Studentenverbindung is the umbrella term for many different kinds of fraternity-type associations in German-speaking countries, including Corps, Landsmannschaften and Catholic fraternities. Worldwide there are over 1.600 Studentenverbindungen, about a thousand in Germany, with a total of over 190.000 members. In them students spend their university years in an organized community, whose members stay connected after graduation. A goal of this life long bond is to create contacts and friendships over many generations and to facilitate networking; the Lebensbund is important for the longevity of these networks. Their autonomous and grassroots democratic "Convent" is an important similarity of all student corporations. Apart from the "Lebensbund" and the "Convent" every Studentenverbindung has a so-called "Comment"; the Comment is a body of rules that organize various different aspects of fraternity life such as the Couleur, academic fencing and general rules of conduct. Fraternities of this particular type are present in Germany, Switzerland, Hungary, Estonia, German or German-speaking areas and other smaller communities in Europe and Chile.
Less than 1% of all current students and living alumni in Germany are active members of a Studentenverbindung. Studentenverbindungen consist of active members who are students enrolled at a university, the graduated Alte Herren or Altherren / Hohe Damen that were once active in these corporations and now provide guidance and the necessary financial backing; the active students are divided into four groups, with the Fuchs or Renonce, the Burschen, the inactive Burschen forming the fraternity's active core. The fourth group, the Chargen are Burschen elected by the former groups' democratic vote and entitled to decide over certain situations of everyday fraternity life. Common Chargierte are the Senior and the Drittchargierter, or also called Scriptor; the Senior's task is to represent the fraternity to the outside and to lead it. The Consenior assists the Senior but focuses on imparting the fencing practice, the organization of fraternity events and the constant contact to fellow female students.
Whilst the Drittchargierter is in charge of mail correspondence and diplomacy. Another Function referred to as a Charge is the so-called Fuchsmajor, he is in charge of the Füchse and teaches them everything they need to know in fraternity life, except for fencing. Studentenverbindungen, specially older ones possess large mansions, the Verbindungshaus, in which active members reside in, it consists of a dormitory and common rooms for festivities, most notably the Kneipe, celebrations on a regular basis involving student songs and other traditions. One of the many benefits of joining a fraternity in Germany is the low pricing of the high quality rooms; as Studentenverbindungen are much less present in campus life in comparison to US fraternities, some try to recruit new members through these low-priced rooms. After a certain period, the Fuchsenzeit, these new members have the opportunity to learn the traditions. After successful completion of all necessary tests and examinations they are accepted as full members.
Once finished with higher education and having started a career, the inactive Burschen are asked to resign from the fraternity's core members and become Alte Herren or Philister. This involves losing influence in the active fraternity life and vote in the core fraternity's democratic process, allowing younger generations to take their place. Major decisions, are still made by an annual Convent where every member, student or not, has at least one vote, they take care of the financial overview and supervising the Verbindungshaus. Furthermore, all Alte Herren are asked to pay a certain annual sum to help sustain the fraternity fiscally, to participate in democratic decisions concerning only Alte Herren, to pay regular visits to the fraternity's festivities. A notable characteristic of this structure is that the relationship between active members and Alte Herren is so close that the youngest members are asked to address their most decorated Alte Herren by Du, the intimate form of addressing someone in German, or by their first name.
This includes referring to one another as "Verbindungs-bruder". As it is possible for any Verbindung to forge treaties with another, this may be extended to members of other fraternities, too; this relationship between the old and the young allows young members to learn how to bear great responsibility themselves. To laymen, the most well-known tradition of Studentenverbindungen is the Mensur, a special form of strictly regulated, fixed-stance fencing ritual; the Mensur is practised with sharp blades, although the body is well-protected, it allows for deep facial and cranial wounds, which result in a scar, called Schmiss. The Schmiss was once regarded as the passport to a better future, as the Mensur strives to educate physical and mental strength by exposing the combatants to a rare and extreme situation. In modern times, opinions differ, although the principle stays the same: whereas one would engage in a Mensur to be hit
Wilhelm II, German Emperor
Wilhelm II was the last German Emperor and King of Prussia, reigning from 15 June 1888 until his abdication on 9 November 1918 shortly before Germany's defeat in World War I. He was the eldest grandchild of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom and related to many monarchs and princes of Europe, most notably his first cousin King George V of the United Kingdom and Emperor Nicholas II of Russia, whose wife, was Wilhelm and George's first cousin. Assuming the throne in 1888, he dismissed the country's longtime chancellor, Otto von Bismarck, in 1890 before launching Germany on a bellicose "New Course" to cement its status as a respected world power. However, due to his impetuous personality, he undermined this aim by making tactless, alarming public statements without consulting his ministers beforehand, he did much to alienate other Great Powers from Germany by initiating a massive build-up of the German Navy, challenging French control over Morocco, backing the Austrian annexation of Bosnia in 1908.
Wilhelm II's turbulent reign culminated in his guarantee of military support to Austria-Hungary during the crisis of July 1914, which resulted in the outbreak of World War I. A lax wartime leader, he left all decision-making regarding military strategy and organisation of the war effort in the hands of the German General Staff; this broad delegation of authority gave rise to a de facto military dictatorship whose authorisation of unrestricted submarine warfare and the Zimmerman Telegram led to the United States' entry into the conflict in April 1917. After Germany's defeat in 1918, Wilhelm lost the support of the German army, abdicated on 9 November 1918, fled to exile in the Netherlands, where he died in 1941. Wilhelm was born on 27 January 1859 at the Crown Prince's Palace, Berlin, to Victoria, Princess Royal, the wife of Prince Frederick William of Prussia, his mother was the eldest daughter of Britain's Queen Victoria. At the time of his birth, his great-uncle Frederick William IV was king of Prussia, his grandfather and namesake Wilhelm was acting as regent.
He was the first grandchild of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert, but more the first son of the crown prince of Prussia. From 1861, Wilhelm was second in the line of succession to Prussia, after 1871, to the newly created German Empire, according to the constitution of the German Empire, was ruled by the Prussian king. At the time of his birth, he was sixth in the line of succession to the British throne, after his maternal uncles and his mother. A traumatic breech birth resulted in Erb's palsy, which left him with a withered left arm about six inches shorter than his right, he tried with some success to conceal this. In others, he holds his left hand with his right, has his crippled arm on the hilt of a sword, or holds a cane to give the illusion of a useful limb posed at a dignified angle. Historians have suggested. In 1863, Wilhelm was taken to England to be present at the wedding of his Uncle Bertie, Princess Alexandra of Denmark. Wilhelm attended the ceremony in a Highland costume, complete with a small toy dirk.
During the ceremony, the four-year-old became restless. His eighteen-year-old uncle Prince Alfred, charged with keeping an eye on him, told him to be quiet, but Wilhelm drew his dirk and threatened Alfred; when Alfred attempted to subdue him by force, Wilhelm bit him on the leg. His grandmother, Queen Victoria, missed seeing the fracas, his mother, was obsessed with his damaged arm, blaming herself for the child's handicap and insisted that he become a good rider. The thought that he, as heir to the throne, should not be able to ride was intolerable to her. Riding lessons were a matter of endurance for Wilhelm. Over and over, the weeping prince was compelled to go through the paces, he fell off time despite his tears was set on its back again. After weeks of this he got it right and was able to maintain his balance. Wilhelm, from six years of age, was tutored and influenced by the 39-year-old teacher Georg Hinzpeter. "Hinzpeter", he wrote, "was a good fellow. Whether he was the right tutor for me, I dare not decide.
The torments inflicted on me, in this pony riding, must be attributed to my mother."As a teenager he was educated at Kassel at the Friedrichsgymnasium. In January 1877, Wilhelm finished high school and on his eighteenth birthday received as a present from his grandmother, Queen Victoria, the Order of the Garter. After Kassel he spent four terms at the University of Bonn, he became a member of the exclusive Corps Borussia Bonn. Wilhelm possessed a quick intelligence, but this was overshadowed by a cantankerous temper; as a scion of the royal house of Hohenzollern, Wilhelm was exposed from an early age to the military society of the Prussian aristocracy. This had a major impact on him and, in maturity, Wilhelm was seen out of uniform; the hyper-masculine military culture of Prussia in this period did much to frame his political ideals and personal relationships. Crown Prince Frederick was viewed by his respect, his father's status as a hero of the wars of unification was responsible for the young Wilhelm's attitude, as were the circumstances in which he was raised.
Corps Hubertia Freiburg
The Corps Hubertia Freiburg is a fraternity in Freiburg, Germany. It is one of 162 German Student Corps in Europe today; the Corps is a member of the Kösener Senioren-Convents-Verband, the oldest federation of classical European fraternal corporations with roots dating back to the 15th century and member fraternities across Austria, Germany, Hungary and Switzerland. Membership to the fraternity is open to honorable men studying at one of Freiburg's universities and based on personality, good moral standing, strength of character. Members of the Corps Hubertia value and engage in the tradition of academic fencing duels as a way to sharpen and prove their character under pressure. Continuing a practice dating back into the 1700s, Hubertia's members wear the traditional Couleur, colored stripes, in green-gold-black; the fraternity teaches and expects tolerance from its members, stemming from diverse ethnic, national and political backgrounds. Hubertia's members are referred to as Huberten. Members of the fraternity controlled the forestry departments of Baden, the south-west of Germany, in a de facto monopoly from the late 1800s to the early 20th century.
Many of the members today practice this heritage as passionate hunters in private and fraternity events. Like all Corps, Hubertia expects and practices tolerance in political and religious affairs. Members of the Corps Hubertia value and practice the tradition of academic fencing duels, or "Mensur" in German, with members of other proper fraternities. Academic fencing, originating in the German school of fencing, is understood as a way to exercise good judgement and prove character, allowing the corps member to show his determination by standing one's ground under pressure, while enhancing the bonds between the corps brothers at the same time. Hubertia's members identify themselves wearing the traditional Couleur, colored stripes, as well as caps and/or other specific garments at official occasions; this tradition known as "wearing colors" provides means to recognize members of other fraternities and identification for the corps brothers with each other and their traditions. Members are encouraged to be able to argue it.
The fraternity encourages freshly admitted members with diverse ethnic, national and political backgrounds to prove themselves as valuable corps brothers, purely on the basis of personal character and merit, before becoming eligible to be incorporated. The fraternity has 255 members of all ages coming from or residing in Austria, the Czech Republic, France, South Africa, Taiwan and the United States; every full member is member for life. Hubertia's members value nature, the manifold ways to experience her. Enjoyed in good company and providing a benevolent Diana, hunting is tradition and it provides means to spend time among Corps Brothers of high standard; the object and purpose of the Corps was and still is the education of students to become a strong and cosmopolitan personality, not held back by religious, national, scientific or philosophical limitations of the mind. Three primary institutions within the fraternity aid with achieving this aim; this experience, the intertwined need to overcome one's own fear, dedicated to the union of his Corps, the connected strengthening of the sense of community aids the personal growth just as does taking a hit without losing one's stand and accepting the assessment of the Mensur by the own Corps Brothers.
Hubertia defined its fraternity colors green-gold-black on February 7, 1897. These colors are worn in the form a ribbon with a golden percussion diagonally across the chest, as it is typical for European fraternities; the common fraternity cap is the more traditional Stürmer in dark-green. The freshly admitted. To official fraternity events, some members might additionally wear a traditional green jacket, an adapted version of the contemporary chief forester's jacket typical for the Elsass, a former German region bordering France; this jacket is combined with a Hirschfänger, a specific style of hunting dagger, on the side. The Slogan Concordia parvae res crescunt, discordia maximae dilabuntur was adapted on August 23, 1870, it still defines the fraternity members' association with each other and the way things are managed inside, as well as outside the fraternity, today. Hubertia was founded on Oktober 29, 1868 als association among students of forestry at the university Polytechnikum der Forstschule Karlsruhe.
The colors green-gold-black were chosen to represent the fraternity's principles, were not yet worn openly. The slogan Concordia parvae res crescunt, discordia maximae dilabuntur was defined in 1870, influencing the fraternities members' connections up to this day. On Oktober 18, 1874, the fraternity was openened up to students outside of forestry and Couleur became part of every Corps brother's daily routine on Juni 7, 1875. Shortly after that, a local fencing
The Biedermeier period refers to an era in Central Europe between 1815 and 1848, during which the middle class grew in number, arts appealed to common sensibilities. It began with the time of the Congress of Vienna at the end of the Napoleonic Wars and ended with the onset of the European Revolutions of 1848. Although the term itself is a historical reference, it is used to denote the artistic styles that flourished in the fields of literature, the visual arts and interior design; the Biedermeier period does not refer to the era as a whole, but to a particular mood and set of trends that grew out of the unique underpinnings of the time in Central Europe. There were two driving forces for the development of the period. One was the growing urbanization and industrialization leading to a new urban middle class, which created a new kind of audience for the arts; the other was the political stability prevalent under Klemens Wenzel von Metternich following the end of the Napoleonic Wars. The effect was for artists and society in general to concentrate on the domestic and the non-political.
Writers and musicians began to stay in safer territory, the emphasis on home life for the growing middle-class meant a blossoming of furniture design and interior decorating. The term "Biedermeier" appeared first in literary circles in the form of a pseudonym, Gottlieb Biedermaier, used by the country doctor Adolf Kussmaul and lawyer Ludwig Eichrodt in poems that the duo had published in the Munich journal Fliegende Blätter; the verses parodied the people of the era, namely Samuel Friedrich Sauter, a primary teacher and sort of amateurish poet, as depoliticized and petit-bourgeois. The name was constructed from the titles of two poems—"Biedermanns Abendgemütlichkeit" and "Bummelmaiers Klage" —which Joseph Victor von Scheffel had published in 1848 in the same magazine; as a label for the epoch, the term has been used since around 1900. Due to the strict control of publication and official censorship, Biedermeier writers concerned themselves with non-political subjects, like historical fiction and country life.
Political discussion was confined to the home, in the presence of close friends. Typical Biedermeier poets are Annette von Droste-Hülshoff, Adelbert von Chamisso, Friedrich Halm, Eduard Mörike, Wilhelm Müller, the last two of whom have well-known musical settings by Hugo Wolf and Franz Schubert respectively. Adalbert Stifter is a novelist and short story writer whose work reflects the concerns of the Biedermeier movement with his novel, Der Nachsommer; as historian Carl Schorske puts it, "To illustrate and propagate his concept of Bildung, compounded of Benedictine world piety, German humanism, Biedermeier conventionality, Stifter gave to the world his novel Der Nachsommer". A “Biedermann” is characterized as a conservative unimaginative middle-class personality, content but vulnerable to upset when disturbed by unfavorable social or economic conditions. Biedermeier was an influential German style of furniture design that evolved during the years 1815–1848; the period extended into Scandinavia, as disruptions due to numerous states that made up the German nation were not unified by rule from Berlin until 1871.
These post-Biedermeier struggles, influenced by historicism, created their own styles. Throughout the period, emphasis was kept upon clean lines and minimal ornamentation consistent with Biedermeier's basis in utilitarian principles; as the period progressed, the style moved from the early rebellion against Romantic-era fussiness to ornate commissions by a rising middle class, eager to show their newfound wealth. The idea of clean lines and utilitarian postures would resurface in the 20th century, continuing into the present day. Middle- to late-Biedermeier furniture design represents a heralding towards historicism and revival eras long sought for. Social forces originating in France would change the artisan-patron system that achieved this period of design, first in the Germanic states and into Scandinavia; the middle class growth originated in the English industrial revolution and many Biedermeier designs owe their simplicity to Georgian lines of the 19th century, as the proliferation of design publications reached the loose Germanic states and the Austro-Hungarian empire.
The Biedermeier style was a simplified interpretation of the influential French Empire Style of Napoleon I, which introduced the romance of ancient Roman Empire styles, adapting these to modern early 19th-century households. Biedermeier furniture used locally available materials such as cherry and oak woods rather than the expensive timbers such as imported mahogany. Whilst this timber was available near trading ports such as Antwerp and Stockholm, it was taxed whenever it passed through another principality; this made mahogany expensive to use and much local cherry and pearwood was stained to imitate the more expensive timbers. Stylistically, the furniture was elegant, its construction utilised the ideal of truth through material, something that influenced the Bauhaus and Art Deco periods. Many unique designs were created in Vienna because a young apprentice was examined on his use of material, originality of design, quality of cabinet work, before being admitted to the league of approved master cabinetmakers.
Furniture from the earlier period was the most neoclassical in inspiration. It supplied the most fantastic forms which the second half of the period lacked, being influenced by the many style publications from England. Biedermeier furniture was the first style in the world that emanated from the growing middle class
The kepi is a cap with a flat circular top and a peak, or visor. Etymologically, the term is a loanword of a French loanword'képi, itself a re-spelled version of the Alemannic Käppi: a diminutive form of Kappe, meaning "cap". In Europe, this headgear is most associated with French military and police uniforms, though versions of it were worn by other armies during the late 19th and early 20th centuries before being misleading marketed has French. In North America, it is associated with the American Civil War, as it was worn by soldiers on both sides of the conflict; the kepi was the most common headgear in the French Army. Its predecessor appeared during the 1830s, in the course of the initial stages of the occupation of Algeria, as a series of various lightweight cane-framed cloth undress caps called casquette d'Afrique; these were intended as alternatives to the heavier, cloth-covered leather French Army shako. As a light and comfortable headdress, it was adopted by the metropolitan infantry regiments for service and daily wear, with the less practical shako being relegated to parade use.
In 1852, a new soft cloth cap was introduced for off-duty. Called bonnet de police à visière, this was the first proper model of the kepi; the visor was squarish in shape and oversized and was referred to as bec de canard. This kepi had no chinstrap. Subsequent designs introduced chinstraps and buttons; the kepi became well known outside France during the Crimean War and was subsequently adopted in various forms by a number of other armies during the 1860s and 1870s. In 1870, when troops were mobilized for the Franco-Prussian War, large numbers of French soldiers either refused to wear the issued shakos or threw them away. Emperor Napoléon III abolished the infantry shako for active service and replaced it with the kepi on 30 July 1870. In 1876, a new model appeared with a rounded visor, as the squared visor drooped when wet and curled when drying; the model used in World War I was the 1886 pattern, a fuller shape incorporating air vents. By 1900, the kepi had become the standard headdress of most French army units and a symbol of the French soldier.
It appeared in full service versions. Officers' ranks were shown by silver braiding on the kepi; the different branches were distinguished by the colours of the cap – see the table. Cavalry wore shakos or plumed helmets, reserving red kepis with light or dark blue bands for wear in barracks. General officers wore kepis with gold oak leaves embroidered around the band. In 1914, most French soldiers wore their kepis to war; the visible colours were hidden by a medium blue-grey cover, following the example of the Foreign Legion and other North African units who had long worn their kepis with white covers in the field. With the adoption of "horizon blue" uniforms and steel Adrian helmets in 1915 to replace the conspicuous peacetime uniforms worn during the early months of war, the kepi was replaced by folding forage caps. Officers, still wore kepis behind the lines. Following the war, the kepi was reintroduced in the peacetime French Army, but was never adopted for wear in the Navy or Air Force; the Foreign Legion resumed wearing it in 1926.
The bulk of the French army readopted the kepi in the various traditional branch colours for off-duty wear during the 1930s. It had now become a straight-sided and higher headdress than the traditional soft cap; this made it unsuitable for wartime wear, after 1940, it was worn, except by officers. An exception was the Foreign Legion, who just one of the many units that wore the kepi, now adopted it in its white version as a symbol; the decision following the 1991 Gulf War to end conscription in France and to rely on voluntary enlistment has led to the readoption of various traditional items for dress wear. This has included the reappearance in the army of the kepi, now worn by all ranks in the majority of units, on appropriate occasions. Within the army notable are the kepis of the French Foreign Legion, whose members are sometimes called Képis blancs, because of the unit's regulation white headgear. Former cavalry units wear light blue kepis with silver braid and insignia. Other colours include all dark blue with red piping, dark blue with red tops and crimson with red tops.
The "dark blue" of officers' kepis is very similar to black. The French National Police discarded their dark blue kepis in 1982; the reason given was that the rigid kepi, while smart and distinctive, was inconvenient for ordinary use and too high to be comfortably worn in vehicles. French customs officers and the Gendarmerie still wear kepis for ceremonial duty. Customs officers wear a baseball style cap for ordinary duties while the Gendarmerie introduced a "soft kepi" in the early 2000s. In the United States, the kepi is most associated with the American Civil War era, continued into the Indian Wars. Union Officers were issued kepis for fatigue use. A close copy of the contemporary French kepi, it squared visor, it was called a "McClellan cap", after the Union commander of the Army of the Potomac, G. B. McClellan. For field officers, the caps were de
A Zirkel is a symbol used in Central European student societies. A Zirkel consists of intertwined lines followed by an exclamation mark; the lines show the first letters of the name of the Studentenverbindung and / or the letters v,c,f or e,f,v. Examples: Meaning of v-c-f: Vivant fratres coniuncti or Vivat circulus fratrum or Vivat, floreat. Meaning of e-f-v: Ehre, Vaterland; the exclamation mark means that the society is still alive. The members of the Studentenverbindung use the Zirkel as sign on Couleur or other things e.g. beer glasses etc. If a member signs in affairs of its Studentenverbindung it places the Zirkel after its signature; this use is similar to the use of postnominals in Anglo-Saxon countries. Examples: Peter Krause: O alte Burschenherrlichkeit - Die Studenten und ihr Brauchtum, Wien, Köln 1979, ISBN 3-222-11127-8 Peter Krause: O alte Burschenherrlichkeit - Die Studenten und ihr Brauchtum, 5. Verb. Auflage, Wien, Köln 1997, ISBN 3-222-12478-7 Paulgerhard Gladen: Gaudeamus igitur - Die studentischen Verbindungen einst und jetzt, Köln 2001 ISBN 3-88059-996-3 Edgar Hunger / Curt Meyer: Studentisches Brauchtum, Stuttgart 1958
Smoking caps, otherwise known as thinking caps and lounging caps, are caps worn by men while smoking to stop their hair from smelling of smoke. They are worn to keep the head warm, they were popular in 19th-century England and used by gentlemen in the privacy of their home. They are worn with a smoking jacket, they are of Chinese, Arabic, or Turkish origin. They are similar to the fez, the kufi. Chalice Hookah List of headgear Tobacco pipe Media related to Smoking cap at Wikimedia Commons