Louis II, Count of Flanders
The son of Louis I of Flanders and Margaret I of Burgundy, daughter of king Philip V of France, he was baptised by Bishop Pierre Roger of Arras, the Pope Clement VI. His father arranged his marriage with Margaret of Brabant, daughter of Duke John III, when his father was killed at the Battle of Crécy against the troops of King Edward III of England in 1346, he inherited the French counties of Flanders and Rethel. Louis managed to avoid this by fleeing to the court of King Philip VI of France, in 1347 he married Margaret of Brabant, which sparked a revolt in Ghent. Nevertheless, while the Black Death devastated the county and after Louis came to terms with the English king, in 1350 he gained credence by openly refusing to pay homage to the new Valois king John II of France. By the 1357 Peace of Ath he at least gained the rule over the small Lordship of Mechelen, with regards to his internal policy, his main aim was to prevent the formation of a broad coalition against him, as happened against his father.
Except for his last years, he was successful in preventing this, in 1357 Count Louis II married his seven-year-old daughter Margaret to the minor Duke Philip I of Burgundy, who died from plague four years later. The marriage of Margaret and Philip was celebrated at Saint Bavo Cathedral in Ghent on 19 June 1369, though a capable ruler, Louis lavish lifestyle burdened his countys finances and caused increasing disturbances. However, even in his years he managed to get the support of the Bruges citizens against revolting Ghent. The latter years of his rule were marked by civil strife. In 1379, he obtained aid from his son-in-law, Duke Philip II of Burgundy, the citizens of Ghent continued to resist until after his death in 1384. His mother Margaret had died two years previously, leaving him the County of Artois and the Imperial Free County of Burgundy, in 1347, he married Margaret of Brabant, daughter of John III, Duke of Brabant. Without any surviving sons, on his death, his possessions in the Low Countries were inherited by his daughter Margaret.
The main line of the House of Dampierre, originally only counts of Flanders, had through a clever marriage policy managed to inherit the counties of Nevers and Rethel. Through Louis mother, a daughter of King Philip V of France, Louis II arranged the marriage of his daughter and heir, Margret, to the duke of Burgundy, Philip the Bold, leading to the subsequent union of Flanders and Burgundy
Gothic architecture is a style of architecture that flourished in Europe during the high and late medieval period. It evolved from Romanesque architecture and was succeeded by Renaissance architecture and its characteristics include the pointed arch, the ribbed vault and the flying buttress. Gothic architecture is most familiar as the architecture of many of the cathedrals, abbeys. It is the architecture of many castles, town halls, guild halls, universities and to a less prominent extent, private dwellings, for this reason a study of Gothic architecture is largely a study of cathedrals and churches. A series of Gothic revivals began in mid-18th-century England, spread through 19th-century Europe and continued, largely for ecclesiastical and university structures, the term Gothic architecture originated as a pejorative description. Hence, François Rabelais, of the 16th century, imagines an inscription over the door of his utopian Abbey of Thélème, Here enter no hypocrites, slipping in a slighting reference to Gotz and Ostrogotz.
Authorities such as Christopher Wren lent their aid in deprecating the old medieval style, the Company disapproved of several of these new manners, which are defective and which belong for the most part to the Gothic. Gothic architecture is the architecture of the medieval period, characterised by use of the pointed arch. As an architectural style, Gothic developed primarily in ecclesiastical architecture, the greatest number of surviving Gothic buildings are churches. The Gothic style is most particularly associated with the cathedrals of Northern France. At the end of the 12th century, Europe was divided into a multitude of city states, norway came under the influence of England, while the other Scandinavian countries and Poland were influenced by trading contacts with the Hanseatic League. Angevin kings brought the Gothic tradition from France to Southern Italy, throughout Europe at this time there was a rapid growth in trade and an associated growth in towns. Germany and the Lowlands had large flourishing towns that grew in comparative peace, in trade and competition with other, or united for mutual weal.
Civic building was of importance to these towns as a sign of wealth. England and France remained largely feudal and produced grand domestic architecture for their kings and bishops, the Catholic Church prevailed across Europe at this time, influencing not only faith but wealth and power. Bishops were appointed by the lords and they often ruled as virtual princes over large estates. The early Medieval periods had seen a growth in monasticism, with several different orders being prevalent. Foremost were the Benedictines whose great abbey churches vastly outnumbered any others in France, a part of their influence was that towns developed around them and they became centers of culture and commerce
Albert VII, Archduke of Austria
Albert VII was the ruling Archduke of Austria for a few months in 1619 and, jointly with his wife, Isabella Clara Eugenia, sovereign of the Habsburg Netherlands between 1598 and 1621. Prior to this, he had been a cardinal, archbishop of Toledo, viceroy of Portugal and he succeeded his brother Matthias as reigning archduke of Lower and Upper Austria, but abdicated in favor of Ferdinand II the same year, making it the shortest reign in Austrian history. Archduke Albert was the son of Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian II and Maria of Spain, daughter of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. He was sent to the Spanish Court at the age of eleven, initially he was meant to pursue an ecclesiastical career. On 3 March 1577 he was appointed cardinal by Pope Gregory XIII, with a dispensation because of his age of eighteen, and was given Santa Croce in Gerusalemme as his titular church. Philip II planned to make Albert archbishop of Toledo as soon as possible, in the meantime Albert only took lower orders. He was never ordained priest or bishop, and thus he resigned the See of Toledo in 1598 and he resigned the cardinalate in 1598.
His clerical upbringing did however have an influence on his lifestyle. After the dynastic union with Portugal, Albert became the first viceroy of the kingdom, at the same time he was appointed Papal Legate and Grand Inquisitor for Portugal. As viceroy of Portugal he took part in the organization of the Great Armada of 1588, in 1593 Philip II recalled him to Madrid, where he would take a leading role in the government of the Spanish Monarchy. Two years later, the rebellious Hugh ONeill, Earl of Tyrone, after the death of Archduke Ernst in 1595, Albert was sent to Brussels to succeed his elder brother as Governor General of the Habsburg Netherlands. He made his entry in Brussels on 11 February 1596 and his first priority was restoring Spains military position in the Low Countries. Spain was facing the forces of the Dutch Republic and France and had known nothing. During his first campaign season, Albert surprised his enemies by capturing Calais and nearby Ardres from the French and these successes were however offset by the third bankruptcy of the Spanish crown that year.
As a consequence,1597 was marked by a series of military disasters, stadholder Maurice of Orange captured the last Spanish strongholds that remained north of the great rivers, as well as the strategic town of Rheinberg in the Electorate of Cologne. Finally the Spanish Army of Flanders lost Amiens in September the same year to King Henry IV of France despite desperate efforts to relieve the place by Albert, with no more money to pay the troops, Albert was facing a series of mutinies. While pursuing the war as well as he could, Albert made overtures for peace with Spains enemies, under the mediation of the papal legate Cardinal Alessandro deMedici — the future Pope Leo XI — Spain and France concluded the Peace of Vervins on 2 May 1598. Spain gave up its conquests, thereby restoring the situation of Cateau Cambrésis, France tacitly accepted the Spanish occupation of the prince-archbishopric of Cambray and pulled out of the war, but maintained the financial support for the Dutch Republic
Prince Charles Alexander of Lorraine
Charles was the son of Leopold Joseph, Duke of Lorraine and Élisabeth Charlotte dOrléans. When his elder brother Franz/Francis, Duke of Lorraine, married the Archduchess Maria Theresa, daughter of Emperor Charles VI, during the War of the Austrian Succession, he was one of the principal Austrian military commanders. He was most notable for his defeats by better trained and superior forces under Frederick the Great, at the Battle of Chotusitz in 1742, his forces lost the battle but were able to inflict greater loss of life and retreat in good order. However, he lost more decisively to Frederick at the Battle of Hohenfriedberg and he was defeated by Maurice de Saxe at the Battle of Rocoux in 1746. On 7 January 1744 he married Maria Theresas only sister, Archduchess Maria Anna of Austria, the couple were jointly made Governors of the Austrian Netherlands. Although Maria Anna died the year after marriage, Charles popularity and lack of clear replacement allowed him to continue as governor. Charles became Grand Master of the Teutonic Order in 1761, with the loss of his co-sovereign Maria Anna, his sister Anne Charlotte, whom he was very close to, acted as a de facto co-sovereign.
Despite his record of defeats, he was able to retain his position and he was able to attain command ahead of the more popular Marshal Browne because of the support of his brother who had significant influence over military appointments. During the battle, he was commander of the Imperial Army as appointed by Maria Theresa, after this last defeat, Charles was replaced by Count Leopold Joseph von Daun and retired from military service. He was them sent to the Netherlands as a governor, though an unsuccessful military leader, Charles proved to be a competent administrator, well-liked by the population. Under him, the Austrian Netherlands flourished, and he was involved in the cultural life of his province
Isabella Clara Eugenia
Isabella Clara Eugenia was sovereign of the Spanish Netherlands in the Low Countries and the north of modern France, together with her husband Albert VII, Archduke of Austria. In some sources, she is referred to as Clara Isabella Eugenia, by birth, she was an infanta of Spain and Portugal. Isabella Clara Eugenia of Austria was born in the Palacio del bosque de Valsaín, Segovia on 12 August 1566, daughter of Philip II of Spain and her paternal grandparents were Emperor Charles V and Isabella of Portugal. Her maternal grandparents were Henry II of France and Catherine de Medici and her father, Philip II, was reportedly overjoyed at her birth and declared himself to be happier on the occasion than he would have been at the birth of a son. Isabellas mother, Elisabeth of Valois, had originally been betrothed to Don Carlos, despite the significant age difference between them, Philip was very attached to Elisabeth, staying close by her side even when she was ill with smallpox. Elisabeths first pregnancy in 1564 ended in a miscarriage of twin daughters and she gave birth to Isabella Clara Eugenia on 12 August 1566, and to Isabellas younger sister Infanta Catherine Michelle of Spain 10 October 1567.
Elisabeth miscarried a daughter in 1568 and died the same day, Isabella grew up with her sister Infanta Catherine Michelle of Spain, beloved by her father and her stepmother Anna of Austria, Queen of Spain, Philips fourth wife. Philip ultimately fathered five children by Anna, all of whom died in childhood except his heir. Isabella was the person whom Philip permitted to help him with his work, sorting his papers. Since 1568, at the age of two, Isabella Clara Eugenia was promised to marry Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor, son of Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor, Maria was a daughter of her paternal grandparents Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, and Isabella of Portugal. Isabella Clara Eugenia, had to wait for more than 20 years before the eccentric Rudolf declared that he had no intention of marrying anybody, at any rate, Isabella Clara Eugenias mother had ceded any claim to the French crown with her marriage to Philip II. However the Parlement de Paris, in power of the Catholic party and her father decided to cede the Spanish Netherlands to her on condition that she marry her cousin, Albert VII, Archduke of Austria.
They were to reign over the Netherlands jointly as duke/count and duchess/countess and it was stipulated that, should they have no children, the Netherlands would revert to the King of Spain upon the death of either spouse. On 18 April 1599, being 33 years old, she married Albert, Albert was the joint sovereign of the Seventeen Provinces and the former viceroy of Portugal. As Albert was the Archbishop of Toledo, he had to be released from his religious commitments by Pope Clement VIII before the wedding could take place. Shortly before Philip II died on 13 September 1598, he renounced his rights to the Netherlands in favor of his daughter Isabella and her fiancé. Beginning in 1601, the couple ruled the Spanish Netherlands together, a false anecdote links Isabella, the siege of Ostend, and the horse coat colour isabelline. The reign of Albert and Isabella is considered the Golden Age of the Spanish Netherlands, the reign of the Archduke Albert of Austria and Archduchess Isabella Clara Eugenia is a key period in the history of the Spanish Netherlands
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a sovereign state in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and the North Sea. It is a small, densely populated country which covers an area of 30,528 square kilometres and has a population of about 11 million people. Additionally, there is a group of German-speakers who live in the East Cantons located around the High Fens area. Historically, the Netherlands and Luxembourg were known as the Low Countries, the region was called Belgica in Latin, after the Roman province of Gallia Belgica. From the end of the Middle Ages until the 17th century, Belgium is a federal constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. It is divided into three regions and three communities, that exist next to each other and its two largest regions are the Dutch-speaking region of Flanders in the north and the French-speaking southern region of Wallonia. The Brussels-Capital Region is a bilingual enclave within the Flemish Region. A German-speaking Community exists in eastern Wallonia, Belgiums linguistic diversity and related political conflicts are reflected in its political history and complex system of governance, made up of six different governments.
Upon its independence, declared in 1830, Belgium participated in the Industrial Revolution and, during the course of the 20th century, possessed a number of colonies in Africa. This continuing antagonism has led to several far-reaching reforms, resulting in a transition from a unitary to a federal arrangement during the period from 1970 to 1993. Belgium is a member of the Eurozone, NATO, OECD and WTO. Its capital, hosts several of the EUs official seats as well as the headquarters of major international organizations such as NATO. Belgium is a part of the Schengen Area, Belgium is a developed country, with an advanced high-income economy and is categorized as very high in the Human Development Index. A gradual immigration by Germanic Frankish tribes during the 5th century brought the area under the rule of the Merovingian kings, a gradual shift of power during the 8th century led the kingdom of the Franks to evolve into the Carolingian Empire. Many of these fiefdoms were united in the Burgundian Netherlands of the 14th and 15th centuries, the Eighty Years War divided the Low Countries into the northern United Provinces and the Southern Netherlands.
The latter were ruled successively by the Spanish and the Austrian Habsburgs and this was the theatre of most Franco-Spanish and Franco-Austrian wars during the 17th and 18th centuries. The reunification of the Low Countries as the United Kingdom of the Netherlands occurred at the dissolution of the First French Empire in 1815, although the franchise was initially restricted, universal suffrage for men was introduced after the general strike of 1893 and for women in 1949. The main political parties of the 19th century were the Catholic Party, French was originally the single official language adopted by the nobility and the bourgeoisie
Royal Museums of Fine Arts of Belgium
The Royal Museums of Fine Arts of Belgium are a group of art museums in Brussels, Belgium. In 1845 it is decided by royal Decree that a museum is to be founded with works of art of deceswed and this is accorded by Minister Sylvain van de Weyer a national Commission is founded to select important works of art. This commission is presided by the First president Count de Beaufort, other members are, Gustaf Wappers, President of the Royal Museum of Antwerpen. François-Joseph Navez, President of the Académie royale des beaux-arts de Bruxelles, guillaume Geefs Eugène Simonis Tilman-François Suys, professor at the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts. Much of the members were active in the Royal Academy of Science and Fine Arts of Belgium. The museums are situated in the capital Brussels in the area on the Coudenberg. There are six museums connected with the Royal Museum, and two of them, are in the main building, the Royal Museum contains over 20,000 drawings and paintings, which date from the early 15th century to the present.
The museum has a collection of Flemish painting, among them paintings by Bruegel and Rogier van der Weyden, Robert Campin, Anthony van Dyck. The museum is proud of its Rubens Room, which more than 20 paintings by the artist. The painting Landscape with the Fall of Icarus, long-attributed to Brueghel, is located here and forms the subject of W. H. Audens famous poem Musée des Beaux Arts, named after the museum. The chief curators of the museum have been or are, from 1961 till 1984, balat was the kings principal architect, and this was one part of the kings vast building program for Belgium. The building was completed in 1887, and stands as an example of the Beaux-Arts architecture use of themed statuary to assert the identity, the finial, gilded Genius of Art was designed by de Groot. The two bas-relief panels are Music by Thomas Vincotte and Industrial Arts by Charles Brunin, the two bronze groups on pedestals represent The Crowning of Art by Paul de Vigne, and The Teaching of Art by Charles van der Stappen.
On the side of the building, a memorial commemorates five members of the Mouvement National Royaliste, a resistance group, killed during the liberation of Brussels on 3–4 September 1944
Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
Charles V was ruler of both the Spanish Empire from 1516 and the Holy Roman Empire from 1519, as well as of the Habsburg Netherlands from 1506. He voluntarily stepped down from these and other positions by a series of abdications between 1554 and 1556, through inheritance, he brought together under his rule extensive territories in western and southern Europe, and the Spanish colonies in the Americas and Asia. As a result, his domains spanned nearly four square kilometers and were the first to be described as the empire on which the sun never sets. Charles was the heir of three of Europes leading dynasties, the Houses of Valois-Burgundy and Trastámara and he inherited the Burgundian Netherlands and the Franche-Comté as heir of the House of Valois-Burgundy. From his own dynasty, the Habsburgs, he inherited Austria and he was elected to succeed his Habsburg grandfather, Maximilian I, as Holy Roman Emperor, a title held by the Habsburgs since 1440. Charles was the first king to rule Castile and Aragon simultaneously in his own right, the personal union, under Charles, of the Holy Roman Empire with the Spanish Empire resulted in the closest Europe would come to a universal monarchy since the death of Louis the Pious.
France recovered and the wars continued for the remainder of Charless reign, enormously expensive, they led to the development of the first modern professional army in Europe, the Tercios. The struggle with the Ottoman Empire was fought in Hungary and the Mediterranean, after seizing most of eastern and central Hungary in 1526, the Ottomans’ advance was halted at their failed Siege of Vienna in 1529. A lengthy war of attrition, conducted on his behalf by his younger brother Ferdinand, in the Mediterranean, although there were some successes, Charles was unable to prevent the Ottomans’ increasing naval dominance and the piratical activity of the Barbary Corsairs. Charles opposed the Reformation and in Germany he was in conflict with the Protestant Princes of the Schmalkaldic League who were motivated by religious and political opposition to him. Once the rebellions were quelled the essential Castilian and Burgundian territories remained mostly loyal to Charles throughout his rule, Charles’s Spanish dominions were the chief source of his power and wealth, and they became increasingly important as his reign progressed.
In the Americas, Charles sanctioned the conquest by Castillian conquistadors of the Aztec, Castillian control was extended across much of South and Central America. The resulting vast expansion of territory and the flows of South American silver to Castile had profound long term effects on Spain. Charles was only 56 when he abdicated, but after 34 years of rule he was physically exhausted and sought the peace of a monastery. Upon Charles’s abdications, the Holy Roman Empire was inherited by his younger brother Ferdinand, the Spanish Empire, including the possessions in the Netherlands and Italy, was inherited by Charles’s son Philip II. The two empires would remain allies until the 18th century, Charles was born in 1500 as the eldest son of Philip the Handsome and Joanna of Castile in the Flemish city of Ghent, which was part of the Habsburg Netherlands. The culture and courtly life of the Burgundian Low Countries were an important influence in his early life and he was tutored by William de Croÿ, and by Adrian of Utrecht.
He gained a decent command of German, though he never spoke it as well as French, a witticism sometimes attributed to Charles is, I speak Spanish to God, Italian to women, French to men and German to my horse
Fortifications of Brussels
There were two stages of fortifications of Brussels, the first walls, built in the early 13th century, and the second walls, built in the late 14th century and upgraded. Today, only a few sections of either remain, the first walls of Brussels were a series of fortifications erected around the Belgian city of Brussels in the early 13th century. The city quickly outgrew them, and starting in 1356, a second, larger set of walls was built to better enclose, the now superfluous walls were dismantled between the 16th to 18th centuries. Isolated portions of the first walls can still be seen today, construction on the first walls of Brussels is estimated to have been at the beginning of the 13th century, under the reign of Henry I, the first duke of Brabant. The beginning and end dates are not clear, but construction would have lasted several decades, on the other hand, from historical maps and other documents that have been preserved, the precise former course of the walls is known. The walls were 4 kilometres long, in the west, they encompassed the site of the citys founding and first development, Saint-Géry Island, the Grand Place and the first port on the Senne river.
They extended to the heights in the east of the city, enclosing the first St. Michael and St. Gudula Cathedral on Treurenberg hill, the walls were initially made of earth, with a wooden fence on top. These gave way to walls made of stone that were 10 metres tall and 1 to 2.5 metres thick, the walls were supported by square pillars, spaced roughly 4 metres apart, linked by a row of arches for support. These were buried underneath a talus, and they supported the main wall, a second arcade supported a crenellated parapet, where defenders could stand. A large ditch was dug in front of the walls, along the length of the walls, there were roughly 40 defensive towers, in addition to seven primary gates and five smaller entrances. The death of Duke John III of Brabant in 1355 sparked a succession crisis, as both of his sons had died, he left the throne to his daughter Joanna and her husband Wenceslaus I of Luxembourg. Count Louis II of Flanders had married Joans younger sister Margaret, Louis invaded Brabant and quickly seized Brussels, planting the Flemish lion flag in the middle of the Grand Place.
The city walls offered relatively little protection, during the night of 24 October 1356, a group of Brabantian patriots led by Everard tSerclaes scaled the city walls and drove the Flemings from the city. This enabled Joanna and Wenceslaus to make their Joyous Entry into Brussels, since the construction of the first walls in the 13th century, Brussels had grown extensively and had become quite important. On account of this growth, the first walls were no longer large enough and it had become clear that further defences, better adapted to the current era, needed to be constructed. Following the succession crisis, city authorities decided to build a new set of walls, Everard t Serclaes, who had been named schepen, was among those contributing to the decision. The second walls of Brussels were erected between 1356 and 1383, the wall was to have a length of nearly 8 km, which was enough to enclose the surrounding hamlets and fields that supplied the city. There were to be 72 semicircular towers along the wall, there were seven main gates, corresponding to the seven entries into the first walls of Brussels, but the similarities mostly end there
Cathedral of St. Michael and St. Gudula
The Cathedral of St. Michael and St. Gudula is a Roman Catholic church in Brussels, Belgium. The church was given cathedral status in 1962 and has since been the co-cathedral of the Archdiocese of Mechelen-Brussels, a chapel dedicated to St. Michael was probably built on the Treurenberg hill as early as the 9th century. In the 11th century it was replaced by a Romanesque church, the patron saints of the church, St. Michael and St. Gudula, are the patron saints of the city of Brussels. In the thirteenth century, Henry I, Duke of Brabant ordered two round towers to be added to the church, Henry II, Duke of Brabant instructed the building of a Gothic collegiate church in 1226. The choir was constructed between 1226 and 1276 and it took about 300 years to complete the entire church. It was completed just before the reign of the emperor Charles V commenced in 1519, the dimensions of the building are, exterior length 114 metres, interior length 109 metres, exterior width at the choir 57 metres, interior width 54 metres and height of towers 64 metres.
The cathedral is built of stone from the Gobertange quarry which is located approximately 45 km south-east of the site of the Cathedral. The two towers, the parts of which are arranged in terraces, are attributed to the Flemish architect Jan Van Ruysbroeck. The south tower contains a 49-bell carillon by the Royal Eijsbouts bell foundry on which Sunday concerts are often given, the Salvator bell was cast by Peter van den Gheyn. The choir is gothic and contains the mausoleums of the Dukes of Brabant, left of the choir is the Chapel of the Blessed Sacrament of the Miracle built in a flamboyant Gothic style. It now houses the Treasure of the Cathedral, where the famous Drahmal Cross, right of the choir is the Chapel of Our Lady of Deliverance which is built in a late Gothic style and has a Baroque altar by Jan Voorspoel. Behind the choir is a Baroque chapel dedicated to St. Mary Magdalen dated 1675, statues of the 12 apostles are attached to the columns. These statues date from the 17th century and were created by sculptors Lucas Faydherbe, Jerôme Duquesnoy the Younger, Johannes van Mildert and Tobias de Lelis, the statues replaced those destroyed by iconoclasts in 1566.
The nave has a Baroque pulpit from the 17th century, made by Antwerp sculptor Hendrik Frans Verbruggen in 1699, the base represents Adam and Eve expelled from the Garden of Eden after plucking the forbidden fruit. At the top, the Virgin and Child piercing the serpent symbolize redemption, the big organ in the nave was inaugurated in October 2000. The organ has 4300 pipes,63 stops, four manuals and this instrument is the work of the German organ builder Gerhard Grenzing and his Spanish assistants from Barcelona. The northern and southern transepts have a window by Jean Haeck from Antwerp made in 1537 after drawings by Bernard van Orley. The side aisles contain 17th-century confessional-boxes in oak by Jan van Delen, at the end of the nineties, Brussels ornithologists discovered a couple of peregrine falcons hibernating on top of the towers of the St. Michael and St. Gudula Cathedral in the centre of Brussels
Peter Anton von Verschaffelt
Peter Anton von Verschaffelt was a Flemish sculptor and architect. Verschaffelt was born in Ghent, Flanders in the Spanish Netherlands, after his apprentice years in Ghent in the workshop of his grandfather, Verschaffelt worked in Brussels, Paris and, from 1737 to 1751, in Rome. In 1748, he received the commission to replace the statue of the archangel Michael on the Castel SantAngelo in Rome. In 1752 Verschaffelt moved to London, from there, he was appointed as a successor to the sculptor Paul Egell as court sculptor to Charles Theodore, Elector of the Palatinate, in Mannheim, Germany. Among his first tasks was the landscaping and statuary in the garden of Schwetzingen, for which he created the deer and the group of rivers. He died in Mannheim, Electoral Palatinate, Holy Roman Empire and this article is based in part on material from the German Wikipedia. Beisel, Edmund Ritter Peter Anton von Verschaffelt als Architekt Berlin Beringer, sein Leben und Werk Strasbourg Peter Anton von Verschaffelt Art net in English Ingrid Münch.
Peter Anton von Verschaffelt University of Heidelberg in German