A spiral is a technique employed by railways to ascend steep hills. A railway spiral rises on a steady curve until it has completed a loop, passing over itself as it gains height, allowing the railway to gain vertical elevation in a short horizontal distance, it is an alternative to a zig-zag, avoids the need for the trains to stop and reverse direction while ascending. If the train is longer than the length of each loop it may be possible to view it looping above itself; the term "loop" is often used for a railway that curves and goes back on itself: if the railway crosses itself it forms a spiral. 2 spirals between Tacuara and Meseta at 24°26′10″S 65°50′28″W and 24°23′17″S 65°51′01″W on the heritage Tren a las Nubes section of the Salta–Antofagasta railway part of the General Manuel Belgrano Railway. Spiral on the uphill track at Bethrunga 34°45′17″S 147°52′13″E on the Main Southern railway line, New South Wales; the downhill track remains on the original steep plain 1 in 40 gradient. Spiral on the single track at Cougal 28°21′16″S 152°57′51″E on the North Coast railway line, New South Wales.
Four Spirals on the Rhodope Mountain Line between Septemvri to Dobrinishte railway between Velingrad and Cherna Mesta at 42°02′36″N 23°51′12″E, 42°02′27″N 23°50′30″E, 42°02′14″N 23°44′48″E and 42°02′53″N 23°44′10″E. Spiral just outside Klisura at 42°42′02″N 24°27′35″E on the Sofia to Tulovo railway. Spiral just outside Radevtsi at 42°47′46″N 25°32′38″E on the Ruse to Dimitrovgrad railway. Spiral and horseshoe bends just outside Raduntsi at 42°40′37″N 25°35′41″E on the Ruse to Dimitrovgrad railway. Double spiral at Big Hill at 51°25′28″N 116°25′17″W on the approach to Kicking Horse Pass on the Canadian Pacific Railway route. There used to be a spiral at 48°21′57″N 53°23′45″W at Trinity, Newfoundland on the former Newfoundland Railway. There used to be a spiral at Rogers Pass at 51°18′05″N 117°47′29″W, superseded when the Connaught Tunnel was built. Spiral South of Baoji at 34°16′39″N 106°58′09″E on the Baoji–Chengdu Railway. Spiral South of Baishiyan at 28°46′05″N 102°34′25″E on the Chengdu–Kunming Railway.
Spiral at Lewu at 28°17′52″N 102°37′21″E on the Chengdu–Kunming Railway. Spiral at Wazu at 28°11′54″N 102°33′58″E on the Chengdu–Kunming Railway. Spiral at Tiekou at 28°13′49″N 102°31′54″E on the Chengdu–Kunming Railway. 2 spirals near Heijing at 25°26′15″N 101°44′52″E on the Chengdu–Kunming Railway. Spiral at Shangshali at 48°47′36″N 121°43′39″E on the Harbin–Manzhouli Railway. There used to be a series of spirals on the Southern Xinjiang Railway between Korla; this line was rebuilt on a shorter route in 2014. There used to be a spiral at Guanjiao at 37°05′04″N 98°52′25″E on the Qinghai–Tibet Railway.. Replica of the Brusio Spiral Viaduct at 10°28′44″N 84°49′25″W on the Tren Turistico Arenal, 10 km east of Nuevo Arenal, Guanacaste. Spiral between Rijeka-Brajdica and Sušak-Pećine at 45°19′23″N 14°26′57″E on the Rijeka–Karlovac railway, part of International corridor V; the spiral is in a 1838 m long tunnel. Three spirals on the Col de Tende line between Ventimiglia to Cuneo as it passes through France, a further spiral on this line is in Italy.
Just North of Fontan at 44°00′58″N 7°33′58″E. Saint Dalmas-de-Tende at 44°03′28″N 7°35′38″E. Tende at 44°05′55″N 7°35′44″E. Spiral at Moûtiers at 45.485628°N 6.540444°E / 45.485628. There used to be a spiral in the Sayerce tunnel at 42°50′54″N 0°32′46″W on the former Pau–Canfranc railway line between Pau and Zaragoza in the Pyrenees; this spiral is now a footpath. The proposed spirals between The Gravenne and Montpezat at 44.695047°N 4.21797°E / 44.695047. Spiral, known as the Rendsburg Loop, on the northern approach to the Rendsburg High Bridge, a railway viaduct and transporter bridge crossing the Kiel Canal in Rendsburg, Schleswig-Holstein at 54°17′58″N 9°40′37″E. Spiral on the Wutach Valley Railway at 47°47′30″N 8°30′07″E; the line was built for strategic reasons and had to be built to a reasonable gradient in order to haul heavy military trains over it. The alternative, shorter Singen–Waldshut route was not available for this traffic, since it crossed Swiss territory; the line is now a heritage railway.
There are three spirals on the Darjeeling Himalayan Railway: Chunbati Loop at 26°50′30″N 88°20′28″E. Agony Point at 26°51′28″N 88°19′40″E. Batasia Loop at 27°01′00″N 88°14′50″E; the Darjeeling Himalayan Railway had five or six spirals but only five in operation at any one time. The line has six reverses or zig-zags. There used to be a spiral at Dhulghat at 21°16′58″N 76°45′41″E between Khandwa and Hingoli on the metre gauge railway, the spiral was removed when the track was upgraded to broad gauge. Spirals near Dowgal station at 35°52′34″N 52°57′20″E and extensive horseshoe curves in the Alborz Mountains on the Trans-Iranian Railway; the St. James's Gate Brewery, Ireland had an internal 1 ft 10 in gauge railway with a loop in a tunnel to gain height between buildings. Spiral at Bortigiadas 40°53′31″N 9°03′23″E on the Sassari-Palau railway on Sardinia. Spiral near Lanusei 39°52′21″N 9°32′27″E on the Mandas–Gairo–Arbatax railway on Sardinia. Varzo Spiral Tunnel near Iselle di Trasquera 46°12′45″N 8°13′37″E on the Swiss Federal Railways just South of the Southern Portal of the Simplon Tunnel.
Spiral near Vernante 44°14′12″N 7°32′25″E on the Col de Tende railway from Ventimiglia to Cuneo. There are a further three spirals on this line in French territory. Spiral close to Savona at
The grade of a physical feature, landform or constructed line refers to the tangent of the angle of that surface to the horizontal. It is a special case of the slope. A larger number indicates higher or steeper degree of "tilt". Slope is calculated as a ratio of "rise" to "run", or as a fraction in which run is the horizontal distance and rise is the vertical distance; the grades or slopes of existing physical features such as canyons and hillsides and river banks and beds are described. Grades are specified for new linear constructions; the grade may refer to the perpendicular cross slope. There are several ways to express slope: as an angle of inclination to the horizontal; as a percentage, the formula for, 100 rise run which could be expressed as the tangent of the angle of inclination times 100. In the U. S. this percentage "grade" is the most used unit for communicating slopes in transportation, surveying and civil engineering. As a per mille figure, the formula for, 1000 rise run which could be expressed as the tangent of the angle of inclination times 1000.
This is used in Europe to denote the incline of a railway. As a ratio of one part rise to so many parts run. For example, a slope that has a rise of 5 feet for every 100 feet of run would have a slope ratio of 1 in 20.. This is the method used to describe railway grades in Australia and the UK, it is used for roads in Hong Kong, was used for roads in the UK until the 1970s. As a ratio of many parts run to one part rise, the inverse of the previous expression. For example, "slopes are expressed as ratios such as 4:1; this means that for every 4 units of horizontal distance there is a 1-unit vertical change either up or down."Any of these may be used. Grade is expressed as a percentage, but this is converted to the angle α from horizontal or the other expressions. Slope may still be expressed when the horizontal run is not known: the rise can be divided by the hypotenuse; this is not the usual way to specify slope. But in practice the usual way to calculate slope is to measure the distance along the slope and the vertical rise, calculate the horizontal run from that.
When the angle of inclination is small, using the slope length rather than the horizontal displacement makes only an insignificant difference. Railway gradients are expressed in terms of the rise in relation to the distance along the track as a practical measure. In cases where the difference between sin and tan is significant, the tangent is used. In any case, the following identity holds for all inclinations up to 90 degrees: tan α = sin α 1 − sin 2 α. In Europe, road gradients are signed as a percentage. Grades are related using the following equations with symbols from the figure at top. Tan α = Δ h d This ratio can be expressed as a percentage by multiplying by 100. Α = arctan Δ h d If the tangent is expressed as a percentage, the angle can be determined as: α = arctan % slope 100 If the angle is expressed as a ratio then: α = arctan 1 n In vehicular engineering, various land-based designs are rated for their ability to ascend terrain. Trains rate much lower than automobiles.
The highest grade a vehicle can ascend while maintaining a particular speed is sometimes termed that vehicle's "gradeability". The lateral slopes of a highway geometry are sometimes called fills or cuts where these techniques have been used to create them. In the United States, maximum grade for Federally funded highways is specified in a design table based on terrain and design speeds, with up to 6% allowed in mountainous areas and hilly urban areas with exceptions for up to 7% grades on mountainous roads with speed limits below 60 mph; the steepest roads in the world are Baldwin Street in Dunedin, New Zealand, Ffordd Pen Llech in Harlech and Canton Avenue in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The Guinness World R
New South Wales State Heritage Register
The New South Wales State Heritage Register known as NSW State Heritage Register, is a heritage list of places in the state of New South Wales, that are protected by New South Wales legislation covered by the Heritage Act, 1977 and its 2010 amendments. The register is administered by the NSW Office of Environment and Heritage, a division of the Government of New South Wales Department of Planning and Environment; the register was created in 1999 and includes items protected by heritage schedules that relate to the State, to regional and to local environmental plans. As a result, the register contains over 20,000 statutory-listed items in either public or private ownership of historical and architectural value. Of those items listed 1,785 items are listed as significant items for the whole of New South Wales; the items include buildings, monuments, Aboriginal places, bridges, archaeological sites, relics, streets, industrial structures and conservation precincts. An item will first attract local listing regional or State listing.
If the item is of significance to the nation, the State will advocate for listing on the Australian National Heritage List or the Commonwealth Heritage List. If the item is of global significance, the Australian Government will advocate for the item to be listed on the UNESCO World Heritage List; the Heritage Council of New South Wales, a statutory body appointed by the NSW Government and comprising members of the community, the government, the conservation profession and representatives of organisations such as the National Trust of Australia, makes decisions about the care and protection of heritage places and items that have been identified as being significant to the people of NSW. The Council provides advice on heritage matters to the Minister for Heritage, presently Gabrielle Upton MP; the Council recommends to the Minister places and objects for listing on the State Heritage Register. The work of the Council and the State Heritage Register is covered by the Heritage Act, 1977 and its 2010 amendments.
Under section 170 of the Act, government agencies in New South Wales are required to compile a register of heritage assets and look after their assets on behalf of the community. Other legislation preserves Aboriginal heritage. Items nominated for listing on the register are assessed against the State Heritage Register criteria to determine the level of significance. To be assessed for listing on the State Heritage Register an item will, in the opinion of the Heritage Council of NSW, meet one or more of the following criteria: a) an item is important in the course, or pattern, of NSW’s cultural or natural history. An item is not to be excluded from the Register on the ground that items with similar characteristics have been listed on the Register. Australian Heritage Database Media related to New South Wales State Heritage Register at Wikimedia Commons Search the Heritage Register
Queensland is the second-largest and third-most populous state in the Commonwealth of Australia. Situated in the north-east of the country, it is bordered by the Northern Territory, South Australia and New South Wales to the west, south-west and south respectively. To the east, Queensland is bordered by the Coral Pacific Ocean. To its north is the Torres Strait, with Papua New Guinea located less than 200 km across it from the mainland; the state is the world's sixth-largest sub-national entity, with an area of 1,852,642 square kilometres. As of 15 May 2018, Queensland has a population of 5,000,000, concentrated along the coast and in the state's South East; the capital and largest city in the state is Australia's third-largest city. Referred to as the "Sunshine State", Queensland is home to 10 of Australia's 30 largest cities and is the nation's third-largest economy. Tourism in the state, fuelled by its warm tropical climate, is a major industry. Queensland was first inhabited by Torres Strait Islanders.
The first European to land in Queensland was Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon in 1606, who explored the west coast of the Cape York Peninsula near present-day Weipa. In 1770, Lieutenant James Cook claimed the east coast of Australia for the Kingdom of Great Britain; the colony of New South Wales was founded in 1788 by Governor Arthur Phillip at Sydney. Queensland was explored in subsequent decades until the establishment of a penal colony at Brisbane in 1824 by John Oxley. Penal transportation ceased in 1839 and free settlement was allowed from 1842; the state was named in honour of Queen Victoria, who on 6 June 1859 signed Letters Patent separating the colony from New South Wales. Queensland Day is celebrated annually statewide on 6 June. Queensland was one of the six colonies which became the founding states of Australia with federation on 1 January 1901; the history of Queensland spans thousands of years, encompassing both a lengthy indigenous presence, as well as the eventful times of post-European settlement.
The north-eastern Australian region was explored by Dutch and French navigators before being encountered by Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. The state has witnessed frontier warfare between European settlers and Indigenous inhabitants, as well as the exploitation of cheap Kanaka labour sourced from the South Pacific through a form of forced recruitment known at the time as "blackbirding"; the Australian Labor Party has its origin as a formal organisation in Queensland and the town of Barcaldine is the symbolic birthplace of the party. June 2009 marked the 150th anniversary of its creation as a separate colony from New South Wales. A rare record of early settler life in north Queensland can be seen in a set of ten photographic glass plates taken in the 1860s by Richard Daintree, in the collection of the National Museum of Australia; the Aboriginal occupation of Queensland is thought to predate 50,000 BC via boat or land bridge across Torres Strait, became divided into over 90 different language groups.
During the last ice age Queensland's landscape became more arid and desolate, making food and other supplies scarce. This led to the world's first seed-grinding technology. Warming again made the land hospitable, which brought high rainfall along the eastern coast, stimulating the growth of the state's tropical rainforests. In February 1606, Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon landed near the site of what is now Weipa, on the western shore of Cape York; this was the first recorded landing of a European in Australia, it marked the first reported contact between European and Aboriginal Australian people. The region was explored by French and Spanish explorers prior to the arrival of Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. Cook claimed the east coast under instruction from King George III of the United Kingdom on 22 August 1770 at Possession Island, naming Eastern Australia, including Queensland,'New South Wales'; the Aboriginal population declined after a smallpox epidemic during the late 18th century. In 1823, John Oxley, a British explorer, sailed north from what is now Sydney to scout possible penal colony sites in Gladstone and Moreton Bay.
At Moreton Bay, he found the Brisbane River. He established a settlement at what is now Redcliffe; the settlement known as Edenglassie, was transferred to the current location of the Brisbane city centre. Edmund Lockyer discovered outcrops of coal along the banks of the upper Brisbane River in 1825. In 1839 transportation of convicts was ceased, culminating in the closure of the Brisbane penal settlement. In 1842 free settlement was permitted. In 1847, the Port of Maryborough was opened as a wool port; the first free immigrant ship to arrive in Moreton Bay was the Artemisia, in 1848. In 1857, Queensland's first lighthouse was built at Cape Moreton. A war, sometimes called a "war of extermination", erupted between Aborigines and settlers in colonial Queensland; the Frontier War was notable for being the most bloody in Australia due to Queensland's larger pre-contact indigenous population when compared to the other Australian colonies. About 1,500 European settlers and their alli
Kyogle Council is a local government area in the Northern Rivers region of New South Wales, Australia. The council services an area of 3,589 square kilometres and is located adjacent to the Summerland Way and the North Coast railway line, within two hours drive from Brisbane and one hour from the Queensland Gold Coast and the NSW coastal communities of Byron Bay and Tweed Heads. Kyogle Council comprises a large and diverse region with natural attributes, including the Border Ranges National Park and other world heritage listed areas, cultural features; the Mayor of Kyogle Council is Clr. Danielle Mulholland, an independent politician; the Kyogle Council has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: High Conservation Value Old Growth forest Cougal, 871.00 km Border Loop, North Coast railway: Cougal Spiral At the 2011 census, there were 9,228 people in the Kyogle local government area, of these 50.3 per cent were male and 49.7 per cent were female. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people made up 5.3 per cent of the population, higher than the national and state averages of 2.5 per cent.
The median age of people in the Kyogle Council area was 45 years, higher than the national median of 37 years. Children aged 0 – 14 years made up 19.1 per cent of the population and people aged 65 years and over made up 17.3 per cent of the population. Of people in the area aged 15 years and over, 46.6 per cent were married and 15.1 per cent were either divorced or separated. Population growth in the Kyogle Council area between the 2001 census and the 2006 census was 1.06 per cent. When compared with total population growth of Australia for the same periods, being 5.78 per cent and 8.32 per cent population growth in the Kyogle local government area was lower than the national average. The median weekly income for residents within the Kyogle Council area was lower than the national average. At the 2011 census, the proportion of residents in the Kyogle local government area who stated their ancestry as Australian or Anglo-Saxon exceeded 85 per cent of all residents. In excess of 23 per cent of all residents in the Kyogle Council at the 2011 census nominated no religious affiliation, compared to the national average of 22.3 per cent.
Meanwhile, affiliation with Christianity was 55 per cent, higher than the national average of 50.2 per cent. As at the census date, compared to the national average, households in the Kyogle local government area had a lower than average proportion where two or more languages are spoken. Kyogle Council is composed of nine Councillors elected proportionally as three separate wards, each electing three Councillors; the Councillors are elected for a fixed four-year term of office. The Mayor is elected by the Councillors at the first meeting of the Council; the most recent election was held on 10 September 2016, the makeup of the Council is as follows: The current Council, elected in 2012, in order of election by ward, is: Media related to Kyogle Council at Wikimedia Commons
The Sydney Morning Herald
The Sydney Morning Herald is a daily compact newspaper owned by Nine in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Founded in 1831 as the Sydney Herald, the SMH is the oldest continuously published newspaper in Australia and a national online news brand; the print version of the newspaper is published six days a week. The Sydney Morning Herald includes a variety including the magazines Good Weekend. There are a variety of lift-outs, some of them co-branded with online classified advertising sites: The Guide on Monday Good Food and Domain on Tuesday Money on Wednesday Drive, Shortlist on Friday News Review, Domain, Drive and MyCareer on SaturdayAs of February 2016, average week-day print circulation of the paper was 104,000; the editor is Lisa Davies. Former editors include Darren Goodsir, Judith Whelan, Sean Aylmer, Peter Fray, Meryl Constance, Amanda Wilson, William Curnow, Andrew Garran, Frederick William Ward, Charles Brunsdon Fletcher, Colin Bingham, Max Prisk, John Alexander, Paul McGeough, Alan Revell and Alan Oakley.
The February 2016 average circulation of the paper was 104,000. In December 2013, the Audit Bureau of Circulations's audit on newspaper circulation states a monthly average of 132,000 copies were sold, Monday to Friday, 228,000 copies on Saturday, both having declined 16% in 12 months. According to Roy Morgan Research Readership Surveys, in the twelve months to March 2011, the paper was read 766,000 times on Monday to Friday, read 1,014,000 times on Saturdays; the newspaper's website smh.com.au was rated by third-party web analytics providers Alexa and SimilarWeb as the 17th and 32nd most visited website in Australia as of July 2015. SimilarWeb rates the site as the fifth most visited news website in Australia and as the 42nd newspaper's website globally, attracting more than 15 million visitors per month, it is available nationally except in the Northern Territory. Limited copies of the newspaper are available at newsagents in New Zealand and at the High Commission of Australia, London. In 1831 three employees of the now-defunct Sydney Gazette, Ward Stephens, Frederick Stokes and William McGarvie, founded The Sydney Herald.
In 1931 a Centenary Supplement was published. The original four-page weekly had a print run of 750. In 1840, the newspaper began to publish daily. In 1841, an Englishman named John Fairfax purchased the operation, renaming it The Sydney Morning Herald the following year. Fairfax, whose family were to control the newspaper for 150 years, based his editorial policies "upon principles of candour and honour. We have no wish to mislead. During the decade 1890, Donald Murray worked there; the SMH was late to the trend of printing news rather than just advertising on the front page, doing so from 15 April 1944. Of the country's metropolitan dailies, only The West Australian was in making the switch. In 1949, the newspaper launched The Sunday Herald. Four years this was merged with the newly acquired Sun newspaper to create The Sun-Herald, which continues to this day. In 1995, the company launched the newspaper's web edition smh.com.au. The site has since grown to include interactive and multimedia features beyond the content in the print edition.
Around the same time, the organisation moved from Jones Street to new offices at Darling Park and built a new printing press at Chullora, in the city's west. The SMH has since moved with other Sydney Fairfax divisions to a building at Darling Island. In May 2007, Fairfax Media announced it would be moving from a broadsheet format to the smaller compact or tabloid-size, in the footsteps of The Times, for both The Sydney Morning Herald and The Age. Fairfax Media dumped these plans in the year. However, in June 2012, Fairfax Media again announced it planned to shift both broadsheet newspapers to tabloid size, in March 2013. Fairfax announced it would cut staff across the entire group by 1,900 over three years and erect paywalls around the papers' websites; the subscription type is to be a freemium model, limiting readers to a number of free stories per month, with a payment required for further access. The announcement was part of an overall "digital first" strategy of digital or on-line content over printed delivery, to "increase sharing of editorial content", to assist the management's wish for "full integration of its online and mobile platforms".
In July 2013 it was announced that the SMH's news director, Darren Goodsir, would become Editor-in-Chief, replacing Sean Aylmer. On 22 February 2014, the final Saturday edition was produced in broadsheet format with this too converted to compact format on 1 March 2014, ahead of the decommissioning of the printing plant at Chullora in June 2014. According to Irial Glynn, the newspaper's editorial stance is centrist, it is seen as the most centrist among the three major Australian non-tabloids. In 2004, the newspaper's editorial page stated: "market libertarianism and social liberalism" were the two "broad themes" that guided the Herald's editorial stance. During the 1999 referendum on whether Australia should become a republic, the Herald supported a "yes" vote; the newspaper did not endorse the Labor Party for federal office in the first six decades of Federation, but did endorse the party in 1961, 1984, 1987. During the 2004 Australian federal election, the Herald annou
Government of New South Wales
The Government of New South Wales referred to as the New South Wales Government or NSW Government, is the Australian state democratic administrative authority of New South Wales. It is held by a coalition of the Liberal Party and the National Party; the Government of New South Wales, a parliamentary constitutional monarchy, was formed in 1856 as prescribed in its Constitution, as amended from time to time. Since the Federation of Australia in 1901, New South Wales has been a state of the Commonwealth of Australia, the Constitution of Australia regulates its relationship with the Commonwealth. Under the Australian Constitution, New South Wales ceded legislative and judicial supremacy to the Commonwealth, but retained powers in all matters not in conflict with the Commonwealth. Section 109 of the Australian Constitution provides that, where a State law is inconsistent with a federal law, the federal law prevails; the New South Wales Constitution says: "The Legislature shall, subject to the provisions of the Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act, have power to make laws for the peace and good government of New South Wales in all cases whatsoever."
The Australian states retained significant independence. Over time, that independence has been eroded by both the proliferation of Commonwealth Law, the increasing financial domination of the Commonwealth. New South Wales is governed according to the principles of the Westminster system, a form of parliamentary government based on the model of the United Kingdom. Legislative power rests with the Parliament of New South Wales, which consists of the Crown, represented by the Governor of New South Wales, the two Houses, the New South Wales Legislative Council and the New South Wales Legislative Assembly. Executive power rests formally with the Executive Council, which consists of the Governor and senior ministers; the Governor, as representative of the Crown, is the formal repository of power, exercised by him or her on the advice of the Premier of New South Wales and the Cabinet. The Premier and Ministers are appointed by the Governor, hold office by virtue of their ability to command the support of a majority of members of the Legislative Assembly.
Judicial power is exercised by the Supreme Court of New South Wales and a system of subordinate courts, but the High Court of Australia and other federal courts have overriding jurisdiction on matters which fall under the ambit of the Australian Constitution. In 2006, the Sesquicentenary of Responsible Government in New South Wales, the Constitution Amendment Pledge of Loyalty Act 2006 No. 6 was enacted to amend the Constitution Act 1902 to require Members of the New South Wales Parliament and its Ministers to take a pledge of loyalty to Australia and to the people of New South Wales instead of swearing allegiance to the Queen her heirs and successors, to revise the oaths taken by Executive Councillors. The Act was assented to by the Queen on 3 April 2006; the following individuals serve as government ministers, at the pleasure of the Queen, represented by the Governor of New South Wales. The government ministers are listed in order of seniority as listed on the Parliament of New South Wales website and were sworn on by the Governor with effect from 2 April 2019, while their opposition counterparts are listed to correspond with the government ministers.
All Opposition counterparts are members of the Parliament of New South Wales. List of New South Wales government agencies Local government areas of New South Wales New South Wales Ministry New South Wales Shadow Ministry Public Service Association of NSW Government of New South Wales website New South Wales Government Annual Reports and Other Publications The Constitution of New South Wales