SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Cotton Bowl (stadium)

Cotton Bowl Stadium is an outdoor stadium in Dallas, United States. It opened in 1930 on the site of the State Fair of Texas; the Cotton Bowl was the longtime home of the annual college football post-season bowl game known as the Cotton Bowl Classic, for which the stadium is named. Starting on New Year's Day 1937, it hosted the first 73 editions of the game, through January 2009; the stadium hosts the Red River Showdown, the annual college football game between the Oklahoma Sooners and the Texas Longhorns, the First Responder Bowl. The stadium has been home to many football teams over the years, including: SMU Mustangs, Dallas Cowboys, Dallas Texans, Dallas Texans, soccer teams, the Dallas Tornado, FC Dallas, it was one of the nine venues used for the 1994 FIFA World Cup. It became known as "The House That Doak Built", due to the immense crowds that SMU running back Doak Walker drew to the stadium during his college career in the late 1940s. In their seventh season, the Cowboys hosted the Green Bay Packers for the NFL championship at the Cotton Bowl on January 1, 1967.

The college bowl game that year included SMU and was played the day before, New Year's Eve, which required a quick turnaround to transform the field. The two games were filled to the 75,504 capacity. Artificial turf was installed in 1970 and removed in 1993 in preparation for the 1994 FIFA World Cup; the elevation of the playing field is 450 feet above sea level. Construction began on Fair Park Stadium in 1930 on the same site as the wooden football stadium before known as Fair Park Stadium. Completed that year, the first game in the stadium was between Dallas-area high schools in October 1930; the original stadium–the lower half of the current facility–was built for a cost of $328,000 and seated 45,507 spectators. The name was changed to the Cotton Bowl in 1936. In 1948, a second deck was added to the west side, increasing capacity to 67,000; the east side was double-decked the following year, increasing capacity to 75,504. These decks were added to respond to the demand for fans to watch SMU halfback Doak Walker, leading the Cotton Bowl to be known as "the house that Doak built."

The superstructure was built at this time, creating the distinctive facade for the stadium. In 1968, chair-backs were installed, reducing capacity to 72,032. In 1970, the Cotton Bowl installed an AstroTurf surface, which remained until 1993. In 1950, as a way to break the Texas League record for opening-day attendance, Richard Burnett got permission to play in the Cotton Bowl, which at the time could hold as many as 75,000. In order to draw a big crowd, he wanted a lineup of former stars to don Dallas Eagles uniforms and face one Tulsa hitter in the top of the first inning. Most of the retired stars were cool to the idea, except for then-current Dallas Eagles manager Charlie Grimm; when the legendary Ty Cobb agreed to come to Dallas, the others followed his lead. Preceding the game was a parade through downtown Dallas. "It was the pre-game show that got'em", bellowed Dizzy Dean by way of self-congratulation. "Cobb, Home Run Baker, Ol' Diz in Dallas duds." The 54,151 who showed up were lucky enough to see Ty Cobb hit several balls into the stands, just to show he could still handle the bat.

The Kilgore College Rangerettes drill team performed on the field prior to the game. Texas governor Allan Shivers threw out the first pitch. Defensively, the old-timer lineup of the Eagles were: Duffy Lewis in left field, Cobb in center field, Texas native Tris Speaker in right field, Frank "Home Run" Baker at third base, Travis Jackson at shortstop, Charlie Gehringer at second base, manager Grimm at first base, Mickey Cochrane at catcher, former Houston Buffaloes star pitcher Dizzy Dean on the mound. Dean walked the leadoff batter for Tulsa, Harry Donabedian, on a 3-2 count, the regular Dallas players took the field. Dean was tossed from the game; the attendance figure still stands as the largest in Texas League history and second largest in the history of the minor leagues. The Cotton Bowl hosted six matches of the 1994 World Cup. To meet FIFA requirements for these games the stadium field was widened, the press box was enlarged and natural grass was re-installed; the playing surface has remained natural grass since.

Capacity was decreased to 71,615 in 1994 and to 68,252 in 1996. The Stadium hosted the Gold Cup Soccer Matches in 1993. In the 2000s, the renewed dominance of both the Oklahoma Sooners and the Texas Longhorns created a new interest in their rivalry, the stadium. Temporary stands were erected in each end zone to increase seating for these games from just over 68,000 to 90,000. In November 2006, the city of Dallas and the State Fair of Texas agreed on funding for a long-planned $50 million renovation, with $30 million of this amount from a city bond. Thus, in April 2007, the schools signed a contract to play at the Cotton Bowl through 2015, coupled with a $57 million fund for upgrades and improvements to the aging stadium; the 2008 game was held on October 11. The 2008 renovations include the expansion of the seating capacity of the stadium from 68,252 to 92,100 through the complete encircling of the second deck, new media and VIP facilities, a new scoreboard and video screen, updated restrooms and concession areas, lighting and sound upgrades and the replacement of all the stadium's seats.

A new record for attendance was set when 96,009 fans attended the 2009 Texas vs. Oklahoma football game; the renovati

Philadelphia Bourse

The Philadelphia Bourse was a commodities exchange founded in 1891 by George E. Bartol, a grain and commodities exporter, who modeled it after the Bourse in Hamburg, Germany; the steel-framed building – one of the first to be constructed – was built from 1893 to 1895, was designed by G. W. & W. D. Hewitt in the Beaux-Arts style. Carlisle redstone, Pompeian buff brick and terra cotta were all used in the facade. After the building was sold in 1979 to Kaiserman Company and underwent a subsequent renovation, making the internal area was 286,000 square feet.. In 2016, MRP Realty spent $40 million renovating it. MRP Realty owns the building as part of a three-building collection named The Independence Portfolio, which includes 325 Chestnut and 400 Market Street—both located within a block of The Bourse; the building is home to nine floors of office space. There is a food hall on the first floor which opened on 15 November 2018. Upon his return from a European trip in 1890, Bartol organized the Philadelphia business community.

He asked each new member to pledge $1,000 to the project. The Bourse motto was "Buy, Ship via Philadelphia."The Bourse stopped functioning as a commodities exchange in the 1960s. The structure continued to serve as an office building until 1979, when it was sold and renovated to include upscale retail space on floors near the street level; the upper levels of the building continued to house office space. A movie theater specializing in independent films, The Ritz at the Bourse, sits across the street at 4th and Ranstead streets. In 2018, a two year rehabilitation created a brand new food hall with 30 vendors; the building is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. After a two year rehabilitation, The Bourse reopened as a modern food hall with 30 vendors in November, 2019; the food hall is open seven days a week and features foods from around the world as well as local specialties like the cheesesteak. #GetFried Fry Cafe Abunai Poké Art Star at the Bourse Baby Buns Barry's Buns Bricco Pizza Romana Bluebird Distilling Bronze Table by Vera Pasta Escape the 1980s Freebyrd Chicken Grubhouse Lalo Marino Bros.

Cheesesteaks Menagerie Coffee Mighty Melt Photo Pop Philly Pinch Dumplings Prescription Chicken Scoop DeVille Rebel Taco Rustica Rosticceria Takorean Diversified Lighting MakeOffices Mexican Consulate Piano Society Hill Dental Philadelphia portal Notes Media related to Philadelphia Bourse at Wikimedia Commons Official Site for The Bourse Food Hall Official Site for The Bourse Official site for The Independence Portfolio Virtual tour of the Bourse Food Hall Listing and photographs at the Historic American Buildings Survey

Souk El Attarine

Souk El Attarine, or souk of spice traders, is the name by which most spice markets are referred to in Arab countries in the Middle East. Old cities were divided into segments based on what was sold - meat, fabrics and so on - and attarine, which means spice traders in Arabic, refers to the spice market; the souk was initiated by a sovereign of the Hafsid dynasty, Abu Zakariya Yahya, in 1240. TUNISIA Souk el Attarine is one of the souks of the medina of Tunis, specialized in perfume and beauty products trading; this souk rose water as well as amber and henna. Today beauty products trading is still the main fonction of the souk, it is situated near the Al-Zaytuna Mosque. It can be accessed from the north via the Sieve Street, Souk El Blaghgia and Sidi Ben Arous Street, from the west from Souk El Trouk and from the south by Souk El Fekka. In this souk, we find a good number of historical monuments such as: Al-Zaytuna Mosque. Madrasa Hamzia