and had been blamed for a downturn in the economy following World War II; the general election results showed Fianna Fáil short of a majority, but still by far the largest party, with twice as many seats as the nearest rival, Fine Gael. It appeared. However, the other parties in the Dáil realised that between them, they had only one seat fewer than Fianna Fáil, if they banded together, they would be able to form a government with the support of seven Independent deputies.
Fine Gael, the Labour Party, the National Labour Party, Clann na Poblachta and Clann na Talmhan joined to form the first inter-party government in the history of the Irish state. While it looked as if co-operation between these parties would not be feasible a shared opposition to Fianna Fáil and Éamon de Valera overcame all other difficulties and the coalition government was formed. Since Fine Gael was the largest party in the government, it had the task of providing a suitable candidate for Taoiseach, it was assumed that its leader, Richard Mulcahy, would be offered the post. However, he was an unacceptable choice to Clann na Poblachta and its republican leader, Seán MacBride; this was due to Mulcahy's record during the Irish Civil War. Instead, Fine Gael and Clann na Poblachta agreed on Costello as a compromise candidate. Costello was he involved in the Civil War; when told by Mulcahy of his nomination Costello was appalled, content with his life as a barrister and as a part-time politician.
He was persuaded to accept the nomination as Taoiseach by close non-political friends. During the campaign Clann na Poblachta had promised to repeal the External Relations Act of 1936, but did not make an issue of this when the government was being formed; however and his Tánaiste, William Norton of the Labour Party disliked the act. During the summer of 1948, the cabinet discussed repealing the act. In September 1948, Costello was on an official visit to Canada when a reporter asked him about the possibility of Ireland leaving the British Commonwealth. Costello, for the first time, declared publicly that the Irish government was indeed going to repeal the External Relations Act and declare Ireland a republic, it has been suggested that this was a reaction to offence caused by the Governor General of Canada at the time, the Earl Alexander of Tunis, of Northern Irish descent and who arranged to have placed symbols of Northern Ireland—notably a replica of the famous Roaring Meg cannon used in the Siege of Derry—in front of Costello at an official dinner.
Costello made no mention of these aspects on the second reading of the Republic of Ireland Bill on 24 November and, in his memoirs, claimed that Alexander's b
Frank "the Prime Minister" Costello was an Italian-American Mafia gangster and crime boss. Costello rose to the top of American organized crime, controlled a vast gambling empire, enjoyed political influence. Nicknamed "The Prime Minister of the Underworld," he became one of the most powerful and influential mafia bosses in American history leading the Luciano crime family, one of the Five Families that operate in New York City. Costello was born Francesco Castiglia on January 26, 1891 in Lauropoli, a frazione of the town of Cassano allo Ionio in the province of Cosenza in Italy. In 1895, he boarded a ship to the United States with his mother and his brother Edward to join their father, who had moved to New York City's East Harlem several years earlier and opened a small neighborhood Italian grocery store. While Costello was still a boy, his brother introduced him to gang activities. At 13, he had started using the name Frankie. Costello committed petty crimes and went to jail for assault and robbery in 1908, 1912, 1917.
In 1918, he married Lauretta Giegerman, a Jewish woman, the sister of a close friend. That same year, Costello served ten months in jail for carrying a concealed weapon. After his release, he decided to use his brain to make money as a criminal. Forgoing the use of violence as a road to success and wealth, Costello claimed that he never again carried a gun, he did not return to jail for 37 years. While working for the Morello gang, Costello met Charlie "Lucky" Luciano, the Sicilian leader of Manhattan's Lower East Side gang; the two Italians became friends and partners. Several older members of Luciano's family disapproved of this growing partnership. To Luciano's shock, they warned him against working with Costello, whom they called "the dirty Calabrian."Along with Italian-American associates Vito Genovese and Tommy "Three-Finger Brown" Lucchese, Jewish associates Meyer Lansky and Benjamin "Bugsy" Siegel, the gang became involved in robbery, extortion and narcotics. The Luciano-Costello-Lansky-Siegel alliance prospered further with the passage of Prohibition in 1920.
The gang went into bootlegging, backed by criminal financier Arnold "the Brain" Rothstein. The young Italians' success let them make business deals with the leading Jewish and Irish criminals of the era, including Dutch Schultz, Owney "the Killer" Madden and William "Big Bill" Dwyer. Rothstein became a mentor to Costello, Luciano and Siegel while they conducted bootlegging business with Bronx beer baron Schultz. In 1922, Costello and their closest Italian associates joined the Sicilian crime family led by Joe "the Boss" Masseria, a top Italian underworld crime boss. By 1924, Costello had become a close associate of Hell's Kitchen's Irish crime bosses Dwyer and Madden, he became involved in their rum-running operations, known as "The Combine". On November 19, 1926, Costello and Dwyer were indicted on federal bootlegging charges, they were accused of bribing two U. S. Coast Guardsmen so that they would not disturb the unloading of liquor from boats in New York Harbor; the largest boat in the Combine fleet could carry 20,000 cases of liquor.
In January 1927, the jury deadlocked on the bootlegging charges for Costello. In 1926, Dwyer was sentenced to two years in jail. After Dwyer was imprisoned, Costello took over the Combine's operations with Madden; this caused friction between Madden and a top Dwyer lieutenant, Charles "Vannie" Higgins, who believed he should have been running the Combine instead of Costello. Thus, the "Manhattan Beer Wars" began between Higgins on one side, Costello and Schultz on the other. At this time, Schultz was having problems with gangsters Jack "Legs" Diamond and Vincent "Mad Dog" Coll, who had begun to rival Schultz and his partners with Higgins' help; the Costello-Madden-Schultz alliance was destroyed by New York's underworld. Costello continued to be a influential gangster throughout the 1920s, he kept close associates Luciano and Siegel involved in most of his gambling rackets, which included punch cards, slot machines and floating casinos. Costello became known as the "Prime Minister of the Underworld" for his cultivation of associations and business relationships with New York's criminals, businessmen and police officials.
As he followed the "Big Three" ideology of mixing crime and politics, Costello's underworld influence grew. His fellow gangsters considered him an important link between the Mafia and Tammany Hall, New York's Democratic political machine; this relationship gave Costello and his associates, including Luciano, the opportunity to buy the favors of politicians, district attorneys, city officials and anyone else they needed to bribe in order to run their criminal operations. In 1927, Costello and former Chicago gangster John "Johnny the Fox" Torrio organized a group of top East Coast rum-runners into a large bootlegging operation; this gang was able to pool their Canadian and European liquor sources, maximize profits, minimize overhead, gain an advantage over their competition. The operation was known as the "Big Seven Group", the first concrete move in organizing the American underworld into a national crime syndicate. In May 1929, Luciano, Torrio and South Jersey crime boss En