Bongil Bongil National Park
Bongil Bongil National Park is a national park in New South Wales, Australia, 427 km northeast of Sydney. Protected areas of New South Wales List of reduplicated Australian place names
Rubus is a large and diverse genus of flowering plants in the rose family, subfamily Rosoideae, with 250–700 species. Raspberries and dewberries are common distributed members of the genus. Most of these plants have woody stems with prickles like roses; the Rubus fruit, sometimes called a bramble fruit, is an aggregate of drupelets. The term "cane fruit", or "cane berry", applies to any Rubus species or hybrid, grown with supports such as wires or canes, including raspberries and hybrids such as loganberry, boysenberry and tayberry. Most species are hermaphrodites, Rubus chamaemorus being an exception; the blackberries, as well as various other Rubus species with mounding or rambling growth habits, are called brambles. However, this name is not used for those like the raspberry that grow as upright canes, or for trailing or prostrate species, such as most dewberries, or various low-growing boreal, arctic, or alpine species; the generic name means blackberry in Latin and was derived from the word ruber, meaning "red".
The scientific study of brambles is known as "batology". Examples of the hundreds of species of Rubus include: The British National Collection of Rubus is held by Barry Clark at Houghton, Hampshire, his collection stands at over 200 species and, although not within the scope of the National Collection, he grows many cultivars. The term "hybrid berry" is used collectively for those fruits in the genus Rubus which have been developed in the USA and UK in the last 130 years; as Rubus species interbreed and are apomicts, the parentage of these plants is highly complex, but is agreed to include cultivars of blackberries, raspberries. The hybrid berries include:- Loganberry R. × loganobaccus, a spontaneous cross between R. ursinus'Aughinbaugh' and R. idaeus'Red Antwerp' Boysenberry a cross between R. idaeus and R. × loganobaccus Veitchberry a cross between R. fruticosus and R. idaeus Skellyberry, a cross between R. invisus and R. phoenicolasius Marionberry now thought to be a blackberry cultivar R.'Marion' Silvanberry, R.'Silvan', a cross between R.'Marion' and boysenberry Tayberry, another blackberry/raspberry cross Tummelberry, R.'Tummel', from the same Scottish breeding programme as tayberry Hildaberry, a tayberry/boysenberry cross discovered by an amateur grower The genus Rubus is a complex one the blackberry/dewberry subgenus, with polyploidy and facultative apomixis all occurring, making species classification of the great variation in the subgenus one of the grand challenges of systematic botany.
Rubus species have a basic chromosome number of seven. Polyploidy from the diploid to the tetradecaploid is exhibited; some treatments have recognized dozens of species each for what other, comparably qualified botanists have considered single, more variable species. On the other hand, species in the other Rubus subgenera are distinct, or else involved in more routine one-or-a-few taxonomic debates, such as whether the European and American red raspberries are better treated as one species or two. Molecular data have backed up classifications based on geography and chromosome number, but following morphological data, such as the structure of the leaves and stems, do not appear to produce a phylogenetic classification; the classification presented below recognizes 13 subgenera within Rubus, with the largest subgenus in turn divided into 12 sections. Representative examples are presented. Fossil seeds from the early Miocene of Rubus have been found in the Czech part of the Zittau Basin. Many fossil fruits of †Rubus laticostatus, †Rubus microspermus and †Rubus semirotundatus have been extracted from bore hole samples of the Middle Miocene fresh water deposits in Nowy Sacz Basin, West Carpathians, Poland.
List of Lepidoptera that feed on Rubus Mulberry, an unrelated deciduous tree with similar looking fruit Data related to Rubus at Wikispecies Rubus at the Western Kentucky University
Garrawilla National Park
Garrawilla National Park was created in December 2005. It covers an area of 937 hectares; this park is located on the northern side of the Oxley Highway halfway between Coonabarabran and Mullaley in New South Wales, Australia. Protected areas of New South Wales
Warrumbungle National Park
Warrumbungle National Park is a heritage listed national park located in the Orana region of New South Wales, Australia. The national park is located 550 kilometres northwest of Sydney and contained within 23,311 hectares; the park attracts 35,000 visitors per annum. The national park is based on the geographical Warrumbungle Mountain Range, sometimes shortened to the Warrumbungles, thus the park name is heard in the plural; the park lies within the Pilliga Important Bird Area, so identified by BirdLife International because of its importance for a range of woodland bird species, many of which are threatened. Warrumbungle National Park was added to the Australian National Heritage List in December 2006. On 4 July 2016, the park was the first within Australia to be certified as a Dark Sky Park by the International Dark Sky Association; the nearest towns to the park are Baradine, Coonamble, Gilgandra and Tooraweenah. Access via Coonabarabran to the east is by 27 kilometres of sealed road called the John Renshaw Parkway, built in 1966.
Via Coonamble to the west, access is by a 57 kilometres long road with some gravel. The park is contained within three local government areas: Warrumbungle Shire to the east, Gilgandra Shire to the south and Coonamble Shire to the west. Located within the large area of temperate savanna grasslands the park incorporates the most spectactular part of the Warrumbungle mountains, a region of past volcanic activity with unusual lava formations; some of the most well-known rock formations include Bluff Mountain, Mount Exmouth, The Breadknife, Split Rock, Fans Horizon and Crater Bluff. There are many scenic bushwalks and both rock climbing and abseiling are popular. Though the park preserved habitat for koalas in the past, a massive 2013 fire decimated the koala population. Located adjacent to the national park is the Siding Spring Observatory; the observatory opened in 1965, was constructed on the boundary of the park because the park provided a light-free environment. This scientific facility consists of several internationally important telescopes and has considerable socio-economic importance to the local Coonabarabran community.
There are four main campsites. All camping in the park is only permitted after obtaining a permit. There is a visitors centre for keys to a number of huts; the park caters for large school groups. There are free electric barbecues available however firewood is not supplied or to be collected within park grounds. A proposal to reserve the more scenic parts of the Warrumbungle Range as the Warrumbungle National Monument was first initiated by the National Parks and Primitive Areas Council in 1936; the area was first proclaimed as a reserve in 1953. In 1967 management of the park was signed over to the National Parks and Wildlife Service; the construction of a network of walking tracks done by hand was headed by the parks first ranger, Carl Dow. The park was added to the list of the National Heritage in December 2006, in recognition of the park's importance as an extensive and spectacular geomorphological site with bold volcanic landforms that are unrivalled anywhere else in Australia. In January 2013 about 80% of the national park was destroyed in a conflagration that burned much of the area surrounding the park as well as destroying dozens of homes.
The visitor centre and museum were wiped out, as well as railings and viewing platforms throughout the park. The park has since reopened, although some parts remain closed. Protected areas of New South Wales Warrumbungle National Park: Park management at the NSW Office of Environment and Heritage. NSW Parks and Wildlife Service Closure notice
Bago Bluff National Park
Bago Bluff is a national park in New South Wales, Australia 410 km northeast of Sydney. It is situated south west of Wauchope and includes parts of the former Broken Bago State Forest and a part of Lorne State Forest; the Bago Bluff National Park includes in the northern section the old Bago Bluff Flora Reserve and Six B Flora Reserve. Bago Bluff offers splendid views of the Hastings Valley from the top of the bluff which can be accessed via several forest roads from the south, including Bago Road; the park's northern boundary is on southern side of the Oxley Highway where there are two badly washed 4WD tracks into the park. Quarries in the park have yielded leaf and shell fossils. Birds that may be spotted in the park include: Australian magpies, golden whistlers, green winged pigeons, grey fantails, large-billed scrubwrens, spotted pardalotes, pied currawongs, striated thornbills and white-browed scrubwrens. Lantana has become a problem in the park where it is covering some of the tracks. Protected areas of New South Wales
Bindarri National Park
Bindarri National Park is a national park in New South Wales, Australia, 431 km northeast of Sydney. Protected areas of New South Wales Official Site
The yellow-bellied glider known as the fluffy glider, is an arboreal and nocturnal gliding possum that lives in native eucalypt forests in eastern Australia, from northern Queensland south to Victoria. The yellow-bellied glider inhabits forests and woodlands in eastern Australia and is found at a range of altitudes from sea level to 1400 metres. In North Queensland, the sub-species occurs at altitudes over 700 m above sea level. With natural discontinuities and habitat clearings, there are 13 different populations in three distinct places to find this glider in North Queensland. One population resides on Mount Windsor Tableland, another on Mount Carbine Tableland, the third lives in a linear habitat going from Atherton to Kirrama on the Atherton Tableland; these three populations together are estimated to contain around 6000 individual gliders. With their habitat in danger, the yellow-bellied glider is classified as uncommon to rare and is named vulnerable to the tropics; this species is more widespread in southern NSW and Victoria.
The yellow-bellied glider is a marsupial about the size of a rabbit. It has grey-brown fur on its back and has an off-white to orange or yellow belly, it has a long tail that can grow to reach 48 cm in length. Its body length is smaller reaching to about 30 cm long and the marsupial weighs a total of 700 g; the males are bigger than the females. There are two subspecies: P. a. australis in the south P. a. reginae in northern Queensland The yellow-bellied glider is the largest species of Petaurus, the wrist-winged gliders, a group of arboreal marsupials, can glide up to 150 m. The yellow-bellied glider has been observed to jump up to 100 114 m, it is similar in appearance to the mahogany glider, although larger in size. It is similar in appearance to the greater glider, a species, more related to the lemur-like ringtail possum than to the other members of the genus Petaurus; the yellow-bellied glider is gregarious and spends the day in a leaf-lined tree hole, shared with other members of the same family.
It is one of the most vocal possum gliders. It has a distinctive growling, it has been recorded to have been heard up to 500m away. A recording of the distinctive call can be heard at Breeding occurs in spring in the south, but throughout the year in Queensland in the north. Sexual maturity for the glider is around two years of age when the glider will pair up with another glider in a monogamous relationship and mate August to December; the offspring are born between May and September. They stay in the marsupium for about 100 days; the young are left in the den for 2–3 months before they are weaned from the mother and go off on their own. While in the dens both parents will care for the offspring. In North Queensland the dens are lined with leaves, their total life expectancy is about six years. The yellow-bellied glider's diet consists of nectar, insects, pollen and a wide spread of tree sap including different Eucalyptus sap, Corymbia sap, some Angophora sap, Lophostemon sap, it shows a strong preference for trees with a smooth bark relating to the volume of sap flow.
It obtains the tree sap by biting a'V' shape wedge/notch into the bark to promote the flow of gum and sap. It incises the bark on the trunks or upper branches of the trees. Habitat loss and fragmentation due to timber-harvesting and agriculture are the main threats to this species; the previous felling of old nest trees together with regular proscribed fire regimes and general timber removal have led to a degradation of the remaining habitats. It had been listed as a species of "Least Concern" because of a wide distribution, including several protected areas; this listing was changed to "Near Threatened" in the 2016 IUCN Red List publication because of a population decrease of 30% over three generations. Cronin, Leonard – "Key Guide to Australian Mammals", published by Reed Books Pty. Ltd. Sydney, 1991 ISBN 0-7301-0355-2 van der Beld, John – "Nature of Australia – A portrait of the island continent", co-published by William Collins Pty. Ltd. and ABC Enterprises for the Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Sydney, 1988, ISBN 0-7333-0241-6 Russell, Rupert – "Spotlight on Possums", published by University of Queensland Press, St. Lucia, Queensland, 1980, ISBN 0-7022-1478-7 Troughton, Ellis – "Furred Animals of Australia", published by Angus and Robertson Pty. Ltd.
Sydney, in 1941, ISBN 0-207-12256-3 Morcombe, Michael & Irene – "Mammals of Australia", published by Australian Universities Press Pty. Ltd. Sydney, 1974, ISBN 0-7249-0017-9 Ride, W. D. L. – "A Guide to the Native Mammals of Australia", published by Oxford University Press, Melbourne, 1970, ISBN 0 19 550252 3 Serventy, Vincent – "Wildlife of Australia", published by Thomas Nelson Ltd. Melbourne, 1968, ISBN 0-17-005168-4 Serventy, Vincent – "Australia's Wildlife Heritage", published by Paul Hamlyn Pty. Ltd. Sydney, 1975 of the marsupial family Petauridae. Yellow-bellied glider – Threatened species — Government of New South Wales website Yellow-bellied glider – Vulnerable species – National Parks and Wildlife Service Yellow-bellied glider – Wildlife Preservation Society of Queensland Gliders in the Spotlight – Wildlife Preservation Society of Queensland Yellow-bellied glider – Museum Victoria Yellow-bellied glider – Recovery plan — National Parks and Wildlife Service