Confederate States of America
The Confederate States, officially the Confederate States of America, commonly referred to as the Confederacy, was a breakaway country of 11 secessionist slave states existing from 1861 to 1865. It was never recognized as an Independent country, although it achieved belligerent status by Britain. A new Confederate government was established in February 1861 before Lincoln took office in March, after the Civil War began in April, four slave states of the Upper South – Virginia, Arkansas and North Carolina – declared their secession and joined the Confederacy. The government of the United States rejected the claims of secession, the Civil War began with the April 12,1861, Confederate attack upon Fort Sumter, a Union fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina. In spring 1865, after four years of fighting which led to an estimated 620,000 military deaths, all the Confederate forces surrendered. Jefferson Davis lamented that the Confederacy had disappeared in 1865, Missouri and Kentucky were represented by partisan factions from those states, while the legitimate governments of those two states retained formal adherence to the Union.
Also fighting for the Confederacy were two of the Five Civilized Tribes located in Indian Territory and a new, but uncontrolled, Confederate Territory of Arizona. Efforts by certain factions in Maryland to secede were halted by federal imposition of law, while Delaware, though of divided loyalty. A Unionist government in parts of Virginia organized the new state of West Virginia. With the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1,1863, the Union made abolition of slavery a war goal, as Union forces moved southward, large numbers of plantation slaves were freed. Many joined the Union lines, enrolling in service as soldiers and laborers, the most notable advance was Shermans March to the Sea in late 1864. Much of the Confederacys infrastructure was destroyed, including telegraphs, plantations in the path of Shermans forces were severely damaged. Internal movement became increasingly difficult for Southerners, weakening the economy and these losses created an insurmountable disadvantage in men and finance.
Public support for Confederate President Jefferson Daviss administration eroded over time due to repeated military reverses, economic hardships, after four years of campaigning, Richmond was captured by Union forces in April 1865. Shortly afterward, Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union General Ulysses S. Grant, President Davis was captured on May 10,1865, and jailed in preparation for a treason trial that was ultimately never held. The U. S. government began a process known as Reconstruction which attempted to resolve the political and constitutional issues of the Civil War. By 1877, the Compromise of 1877 ended Reconstruction in the former Confederate states, Confederate veterans had been temporarily disenfranchised by Reconstruction policy. The prewar South had many areas, the war left the entire region economically devastated by military action, ruined infrastructure
Economy of the Confederate States of America
The Confederate States of America had an agrarian-based economy that relied heavily on slave-worked plantations for the production of cotton for export to Europe and the northern US states. If ranked as an independent nation, it would have been the fourth richest country of the world in 1860, when the Union blockaded its ports in summer 1861, exports of cotton fell 95 percent and the South had to restructure itself to emphasize food production and munitions production. After losing control of its rivers and ports, it had to depend on a weak railroad system that, with few repairs being made, no new equipment. The financial infrastructure collapsed during the war as inflation destroyed banks, the government seized needed supplies and livestock. By 1865 the economy was in ruins, the main prewar agricultural products of the Confederate States were cotton and sugarcane, with hogs, cattle and vegetable plots. In 1862, there was a drought that, despite efforts to switch from cotton planting to grain farming, caused food shortages.
The harvests were fairly abundant after 1862, but often went to waste as they could not be harvested or moved to markets, corn was raised in large quantities, and, in general, the raising of food products instead of tobacco and cotton was a necessity. The scarcity of food in the armies and cities was due mostly to the shortage of male labor, compounding the problem was the ever-increasing number of refugees flooding into cities, food distribution became increasingly harder, and at times, impossible. The progressive destruction of the railroad network, along with rapid inflation. Instead, the South increasingly relied on foreign sources, the Confederacys industrial workforce, like its agricultural workforce, was characterized by its wide and extensive use of slaves. In the 1850s, anywhere from 150,000 -200,000 slaves were used in industrial work, almost 4/5, were owned directly by industrial owners, the other being bonded out by plantation owners. Often, manual labor performed by slaves was combined with skilled artisans to better compete with northern.
The total number of factories in the antebellum south numbered 20,600,11,000 non-slave workers, despite the profitability of slave industry, Southern industry had been undercapitalized for years by the time of the outbreak of the war. As early as 1830, Southern industry was a generation behind, at the outset of hostilities, only two government-owned naval yards were located in the South. Of private shipyards, anywhere from 36-145 existed, of varying tonnage, while sawmills were readily available to supply the construction of wooden boats, iron processing in the South was limited. The result was that few ships were built, the most famous was the CSS Virginia, a steam-powered ironclad warship built in 1861-62 using the raised and cut down original lower hull and steam engines of the scuttled USS Merrimack. Virginia fought in the Battle of Hampton Roads against the Unions USS Monitor in March,1862, the Tredegar Iron Works in Richmond by 1860 it was the third-largest iron manufacturer in the United States.
During the war it was the iron and artillery production facility of the Confederacy
James Henry Hammond
James Henry Hammond was an attorney and planter from South Carolina. He served as a United States Representative from 1835 to 1836, the 60th Governor of South Carolina from 1842 to 1844 and he was considered one of the major spokesmen in favor of slavery in the years before the American Civil War. Acquiring property through marriage, he ultimately owned 22 square miles, several plantations and houses, through his wifes family, he was a brother-in-law of Wade Hampton II and uncle to his children, including Wade Hampton III. When the senior Hampton learned that Hammond had abused his four Hampton nieces as teenagers and it was thought to derail Hammonds career for a time, but he was elected as US senator. The Hampton family suffered more, as none of the girls married, Hammond graduated from South Carolina College in 1825, going on to teach school, write for a newspaper and study law. He was admitted to the bar in 1828 and started a practice in Columbia and he established a newspaper there in support of nullification.
Hammond secured his independence by marrying Catherine Elizabeth Fitzsimmons, who was a shy. He became a man through this marriage and entered the planter class. He ultimately owned 22 square miles, a number of plantation houses, after his marriage, he was elected to the United States House of Representatives as a member of the Nullifier Party, serving from 1835 until his resignation the next year due to ill health. After spending two years in Europe, he returned to South Carolina and engaged in agricultural pursuits, managing his large holdings took much of his time and he was elected as Governor of South Carolina, serving from 1842 to 1844. Hammond died on November 13,1864 at what is now the Redcliffe Plantation Historic Site in Beech Island, a Democrat, Hammond was perhaps best known during his lifetime as an outspoken defender of slavery and states rights. It constitutes the very mudsill of society. ”He went on to utter the oft-repeated words, in his writings, he consistently compared the Souths well compensated slaves to the free labor of the North, describing the latter as scantily compensated slaves.
Going beyond articles in newspapers, he co-authored The Pro-Slavery Argument with William Harper, Thomas Roderick Dew. As supporters of slavery, they both justified it in terms of stewardship of inferior beings and promoted slaveholders improvement of their treatment of slaves. Hammond promoted Redcliffe, his plantation in Beech Island, South Carolina, as his ideal of the perfectly run plantation in his Plantation manual, in addition to livestock and crop management. Hammonds Secret and Sacred Diaries reveal that his sexual appetites were varied and he described, without embarrassment, his familiarities and dalliances over two years with four teenage nieces, daughters of his sister-in-law Ann Fitzsimmons and her husband Wade Hampton II. He blamed his behavior on what he described as the seductiveness of the “extremely affectionate” young women, the scandal derailed his political career for a decade to come after Wade Hampton III publicly accused him in 1843, when Hammond was governor. He was ostracized by society for some time, but in the late 1850s
The Russian Empire was a state that existed from 1721 until it was overthrown by the short-lived February Revolution in 1917. One of the largest empires in history, stretching over three continents, the Russian Empire was surpassed in landmass only by the British and Mongol empires. The rise of the Russian Empire happened in association with the decline of neighboring powers, the Swedish Empire, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Persia. It played a role in 1812–14 in defeating Napoleons ambitions to control Europe. The House of Romanov ruled the Russian Empire from 1721 until 1762, and its German-descended cadet branch, with 125.6 million subjects registered by the 1897 census, it had the third-largest population in the world at the time, after Qing China and India. Like all empires, it included a large disparity in terms of economics, there were numerous dissident elements, who launched numerous rebellions and assassination attempts, they were closely watched by the secret police, with thousands exiled to Siberia.
Economically, the empire had an agricultural base, with low productivity on large estates worked by serfs. The economy slowly industrialized with the help of foreign investments in railways, the land was ruled by a nobility from the 10th through the 17th centuries, and subsequently by an emperor. Tsar Ivan III laid the groundwork for the empire that emerged and he tripled the territory of his state, ended the dominance of the Golden Horde, renovated the Moscow Kremlin, and laid the foundations of the Russian state. Tsar Peter the Great fought numerous wars and expanded an already huge empire into a major European power, Catherine the Great presided over a golden age. She expanded the state by conquest and diplomacy, continuing Peter the Greats policy of modernisation along West European lines, Tsar Alexander II promoted numerous reforms, most dramatically the emancipation of all 23 million serfs in 1861. His policy in Eastern Europe involved protecting the Orthodox Christians under the rule of the Ottoman Empire and that connection by 1914 led to Russias entry into the First World War on the side of France and Serbia, against the German and Ottoman empires.
The Russian Empire functioned as a monarchy until the Revolution of 1905. The empire collapsed during the February Revolution of 1917, largely as a result of failures in its participation in the First World War. Perhaps the latter was done to make Europe recognize Russia as more of a European country, Poland was divided in the 1790-1815 era, with much of the land and population going to Russia. Most of the 19th century growth came from adding territory in Asia, Peter I the Great introduced autocracy in Russia and played a major role in introducing his country to the European state system. However, this vast land had a population of 14 million, grain yields trailed behind those of agriculture in the West, compelling nearly the entire population to farm. Only a small percentage lived in towns, the class of kholops, close to the one of slavery, remained a major institution in Russia until 1723, when Peter I converted household kholops into house serfs, thus including them in poll taxation
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
An embargo is the partial or complete prohibition of commerce and trade with a particular country or a group of countries. Embargoes are considered strong diplomatic measures imposed in an effort, by the imposing country, embargoes are similar to economic sanctions and are generally considered legal barriers to trade, not to be confused with blockades, which are often considered to be acts of war. In response to embargoes, an independent economy or autarky often develops in an area subjected to heavy embargo, effectiveness of embargoes is thus in proportion to the extent and degree of international participation. Companies must be aware of embargoes that apply to the export destination. Embargo check is difficult for both importers and exporters to follow, before exporting or importing to other countries, they must be aware of embargoes. Sometimes the situation even more complicated with the changing of politics of a country. If an embargo situation exists, the blocks the transaction for further processing.
The Embargo of 1807 was a series of laws passed by the U. S. Congress 1806–1808, during the second term of President Thomas Jefferson. Britain and France were engaged in a war, the U. S. wanted to remain neutral. The American national-interest goal was to use the new laws to avoid war, one of the most comprehensive attempts at an embargo happened during the Napoleonic Wars. In an attempt to cripple the United Kingdom economically, the Continental System – which forbade European nations from trading with the UK – was created, in practice it was not completely enforceable and was as harmful if not more so to the nations involved than to the British. The United States imposed an embargo on Cuba on February 7,1962, referred to by Cuba as el bloqueo, the US embargo on Cuba remains one of the longest-standing embargoes. The embargo was embraced by few of the United States allies, in 1973–1974, Arab nations imposed an oil embargo against the United States and other industrialized nations that supported Israel in the Yom Kippur War.
China, arms embargo, enacted in response to the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, enacted 1979, increased through the following years and reached its tightest point in 2010. North Korea, luxury goods, enacted 2006 Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, consumer goods, live cattle because of cruel slaughter methods in Indonesia. Gaza Strip by Israel since 2001, under blockade since 2007 due to the large number of illicit arms traffic used to wage war. Syria and imports of oil, EU, US, Australia and Norway since August 2014, pork and vegetable produce, fish, cheese and dairy. On August 13,2015, the embargo was expanded to Albania, Switzerland, Iceland, federal Republic of Yugoslavia North Vietnam and Vietnam, trade embargo by the US Republic of Macedonia, complete trade embargo
Abraham Lincoln was an American politician and lawyer who served as the 16th President of the United States from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. Lincoln led the United States through its Civil War—its bloodiest war and perhaps its greatest moral, constitutional, in doing so, he preserved the Union, abolished slavery, strengthened the federal government, and modernized the economy. Born in Hodgenville, Lincoln grew up on the frontier in Kentucky. Largely self-educated, he became a lawyer in Illinois, a Whig Party leader, elected to the United States House of Representatives in 1846, Lincoln promoted rapid modernization of the economy through banks and railroads. Reentering politics in 1854, he became a leader in building the new Republican Party, in 1860, Lincoln secured the Republican Party presidential nomination as a moderate from a swing state. Though he gained little support in the slaveholding states of the South. Subsequently, on April 12,1861, a Confederate attack on Fort Sumter inspired the North to enthusiastically rally behind the Union.
Politically, Lincoln fought back by pitting his opponents against each other, by carefully planned political patronage and his Gettysburg Address became an iconic endorsement of the principles of nationalism, equal rights and democracy. Lincoln initially concentrated on the military and political dimensions of the war and his primary goal was to reunite the nation. He suspended habeas corpus, leading to the ex parte Merryman decision. Lincoln closely supervised the war effort, especially the selection of top generals, including his most successful general, Lincoln tried repeatedly to capture the Confederate capital at Richmond, each time a general failed, Lincoln substituted another, until finally Grant succeeded. As the war progressed, his moves toward ending slavery included the Emancipation Proclamation of 1863. On April 14,1865, five days after the surrender of Confederate commanding general Robert E. Lee, Lincoln was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth, a Confederate sympathizer. Secretary of War Edwin Stanton launched a manhunt for Booth, and 12 days on April 26, Lincoln has been consistently ranked both by scholars and the public as among the greatest U. S. presidents.
Abraham Lincoln was born February 12,1809, the child of Thomas and Nancy Hanks Lincoln, in a one-room log cabin on the Sinking Spring Farm near Hodgenville. He was a descendant of Samuel Lincoln, an Englishman who migrated from Hingham, Norfolk to its namesake of Hingham, samuels grandson and great-grandson began the familys western migration, which passed through New Jersey and Virginia. Lincolns paternal grandfather and namesake, Captain Abraham Lincoln, moved the family from Virginia to Jefferson County, Captain Lincoln was killed in an Indian raid in 1786. His children, including eight-year-old Thomas, the presidents father
The Zollverein or German Customs Union was a coalition of German states formed to manage tariffs and economic policies within their territories. Organized by the 1833 Zollverein treaties, the Zollverein formally came into existence on 1 January 1834, its foundations had been in development from 1818 with the creation of a variety of custom unions among the German states. By 1866, the Zollverein included most of the German states, Prussia was the prime motivating force behind the creation of the customs union. Austria was excluded from the Zollverein because of its highly protected industry, after the founding of the German Empire in 1871, the Empire assumed the control of the customs union. However, not all states within the Empire were part of the Zollverein until 1888, although it was not a state in the German Reich, Luxembourg remained in the Zollverein until 1919. The splintering of territory and states over generations meant that by the 1790s in the German-speaking Holy Roman Empire in Central Europe, even within the Prussian state itself there were at the beginning of the 19th century over 67 local customs and tariffs with as many customs borders.
To travel from Königsberg in East Prussia to Cologne, for example and this last piece of major legislation enacted by the Holy Roman Empire re-arranged the map of Central Europe, especially in the southwestern territories. Most of the cities, imperial abbeys, and ecclesiastical states and cities were mediatized or secularized in 1803. With the final dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, the Zollverein created a larger market for German-made farm and handicraft products and promoted commercial unification under fiscally sound economic parameters. While the Union sought to trade and commercial barriers between and among member states, it continued to uphold the protectionist barriers with outsiders. During the Napoleonic Era, efforts toward economic unity in the Rhineland had mixed success, the Confederation of the Rhine, and the other satellite creations of Napoleonic France, sought to establish economic autonomy in European trade. By 1806, as Napoleon I sought to secure his hegemony in Europe, the main purpose of the Continental System was military not economic.
Napoleon wanted a trade embargo against Britain, through which he hoped to wreck the British economy, reduction in trade meant the near bankruptcy of the smaller states. At the Congress of Vienna in 1814 and 1815, diplomats – principally those from the Great Powers – confirmed the remapping of Europe, and broadly, the rest of the world, into spheres of influence. The German states themselves remained autonomous, the old institution of the Reichstag was reinvented in the form of a Confederation Diet that would meet in Frankfurt. The Habsburg archdukes, now Emperors of Austria, were to serve as permanent presidents of this institution, isolated voices, such as those of Joseph Görres and Freiherr vom Stein, called for the abolition of domestic tolls and the creation of a German tariff on imports. Instead, the articles that established the Confederation simply suggested that trade and the central and southwestern states of Hesse-Nassau and Hesse-Darmstadt, Württemberg and Bavaria were leaders in the modernization of the toll system within the German states.
The addition of territory to the existing Prussian state made elimination of customs barriers a powerful factor in Prussian politics, the significant differences between old Prussia and the newly acquired territories complicated the debate
Jefferson Finis Davis was an American politician who was a Democratic U. S. Representative and Senator from Mississippi, the 23rd U. S. Secretary of War, and he took personal charge of the Confederate war plans but was unable to find a strategy to defeat the more populous and industrialized Union. Davis was born in Kentucky to a prosperous farmer, and grew up on his older brother Josephs large cotton plantations in Mississippi. Joseph Davis secured his appointment to the U. S, after graduating, Jefferson Davis served six years as a lieutenant in the U. S. Army. He fought in the Mexican–American War, as the colonel of a volunteer regiment and he served as the U. S. Secretary of War from 1853 to 1857 under President Franklin Pierce, and as a Democratic U. S. senator from Mississippi. Before the war, he operated a cotton plantation in Mississippi. After the war had ended, he remained a proud apologist for the cause of slavery for which he, although Davis argued against secession in 1858, he believed that each state was sovereign and had an unquestionable right to secede from the Union.
Daviss first wife, Sarah Knox Taylor, died of malaria three months of marriage, and he struggled with recurring bouts of the disease. He was unhealthy for much of his life, at the age of 36, Davis married again, to 18-year-old Varina Howell, a native of Natchez who had been educated in Philadelphia and had some family ties in the North. Only two survived him, and only one married and had children, many historians attribute the Confederacys weaknesses to the poor leadership of President Davis. Historians agree he was a less effective war leader than his Union counterpart Abraham Lincoln. After Davis was captured in 1865, he was accused of treason and he was never tried and was released after two years. While not disgraced, Davis had been displaced in ex-Confederate affection after the war by his leading general, Davis wrote a memoir entitled The Rise and Fall of the Confederate Government, which he completed in 1881. By the late 1880s, he began to encourage reconciliation, telling Southerners to be loyal to the Union, ex-Confederates came to appreciate his role in the war, seeing him as a Southern patriot, and he became a hero of the Lost Cause in the post-Reconstruction South.
Daviss paternal grandparents each immigrated separately to North America from the region of Snowdonia in North Wales in the early 18th century, the rest of his ancestry was English. After arriving in Philadelphia, Daviss paternal grandfather Evan settled in the colony of Georgia and he married the widow Lydia Emory Williams, who had two sons from a previous marriage. Their son Samuel Emory Davis was born in 1756 and he served in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, along with his two older half-brothers. In 1783, after the war, he married Jane Cook and she was born in 1759 to William Cook and his wife Sarah Simpson in what is now Christian County, Kentucky
Lancashire Cotton Famine
It coincided with the interruption of baled cotton imports caused by the American Civil War, and speculators buying up new stock, for storage in the shipping warehouses at the ports of entry. The boom years of 1859 and 1860 had produced more woven cotton than could be sold, the price for raw cotton increased by several hundred percent due to blockade and lack of imports. The inaccessibility of raw cotton and the trading conditions caused a change in the social circumstances of the Lancashire regionss extensive cotton mill workforce. Local relief committees were set up and they appealed for money locally and nationally. There were two major funds, the Manchester Central Committee and the Mansion House Committee of the Lord Mayor of London, the poorest applied for relief under the Poor Laws, through the Poor Law Unions. Local relief committees experimented with soup kitchens and direct aid, in 1862, sewing classes and industrial classes were organised by local churches, and attendance triggered a Poor Law payment.
After the Public Works Act 1864 was passed local authorities were empowered to borrow money for approved public works and they commissioned the rebuilding of sewerage systems, cleaning rivers, landscaping parks, and surfacing roads. In 1864, cotton imports were restored, the mills were put back into production but some towns had diversified, the 1850s had been a period of unprecedented growth for the cotton industry in Lancashire, the High Peak of Derbyshire, and north east parts of Cheshire. The region had swamped the American market with printed cottons, and was exporting to India. The populations of some towns in the Lancashire and the surrounding region had almost doubled, the profit to capital ratio was running at more than 30%. The Souths thinking was that it could force British support through an economic boycott, in 1860, there were 2,650 cotton mills in the region, employing 440,000 people who were paid in total £11,500,000 per annum. 90% were adults and 56% female, the mills used 300,000 hp of which 18,500 was generated by waterpower.
The mills had 30,387,467 spindles and 350,000 power looms, the industry imported 1,390,938,752 lb of raw cotton a year. It exported 2,776,218,427 yards of cloth and 197,343,655 lb of twist. The total value of its exports was £32,012,380, of the 1,390,938,752 lb of raw cotton 1,115,890,608 lb came from America. At the end of 1860, there remained 250,428,610 lb in storage in the United Kingdom, unsold cloth had been building up in the warehouses in Bombay. Production had exceeded demand and short time working was inevitable, as indications came that trouble was possible, the American growers hurried to export their crop earlier than usual. Almost enough of the 1861 crop reached Liverpool to supply the mills, Middling Orleans, the type of cotton that was used to gauge the prices, was selling for 7 3⁄4d a pound in June 1861
Meanwhile, the other eight slave states, with little or no cotton production, remained in the Union. To demonstrate the power of King Cotton, Southern cotton-merchants spontaneously refused to ship out their cotton in early 1861. By summer 1861, the Union Navy blockaded every major Confederate port, since the British mills had large stockpiles of cotton, they suffered no immediate injury from the embargo, indeed the value of their stockpiles soared. For Britain to have intervened would have meant war with the U. S. about one fourth of Britains food supplies came from the United States, and American warships could destroy much of British commerce, while the Royal Navy was convoying ships full of cotton. The British never believed in King Cotton, and they never intervened, the strategy proved a failure for the Confederacy—King Cotton did not help the new nation, but the blockade prevented earning desperately-needed gold. Most important, the false belief led to assumptions that the war would be won through European intervention if only the Confederacy held out long enough.
The American South is known for its long, hot summers, by 1860, Southern plantations supplied 75% of the worlds cotton, with shipments from Houston, New Orleans, Mobile, and a few other ports. European and New England purchases soared from 720,000 bales in 1830, to 2.85 million bales in 1850, Cotton production renewed demand for slavery after the tobacco market declined in the late 18th century. The more cotton grown, the slaves were needed to pick the crop. By 1860, on the eve of the American Civil War, cotton accounted for almost 60% of American exports, what would happen if no cotton was furnished for three years. England would topple headlong and carry the whole civilized world with her save the South, No, you dare not to make war on cotton. No power on the earth dares to make war upon it, Confederate leaders made little effort to ascertain the views of European industrialists or diplomats until the Confederacy sent diplomats James Mason and John Slidell in November 1861. That led to a diplomatic blowup in the Trent Affair, besides that, in the spring of 1861, warehouses in Europe were bulging with surplus cotton—which soared in price.
So the cotton interests made their profits without a war, the Union imposed a blockade, closing all Confederate ports to normal traffic, the South was unable to move 95% of its cotton. Yet, some cotton was slipped out by blockade runner, or through Mexico, as Union armies moved into cotton regions of the South in 1862, the U. S. acquired all the cotton available, and sent it to Northern textile mills or sold it to Europe. Cotton production increased in India by 70% and increased in Egypt, when war broke out, the Confederates refused to allow the export of cotton to Europe. The idea was that this cotton diplomacy would force Europe to intervene, European states did not intervene, and following Abraham Lincolns decision to impose a Union blockade, the South was unable to market its millions of bales of cotton. The production of cotton increased in parts of the world, such as India and Egypt, to meet the demand