1.
System of measurement
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A system of measurement is a collection of units of measurement and rules relating them to each other. Systems of measurement have historically been important, regulated and defined for the purposes of science and commerce, systems of measurement in modern use include the metric system, the imperial system, and United States customary units. The French Revolution gave rise to the system, and this has spread around the world. In most systems, length, mass, and time are base quantities, later science developments showed that either electric charge or electric current could be added to extend the set of base quantities by which many other metrological units could be easily defined. Other quantities, such as power and speed, are derived from the set, for example. Such arrangements were satisfactory in their own contexts, the preference for a more universal and consistent system only gradually spread with the growth of science. Changing a measurement system has substantial financial and cultural costs which must be offset against the advantages to be obtained using a more rational system. However pressure built up, including scientists and engineers for conversion to a more rational. The unifying characteristic is that there was some definition based on some standard, eventually cubits and strides gave way to customary units to met the needs of merchants and scientists. In the metric system and other recent systems, a basic unit is used for each base quantity. Often secondary units are derived from the units by multiplying by powers of ten. Thus the basic unit of length is the metre, a distance of 1.234 m is 1,234 millimetres. Metrication is complete or nearly complete in almost all countries, US customary units are heavily used in the United States and to some degree in Liberia. Traditional Burmese units of measurement are used in Burma, U. S. units are used in limited contexts in Canada due to the large volume of trade, there is also considerable use of Imperial weights and measures, despite de jure Canadian conversion to metric. In the United States, metric units are used almost universally in science, widely in the military, and partially in industry, but customary units predominate in household use. At retail stores, the liter is a used unit for volume, especially on bottles of beverages. Some other standard non-SI units are still in use, such as nautical miles and knots in aviation. Metric systems of units have evolved since the adoption of the first well-defined system in France in 1795, during this evolution the use of these systems has spread throughout the world, first to non-English-speaking countries, and then to English speaking countries
2.
SI derived unit
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The International System of Units specifies a set of seven base units from which all other SI units of measurement are derived. Each of these units is either dimensionless or can be expressed as a product of powers of one or more of the base units. For example, the SI derived unit of area is the metre. The degree Celsius has an unclear status, and is arguably an exception to this rule. The names of SI units are written in lowercase, the symbols for units named after persons, however, are always written with an uppercase initial letter. In addition to the two dimensionless derived units radian and steradian,20 other derived units have special names, some other units such as the hour, litre, tonne, bar and electronvolt are not SI units, but are widely used in conjunction with SI units. Until 1995, the SI classified the radian and the steradian as supplementary units, but this designation was abandoned, International System of Quantities International System of Units International Vocabulary of Metrology Metric prefix Metric system Non-SI units mentioned in the SI Planck units SI base unit I. Mills, Tomislav Cvitas, Klaus Homann, Nikola Kallay, IUPAC, Quantities, Units and Symbols in Physical Chemistry. CS1 maint, Multiple names, authors list
3.
Electric charge
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Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field. There are two types of charges, positive and negative. Like charges repel and unlike attract, an absence of net charge is referred to as neutral. An object is charged if it has an excess of electrons. The SI derived unit of charge is the coulomb. In electrical engineering, it is common to use the ampere-hour. The symbol Q often denotes charge, early knowledge of how charged substances interact is now called classical electrodynamics, and is still accurate for problems that dont require consideration of quantum effects. The electric charge is a conserved property of some subatomic particles. Electrically charged matter is influenced by, and produces, electromagnetic fields, the interaction between a moving charge and an electromagnetic field is the source of the electromagnetic force, which is one of the four fundamental forces. 602×10−19 coulombs. The proton has a charge of +e, and the electron has a charge of −e, the study of charged particles, and how their interactions are mediated by photons, is called quantum electrodynamics. Charge is the property of forms of matter that exhibit electrostatic attraction or repulsion in the presence of other matter. Electric charge is a property of many subatomic particles. The charges of free-standing particles are integer multiples of the charge e. Michael Faraday, in his electrolysis experiments, was the first to note the discrete nature of electric charge, robert Millikans oil drop experiment demonstrated this fact directly, and measured the elementary charge. By convention, the charge of an electron is −1, while that of a proton is +1, charged particles whose charges have the same sign repel one another, and particles whose charges have different signs attract. The charge of an antiparticle equals that of the corresponding particle, quarks have fractional charges of either −1/3 or +2/3, but free-standing quarks have never been observed. The electric charge of an object is the sum of the electric charges of the particles that make it up. An ion is an atom that has lost one or more electrons, giving it a net charge, or that has gained one or more electrons
4.
Charles-Augustin de Coulomb
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Charles-Augustin de Coulomb was a French physicist. He was best known for developing Coulombs law, the definition of the force of attraction and repulsion. The SI unit of charge, the coulomb, was named after him. Charles Augustin de Coulomb was born in Angoulême in France and he was born in a small home near France de Revone where he was raised for 7 years before beginning his education. His parents were Henry Coulomb and Catherine Bajet and he went to school in the Collège Mazarin in Paris where his father lived. His studies included philosophy, language and literature and he also received a good education in mathematics, astronomy, chemistry and botany. Coulomb graduated in November 1761 from École royale du génie de Mézières, over the next twenty years, he was posted to a variety of locations where he was involved in engineering - structural, fortifications, soil mechanics, as well as other fields of engineering. On his return to France, Coulomb was sent to Bouchain, however, he now began to write important works on applied mechanics and he presented his first work to the Académie des Sciences in Paris in 1773. In 1779 Coulomb was sent to Rochefort to collaborate with the Marquis de Montalembert in constructing a fort made entirely from wood near Ile dAix. During his period at Rochefort, Coulomb carried on his research into mechanics, upon his return to France, with the rank of Captain, he was employed at La Rochelle, the Isle of Aix and Cherbourg. He discovered first an inverse relationship of the force between charges and the square of its distance and then the same relationship between magnetic poles. Later these relationships were named after him as Coulombs law, in 1781, he was stationed at Paris. In 1787 with Tenon he visited the Royal Naval Hospital, Stonehouse and they were impressed by the pavilion design. On the outbreak of the Revolution in 1789, he resigned his appointment as intendant des eaux et fontaines and he was recalled to Paris for a time in order to take part in the new determination of weights and measures, which had been decreed by the Revolutionary government. He became one of the first members of the French National Institute and was appointed inspector of instruction in 1802. His health was very feeble and four years later he died in Paris. Coulomb leaves a legacy as a pioneer in the field of engineering for his contribution to retaining wall design. His name is one of the 72 names inscribed on the Eiffel Tower, in 1784, his memoir Recherches théoriques et expérimentales sur la force de torsion et sur lélasticité des fils de metal appeared
5.
SI base unit
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The International System of Units defines seven units of measure as a basic set from which all other SI units can be derived. The SI base units form a set of mutually independent dimensions as required by dimensional analysis commonly employed in science, thus, the kelvin, named after Lord Kelvin, has the symbol K and the ampere, named after André-Marie Ampère, has the symbol A. Many other units, such as the litre, are not part of the SI. The definitions of the units have been modified several times since the Metre Convention in 1875. Since the redefinition of the metre in 1960, the kilogram is the unit that is directly defined in terms of a physical artifact. However, the mole, the ampere, and the candela are linked through their definitions to the mass of the platinum–iridium cylinder stored in a vault near Paris. It has long been an objective in metrology to define the kilogram in terms of a fundamental constant, two possibilities have attracted particular attention, the Planck constant and the Avogadro constant. The 23rd CGPM decided to postpone any formal change until the next General Conference in 2011
6.
Ampere
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The ampere, often shortened to amp, is a unit of electric current. In the International System of Units the ampere is one of the seven SI base units and it is named after André-Marie Ampère, French mathematician and physicist, considered the father of electrodynamics. SI defines the ampere in terms of base units by measuring the electromagnetic force between electrical conductors carrying electric current. The ampere was then defined as one coulomb of charge per second, in SI, the unit of charge, the coulomb, is defined as the charge carried by one ampere during one second. In the future, the SI definition may shift back to charge as the base unit, ampères force law states that there is an attractive or repulsive force between two parallel wires carrying an electric current. This force is used in the definition of the ampere. The SI unit of charge, the coulomb, is the quantity of electricity carried in 1 second by a current of 1 ampere, conversely, a current of one ampere is one coulomb of charge going past a given point per second,1 A =1 C s. In general, charge Q is determined by steady current I flowing for a time t as Q = It, constant, instantaneous and average current are expressed in amperes and the charge accumulated, or passed through a circuit over a period of time is expressed in coulombs. The relation of the ampere to the coulomb is the same as that of the watt to the joule, the ampere was originally defined as one tenth of the unit of electric current in the centimetre–gram–second system of units. That unit, now known as the abampere, was defined as the amount of current that generates a force of two dynes per centimetre of length between two wires one centimetre apart. The size of the unit was chosen so that the derived from it in the MKSA system would be conveniently sized. The international ampere was a realization of the ampere, defined as the current that would deposit 0.001118 grams of silver per second from a silver nitrate solution. Later, more accurate measurements revealed that this current is 0.99985 A, at present, techniques to establish the realization of an ampere have a relative uncertainty of approximately a few parts in 107, and involve realizations of the watt, the ohm and the volt. Rather than a definition in terms of the force between two current-carrying wires, it has proposed that the ampere should be defined in terms of the rate of flow of elementary charges. Since a coulomb is equal to 6. 2415093×1018 elementary charges. The proposed change would define 1 A as being the current in the direction of flow of a number of elementary charges per second. In 2005, the International Committee for Weights and Measures agreed to study the proposed change, the new definition was discussed at the 25th General Conference on Weights and Measures in 2014 but for the time being was not adopted. The current drawn by typical constant-voltage energy distribution systems is usually dictated by the power consumed by the system, for this reason the examples given below are grouped by voltage level
7.
Second
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The second is the base unit of time in the International System of Units. It is qualitatively defined as the division of the hour by sixty. SI definition of second is the duration of 9192631770 periods of the corresponding to the transition between the two hyperfine levels of the ground state of the caesium 133 atom. Seconds may be measured using a mechanical, electrical or an atomic clock, SI prefixes are combined with the word second to denote subdivisions of the second, e. g. the millisecond, the microsecond, and the nanosecond. Though SI prefixes may also be used to form multiples of the such as kilosecond. The second is also the unit of time in other systems of measurement, the centimetre–gram–second, metre–kilogram–second, metre–tonne–second. Absolute zero implies no movement, and therefore zero external radiation effects, the second thus defined is consistent with the ephemeris second, which was based on astronomical measurements. The realization of the second is described briefly in a special publication from the National Institute of Standards and Technology. 1 international second is equal to, 1⁄60 minute 1⁄3,600 hour 1⁄86,400 day 1⁄31,557,600 Julian year 1⁄, more generally, = 1⁄, the Hellenistic astronomers Hipparchus and Ptolemy subdivided the day into sixty parts. They also used an hour, simple fractions of an hour. No sexagesimal unit of the day was used as an independent unit of time. The modern second is subdivided using decimals - although the third remains in some languages. The earliest clocks to display seconds appeared during the last half of the 16th century, the second became accurately measurable with the development of mechanical clocks keeping mean time, as opposed to the apparent time displayed by sundials. The earliest spring-driven timepiece with a hand which marked seconds is an unsigned clock depicting Orpheus in the Fremersdorf collection. During the 3rd quarter of the 16th century, Taqi al-Din built a clock with marks every 1/5 minute, in 1579, Jost Bürgi built a clock for William of Hesse that marked seconds. In 1581, Tycho Brahe redesigned clocks that displayed minutes at his observatory so they also displayed seconds, however, they were not yet accurate enough for seconds. In 1587, Tycho complained that his four clocks disagreed by plus or minus four seconds, in 1670, London clockmaker William Clement added this seconds pendulum to the original pendulum clock of Christiaan Huygens. From 1670 to 1680, Clement made many improvements to his clock and this clock used an anchor escapement mechanism with a seconds pendulum to display seconds in a small subdial
8.
Atomic units
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Atomic units form a system of natural units which is especially convenient for atomic physics calculations. There are two different kinds of units, Hartree atomic units and Rydberg atomic units, which differ in the choice of the unit of mass. In Hartree units, the speed of light is approximately 137, atomic units are often abbreviated a. u. or au, not to be confused with the same abbreviation used also for astronomical units, arbitrary units, and absorbance units in different contexts. Atomic units, like SI units, have a unit of mass, a unit of length, however, the use and notation is somewhat different from SI. Suppose a particle with a mass of m has 3.4 times the mass of electron, the value of m can be written in three ways, m =3.4 m e. This is the clearest notation, where the unit is included explicitly as a symbol. This notation is ambiguous, Here, it means that the m is 3.4 times the atomic unit of mass. But if a length L were 3.4 times the unit of length. The dimension needs to be inferred from context and this notation is similar to the previous one, and has the same dimensional ambiguity. It comes from setting the atomic units to 1, in this case m e =1. These four fundamental constants form the basis of the atomic units, therefore, their numerical values in the atomic units are unity by definition. Dimensionless physical constants retain their values in any system of units, of particular importance is the fine-structure constant α = e 2 ℏ c ≈1 /137. This immediately gives the value of the speed of light, expressed in atomic units, below are given a few derived units. Some of them have names and symbols assigned, as indicated in the table. There are two variants of atomic units, one where they are used in conjunction with SI units for electromagnetism. Although the units written above are the same way, the units related to magnetism are not. In the SI system, the unit for magnetic field is 1 a. u. = ℏ e a 02 =2. 35×105 T =2. 35×109 G, and in the Gaussian-cgs unit system, = e a 02 c =1. 72×103 T =1. 72×107 G
9.
International System of Units
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The International System of Units is the modern form of the metric system, and is the most widely used system of measurement. It comprises a coherent system of units of measurement built on seven base units, the system also establishes a set of twenty prefixes to the unit names and unit symbols that may be used when specifying multiples and fractions of the units. The system was published in 1960 as the result of an initiative began in 1948. It is based on the system of units rather than any variant of the centimetre-gram-second system. The motivation for the development of the SI was the diversity of units that had sprung up within the CGS systems, the International System of Units has been adopted by most developed countries, however, the adoption has not been universal in all English-speaking countries. The metric system was first implemented during the French Revolution with just the metre and kilogram as standards of length, in the 1830s Carl Friedrich Gauss laid the foundations for a coherent system based on length, mass, and time. In the 1860s a group working under the auspices of the British Association for the Advancement of Science formulated the requirement for a coherent system of units with base units and derived units. Meanwhile, in 1875, the Treaty of the Metre passed responsibility for verification of the kilogram, in 1921, the Treaty was extended to include all physical quantities including electrical units originally defined in 1893. The units associated with these quantities were the metre, kilogram, second, ampere, kelvin, in 1971, a seventh base quantity, amount of substance represented by the mole, was added to the definition of SI. On 11 July 1792, the proposed the names metre, are, litre and grave for the units of length, area, capacity. The committee also proposed that multiples and submultiples of these units were to be denoted by decimal-based prefixes such as centi for a hundredth, on 10 December 1799, the law by which the metric system was to be definitively adopted in France was passed. Prior to this, the strength of the magnetic field had only been described in relative terms. The technique used by Gauss was to equate the torque induced on a magnet of known mass by the earth’s magnetic field with the torque induced on an equivalent system under gravity. The resultant calculations enabled him to assign dimensions based on mass, length, a French-inspired initiative for international cooperation in metrology led to the signing in 1875 of the Metre Convention. Initially the convention only covered standards for the metre and the kilogram, one of each was selected at random to become the International prototype metre and International prototype kilogram that replaced the mètre des Archives and kilogramme des Archives respectively. Each member state was entitled to one of each of the prototypes to serve as the national prototype for that country. Initially its prime purpose was a periodic recalibration of national prototype metres. The official language of the Metre Convention is French and the version of all official documents published by or on behalf of the CGPM is the French-language version
10.
Capacitor
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A capacitor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that stores electrical energy in an electric field. The effect of a capacitor is known as capacitance, a capacitor was therefore historically first known as an electric condenser. The physical form and construction of practical capacitors vary widely and many types are in common use. Most capacitors contain at least two electrical conductors often in the form of plates or surfaces separated by a dielectric medium. A conductor may be a foil, thin film, sintered bead of metal, the nonconducting dielectric acts to increase the capacitors charge capacity. Materials commonly used as dielectrics include glass, ceramic, plastic film, paper, mica, Capacitors are widely used as parts of electrical circuits in many common electrical devices. Unlike a resistor, a capacitor does not dissipate energy. No current actually flows through the dielectric, instead, the effect is a displacement of charges through the source circuit, if the condition is maintained sufficiently long, this displacement current through the battery ceases. However, if a voltage is applied across the leads of the capacitor. Capacitance is defined as the ratio of the charge on each conductor to the potential difference between them. The unit of capacitance in the International System of Units is the farad, capacitance values of typical capacitors for use in general electronics range from about 1 pF to about 1 mF. The capacitance of a capacitor is proportional to the area of the plates. In practice, the dielectric between the plates passes a small amount of leakage current and it has an electric field strength limit, known as the breakdown voltage. The conductors and leads introduce an undesired inductance and resistance, Capacitors are widely used in electronic circuits for blocking direct current while allowing alternating current to pass. In analog filter networks, they smooth the output of power supplies, in resonant circuits they tune radios to particular frequencies. In electric power systems, they stabilize voltage and power flow. The property of energy storage in capacitors was exploited as dynamic memory in digital computers. Von Kleists hand and the water acted as conductors, and the jar as a dielectric, von Kleist found that touching the wire resulted in a powerful spark, much more painful than that obtained from an electrostatic machine
11.
Farad
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The farad is the SI derived unit of electrical capacitance, the ability of a body to store an electrical charge. It is named after the English physicist Michael Faraday, one farad is defined as the capacitance across which, when charged with one coulomb, there is a potential difference of one volt. Equally, one farad can be described as the capacitance which stores a one-coulomb charge across a potential difference of one volt, the relationship between capacitance, charge and potential difference is linear. For example, if the difference across a capacitor is halved. For most applications, the farad is a large unit of capacitance. Most electrical and electronic applications are covered by the following SI prefixes,1 mF =1000 μF =1000000 nF1 μF =0.000001 F =1000 nF =1000000 pF1 nF =0. In 1881 at the International Congress of Electricians in Paris, the name farad was officially used for the unit of electrical capacitance, a capacitor consists of two conducting surfaces, frequently referred to as plates, separated by an insulating layer usually referred to as a dielectric. The original capacitor was the Leyden jar developed in the 18th century and it is the accumulation of electric charge on the plates that results in capacitance. Values of capacitors are specified in farads, microfarads, nanofarads and picofarads. The millifarad is rarely used in practice, while the nanofarad is uncommon in North America, the size of commercially available capacitors ranges from around 0.1 pF to 5000F supercapacitors. Capacitance values of 1 pF or lower can be achieved by twisting two short lengths of insulated wire together, the capacitance of the Earths ionosphere with respect to the ground is calculated to be about 1 F. The picofarad is sometimes pronounced as puff or pic, as in a ten-puff capacitor. Similarly, mic is sometimes used informally to signify microfarads, if the Greek letter μ is not available, the notation uF is often used as a substitute for μF in electronics literature. A micro-microfarad, an obsolete unit sometimes found in texts, is the equivalent of a picofarad. In texts prior to 1960, and on capacitor packages even more recently. Similarly, mmf or MMFD represented picofarads, the reciprocal of capacitance is called electrical elastance, the unit of which is the daraf. The abfarad is an obsolete CGS unit of equal to 109 farads. The statfarad is a rarely used CGS unit equivalent to the capacitance of a capacitor with a charge of 1 statcoulomb across a potential difference of 1 statvolt and it is 1/ farad, approximately 1.1126 picofarads
12.
Volt
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The volt is the derived unit for electric potential, electric potential difference, and electromotive force. One volt is defined as the difference in potential between two points of a conducting wire when an electric current of one ampere dissipates one watt of power between those points. It is also equal to the difference between two parallel, infinite planes spaced 1 meter apart that create an electric field of 1 newton per coulomb. Additionally, it is the difference between two points that will impart one joule of energy per coulomb of charge that passes through it. It can also be expressed as amperes times ohms, watts per ampere, or joules per coulomb, for the Josephson constant, KJ = 2e/h, the conventional value KJ-90 is used, K J-90 =0.4835979 GHz μ V. This standard is typically realized using an array of several thousand or tens of thousands of junctions. Empirically, several experiments have shown that the method is independent of device design, material, measurement setup, etc. in the water-flow analogy sometimes used to explain electric circuits by comparing them with water-filled pipes, voltage is likened to difference in water pressure. Current is proportional to the diameter of the pipe or the amount of water flowing at that pressure. A resistor would be a reduced diameter somewhere in the piping, the relationship between voltage and current is defined by Ohms Law. Ohms Law is analogous to the Hagen–Poiseuille equation, as both are linear models relating flux and potential in their respective systems, the voltage produced by each electrochemical cell in a battery is determined by the chemistry of that cell. Cells can be combined in series for multiples of that voltage, mechanical generators can usually be constructed to any voltage in a range of feasibility. High-voltage electric power lines,110 kV and up Lightning, Varies greatly. Volta had determined that the most effective pair of metals to produce electricity was zinc. In 1861, Latimer Clark and Sir Charles Bright coined the name volt for the unit of resistance, by 1873, the British Association for the Advancement of Science had defined the volt, ohm, and farad. In 1881, the International Electrical Congress, now the International Electrotechnical Commission and they made the volt equal to 108 cgs units of voltage, the cgs system at the time being the customary system of units in science. At that time, the volt was defined as the difference across a conductor when a current of one ampere dissipates one watt of power. The international volt was defined in 1893 as 1/1.434 of the emf of a Clark cell and this definition was abandoned in 1908 in favor of a definition based on the international ohm and international ampere until the entire set of reproducible units was abandoned in 1948. Prior to the development of the Josephson junction voltage standard, the volt was maintained in laboratories using specially constructed batteries called standard cells
13.
Mole (unit)
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The mole is the unit of measurement in the International System of Units for amount of substance. This number is expressed by the Avogadro constant, which has a value of 6. 022140857×1023 mol−1, the mole is one of the base units of the SI, and has the unit symbol mol. The mole is used in chemistry as a convenient way to express amounts of reactants and products of chemical reactions. For example, the chemical equation 2 H2 + O2 →2 H2O implies that 2 moles of dihydrogen and 1 mole of dioxygen react to form 2 moles of water. The mole may also be used to express the number of atoms, ions, the concentration of a solution is commonly expressed by its molarity, defined as the number of moles of the dissolved substance per litre of solution. For example, the relative molecular mass of natural water is about 18.015, therefore. The term gram-molecule was formerly used for essentially the same concept, the term gram-atom has been used for a related but distinct concept, namely a quantity of a substance that contains Avogadros number of atoms, whether isolated or combined in molecules. Thus, for example,1 mole of MgBr2 is 1 gram-molecule of MgBr2 but 3 gram-atoms of MgBr2, in honor of the unit, some chemists celebrate October 23, which is a reference to the 1023 scale of the Avogadro constant, as Mole Day. Some also do the same for February 6 and June 2, thus, by definition, one mole of pure 12C has a mass of exactly 12 g. It also follows from the definition that X moles of any substance will contain the number of molecules as X moles of any other substance. The mass per mole of a substance is called its molar mass, the number of elementary entities in a sample of a substance is technically called its amount. Therefore, the mole is a convenient unit for that physical quantity, one can determine the chemical amount of a known substance, in moles, by dividing the samples mass by the substances molar mass. Other methods include the use of the volume or the measurement of electric charge. The mass of one mole of a substance depends not only on its molecular formula, since the definition of the gram is not mathematically tied to that of the atomic mass unit, the number NA of molecules in a mole must be determined experimentally. The value adopted by CODATA in 2010 is NA =6. 02214129×1023 ±0. 00000027×1023, in 2011 the measurement was refined to 6. 02214078×1023 ±0. 00000018×1023. The number of moles of a sample is the sample mass divided by the mass of the material. The history of the mole is intertwined with that of mass, atomic mass unit, Avogadros number. The first table of atomic mass was published by John Dalton in 1805
14.
Proton
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A proton is a subatomic particle, symbol p or p+, with a positive electric charge of +1e elementary charge and mass slightly less than that of a neutron. Protons and neutrons, each with masses of one atomic mass unit, are collectively referred to as nucleons. One or more protons are present in the nucleus of every atom, the number of protons in the nucleus is the defining property of an element, and is referred to as the atomic number. Since each element has a number of protons, each element has its own unique atomic number. The word proton is Greek for first, and this name was given to the nucleus by Ernest Rutherford in 1920. In previous years, Rutherford had discovered that the nucleus could be extracted from the nuclei of nitrogen by atomic collisions. Protons were therefore a candidate to be a particle, and hence a building block of nitrogen. In the modern Standard Model of particle physics, protons are hadrons, and like neutrons, although protons were originally considered fundamental or elementary particles, they are now known to be composed of three valence quarks, two up quarks and one down quark. The rest masses of quarks contribute only about 1% of a protons mass, the remainder of a protons mass is due to quantum chromodynamics binding energy, which includes the kinetic energy of the quarks and the energy of the gluon fields that bind the quarks together. At sufficiently low temperatures, free protons will bind to electrons, however, the character of such bound protons does not change, and they remain protons. A fast proton moving through matter will slow by interactions with electrons and nuclei, the result is a protonated atom, which is a chemical compound of hydrogen. In vacuum, when electrons are present, a sufficiently slow proton may pick up a single free electron, becoming a neutral hydrogen atom. Such free hydrogen atoms tend to react chemically with other types of atoms at sufficiently low energies. When free hydrogen atoms react with other, they form neutral hydrogen molecules. Protons are spin-½ fermions and are composed of three quarks, making them baryons. Protons have an exponentially decaying positive charge distribution with a mean square radius of about 0.8 fm. Protons and neutrons are both nucleons, which may be together by the nuclear force to form atomic nuclei. The nucleus of the most common isotope of the atom is a lone proton
15.
Electron
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The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol e− or β−, with a negative elementary electric charge. Electrons belong to the first generation of the lepton particle family, the electron has a mass that is approximately 1/1836 that of the proton. Quantum mechanical properties of the include a intrinsic angular momentum of a half-integer value, expressed in units of the reduced Planck constant. As it is a fermion, no two electrons can occupy the same state, in accordance with the Pauli exclusion principle. Like all elementary particles, electrons exhibit properties of particles and waves, they can collide with other particles and can be diffracted like light. Since an electron has charge, it has an electric field. Electromagnetic fields produced from other sources will affect the motion of an electron according to the Lorentz force law, electrons radiate or absorb energy in the form of photons when they are accelerated. Laboratory instruments are capable of trapping individual electrons as well as electron plasma by the use of electromagnetic fields, special telescopes can detect electron plasma in outer space. Electrons are involved in applications such as electronics, welding, cathode ray tubes, electron microscopes, radiation therapy, lasers, gaseous ionization detectors. Interactions involving electrons with other particles are of interest in fields such as chemistry. The Coulomb force interaction between the positive protons within atomic nuclei and the negative electrons without, allows the composition of the two known as atoms, ionization or differences in the proportions of negative electrons versus positive nuclei changes the binding energy of an atomic system. The exchange or sharing of the electrons between two or more atoms is the cause of chemical bonding. In 1838, British natural philosopher Richard Laming first hypothesized the concept of a quantity of electric charge to explain the chemical properties of atoms. Irish physicist George Johnstone Stoney named this charge electron in 1891, electrons can also participate in nuclear reactions, such as nucleosynthesis in stars, where they are known as beta particles. Electrons can be created through beta decay of isotopes and in high-energy collisions. The antiparticle of the electron is called the positron, it is identical to the electron except that it carries electrical, when an electron collides with a positron, both particles can be totally annihilated, producing gamma ray photons. The ancient Greeks noticed that amber attracted small objects when rubbed with fur, along with lightning, this phenomenon is one of humanitys earliest recorded experiences with electricity. In his 1600 treatise De Magnete, the English scientist William Gilbert coined the New Latin term electricus, both electric and electricity are derived from the Latin ēlectrum, which came from the Greek word for amber, ἤλεκτρον
16.
Symbol
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A symbol is a mark, sign, or word that indicates, signifies, or is understood as representing an idea, object, or relationship. Symbols allow people to go beyond what is known or seen by creating linkages between otherwise very different concepts and experiences, all communication is achieved through the use of symbols. Symbols take the form of words, sounds, gestures, ideas or visual images and are used to other ideas. For example, a red octagon may be a symbol for STOP, on a map, a blue line might represent a river. Alphabetic letters may be symbols for sounds, personal names are symbols representing individuals. A red rose may symbolize love and compassion, the variable x, in a mathematical equation, may symbolize the position of a particle in space. In cartography, a collection of symbols forms a legend for a map The word derives from the Greek symbolon meaning token or watchword. It is an amalgam of syn- together + bole a throwing, a casting, the sense evolution in Greek is from throwing things together to contrasting to comparing to token used in comparisons to determine if something is genuine. The meaning something which stands for something else was first recorded in 1590, later, expanding on what he means by this definition Campbell says, a symbol, like everything else, shows a double aspect. We must distinguish, therefore between the sense and the meaning of the symbol. The term meaning can only to the first two but these, today, are in the charge of science – which is the province as we have said, not of symbols. The ineffable, the unknowable, can be only sensed. Heinrich Zimmer gives an overview of the nature, and perennial relevance. Concepts and words are symbols, just as visions, rituals, through all of these a transcendent reality is mirrored. They are so many metaphors reflecting and implying something which, though thus variously expressed, is ineffable, though thus rendered multiform, Symbols hold the mind to truth but are not themselves the truth, hence it is delusory to borrow them. Each civilisation, every age, must bring forth its own, in the book Signs and Symbols, it is stated that A symbol. Is a visual image or sign representing an idea -- a deeper indicator of a universal truth, Symbols are a means of complex communication that often can have multiple levels of meaning. This separates symbols from signs, as signs have only one meaning, human cultures use symbols to express specific ideologies and social structures and to represent aspects of their specific culture
17.
Letter case
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Letter case is the distinction between the letters that are in larger upper case and smaller lower case in the written representation of certain languages. The writing systems that distinguish between the upper and lower case have two sets of letters, with each letter in one set usually having an equivalent in the other set. Basically, the two variants are alternative representations of the same letter, they have the same name and pronunciation. Letter case is generally applied in a fashion, with both upper- and lower-case letters appearing in a given piece of text. The choice of case is often prescribed by the grammar of a language or by the conventions of a particular discipline, in mathematics, letter case may indicate the relationship between objects, with upper-case letters often representing superior objects. In some contexts, it is conventional to use only one case, the terms upper case and lower case can be written as two consecutive words, connected with a hyphen, or as a single word. These terms originated from the layouts of the shallow drawers called type cases used to hold the movable type for letterpress printing. Traditionally, the letters were stored in a separate case that was located above the case that held the small letters. Majuscule, for palaeographers, is technically any script in which the letters have very few or very short ascenders and descenders, or none at all. By virtue of their impact, this made the term majuscule an apt descriptor for what much later came to be more commonly referred to as uppercase letters. The word is often spelled miniscule, by association with the word miniature. This has traditionally been regarded as a mistake, but is now so common that some dictionaries tend to accept it as a nonstandard or variant spelling. Miniscule is still less likely, however, to be used in reference to lower-case letters, the glyphs of lower-case letters can resemble smaller forms of the upper-case glyphs restricted to the base band or can look hardly related. There is more variation in the height of the minuscules, as some of them have higher or lower than the typical size. In Times New Roman, for instance, b, d, f, h, k, l, t are the letters with ascenders, and g, j, p, q, y are the ones with descenders. In addition, with old-style numerals still used by traditional or classical fonts,6 and 8 make up the ascender set. Writing systems using two separate cases are bicameral scripts, languages that use the Latin, Cyrillic, Greek, Coptic, Armenian, Adlam, Varang Kshiti, Cherokee, and Osage scripts use letter cases in their written form as an aid to clarity. Other bicameral scripts, which are not used for any modern languages, are Old Hungarian, Glagolitic, the Georgian alphabet has several variants, and there were attempts to use them as different cases, but the modern written Georgian language does not distinguish case
18.
Caesium
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Caesium or cesium is a chemical element with symbol Cs and atomic number 55. It is a soft, silvery-gold alkali metal with a point of 28.5 °C. Caesium is a metal and has physical and chemical properties similar to those of rubidium and potassium. The metal is extremely reactive and pyrophoric, reacting with water even at −116 °C, Caesium is one of the most reactive elements of all, even more reactive than fluorine, the most reactive nonmetal. It is the least electronegative element, with a value of 0.79 on the Pauling scale and it has only one stable isotope, caesium-133. Caesium is mined mostly from pollucite, while the radioisotopes, especially caesium-137, the German chemist Robert Bunsen and physicist Gustav Kirchhoff discovered caesium in 1860 by the newly developed method of flame spectroscopy. The first small-scale applications for caesium were as a getter in vacuum tubes, since then, caesium has been widely used in highly accurate atomic clocks. The radioactive isotope caesium-137 has a half-life of about 30 years and is used in applications, industrial gauges. Although the element is only toxic, the metal is a hazardous material. It is a ductile, pale metal, which darkens in the presence of trace amounts of oxygen. When in the presence of oil, it loses its metallic lustre and takes on a duller. It has a point of 28.4 °C, making it one of the few elemental metals that are liquid near room temperature. Mercury is the elemental metal with a known melting point lower than caesium. In addition, the metal has a low boiling point,641 °C. Its compounds burn with a blue or violet colour, Caesium forms alloys with the other alkali metals, gold, and mercury. At temperatures below 650 °C, it does not alloy with cobalt, iron, molybdenum, nickel, platinum, tantalum and it forms well-defined intermetallic compounds with antimony, gallium, indium, and thorium, which are photosensitive. It mixes with all the alkali metals, the alloy with a molar distribution of 41% caesium, 47% potassium. A few amalgams have been studied, CsHg 2 is black with a metallic lustre, while CsHg is golden-coloured
19.
Kilogram
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The kilogram or kilogramme is the base unit of mass in the International System of Units and is defined as being equal to the mass of the International Prototype of the Kilogram. The avoirdupois pound, used in both the imperial and US customary systems, is defined as exactly 0.45359237 kg, making one kilogram approximately equal to 2.2046 avoirdupois pounds. Other traditional units of weight and mass around the world are also defined in terms of the kilogram, the gram, 1/1000 of a kilogram, was provisionally defined in 1795 as the mass of one cubic centimeter of water at the melting point of ice. The final kilogram, manufactured as a prototype in 1799 and from which the IPK was derived in 1875, had an equal to the mass of 1 dm3 of water at its maximum density. The kilogram is the only SI base unit with an SI prefix as part of its name and it is also the only SI unit that is still directly defined by an artifact rather than a fundamental physical property that can be reproduced in different laboratories. Three other base units and 17 derived units in the SI system are defined relative to the kilogram, only 8 other units do not require the kilogram in their definition, temperature, time and frequency, length, and angle. At its 2011 meeting, the CGPM agreed in principle that the kilogram should be redefined in terms of the Planck constant, the decision was originally deferred until 2014, in 2014 it was deferred again until the next meeting. There are currently several different proposals for the redefinition, these are described in the Proposed Future Definitions section below, the International Prototype Kilogram is rarely used or handled. In the decree of 1795, the term gramme thus replaced gravet, the French spelling was adopted in the United Kingdom when the word was used for the first time in English in 1797, with the spelling kilogram being adopted in the United States. In the United Kingdom both spellings are used, with kilogram having become by far the more common, UK law regulating the units to be used when trading by weight or measure does not prevent the use of either spelling. In the 19th century the French word kilo, a shortening of kilogramme, was imported into the English language where it has used to mean both kilogram and kilometer. In 1935 this was adopted by the IEC as the Giorgi system, now known as MKS system. In 1948 the CGPM commissioned the CIPM to make recommendations for a practical system of units of measurement. This led to the launch of SI in 1960 and the subsequent publication of the SI Brochure, the kilogram is a unit of mass, a property which corresponds to the common perception of how heavy an object is. Mass is a property, that is, it is related to the tendency of an object at rest to remain at rest, or if in motion to remain in motion at a constant velocity. Accordingly, for astronauts in microgravity, no effort is required to hold objects off the cabin floor, they are weightless. However, since objects in microgravity still retain their mass and inertia, the ratio of the force of gravity on the two objects, measured by the scale, is equal to the ratio of their masses. On April 7,1795, the gram was decreed in France to be the weight of a volume of pure water equal to the cube of the hundredth part of the metre
20.
Kibble balance
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A watt balance is an experimental electromechanical weight measuring instrument that measures the weight of a test object very precisely by the strength of an electric current and a voltage. In 2016, metrologists agreed to rename watt balances as Kibble balances, in honour of and it is being developed as a metrological instrument that may one day provide a definition of the kilogram unit of mass based on electronic units, a so-called electronic or electrical kilogram. The name watt balance comes from the fact that the weight of the test mass is proportional to the product of the current and the voltage, which is measured in units of watts. In this new application, the balance will be used in the opposite sense, the weight of the kilogram is then used to compute the mass of the kilogram by accurately determining the local gravitational acceleration. This will define the mass of a kilogram in terms of a current, the principle that is used in the watt balance was proposed by B. P. Kibble of the UK National Physical Laboratory in 1975 for measurement of the gyromagnetic ratio. The main weakness of the balance method is that the result depends on the accuracy with which the dimensions of the coils are measured. The watt balance method has an extra step in which the effect of the geometry of the coils is eliminated. This extra step involves moving the force coil through a magnetic flux at a known speed. This step was done in 1990, in 2014, NRC researchers published the most accurate measurement of the Planck constant to date, with a relative uncertainty of 1. 8×10−8. A conducting wire of length L that carries an electric current I perpendicular to a field of strength B will experience a Laplace force equal to BLI. In the watt balance, the current is varied so that this force exactly counteracts the weight w of a mass m. This is also the principle behind the ampere balance, W is given by the mass m multiplied by the local gravitational acceleration g. Kibbles watt balance avoids the problems of measuring B and L with a calibration step. The same wire is moved through the magnetic field at a known speed v. By Faradays law of induction, a potential difference U is generated across the ends of the wire. The unknown product BL can be eliminated from the equations to give U I = m g v. With U, I, g, and v accurately measured, this gives an accurate value for m. Both sides of the equation have the dimensions of power, measured in watts in the International System of Units, the current watt balance experiments are equivalent to measuring the value of the conventional watt in SI units. The importance of measurements is that they are also a direct measurement of the Planck constant h, h =4 K J2 R K. The principle of the kilogram would be to define the value of the Planck constant in the same way that the meter is defined by the speed of light
21.
Proposed redefinition of SI base units
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The metric system was originally conceived as a system of measurement that was derivable from nature. When the metric system was first introduced in France in 1799 technical limitations necessitated the use of such as the prototype metre. In 1960 the metre was redefined in terms of the wavelength of light from a source, making it derivable from nature. If the proposed redefinition is accepted, the system will, for the first time. The proposal can be summarised as follows, There will still be the seven base units. The second, metre and candela are already defined by physical constants, the new definitions will improve the SI without changing the size of any units, thus ensuring continuity with present measurements. Further details are found in the chapter of the Ninth SI Units Brochure. The last major overhaul of the system was in 1960 when the International System of Units was formally published as a coherent set of units of measure. SI is structured around seven base units that have apparently arbitrary definitions, although the set of units form a coherent system, the definitions do not. The proposal before the CIPM seeks to remedy this by using the quantities of nature as the basis for deriving the base units. This will mean, amongst other things, that the prototype kilogram will cease to be used as the replica of the kilogram. The second and the metre are already defined in such a manner, the basic structure of SI was developed over a period of about 170 years. Since 1960 technological advances have made it possible to address weaknesses in SI. Specifically, the metre was defined as one ten-millionth of the distance from the North Pole to the Equator, although these definitions were chosen so that nobody would own the units, they could not be measured with sufficient convenience or precision for practical use. Instead copies were created in the form of the mètre des Archives, in 1875, by which time the use of the metric system had become widespread in Europe and in Latin America, twenty industrially developed nations met for the Convention of the Metre. They were, CGPM —The Conference meets every four to six years, CIPM —The Committee consists of eighteen eminent scientists, each from a different country, nominated by the CGPM. The CIPM meets annually and is tasked to advise the CGPM, the CIPM has set up a number of sub-committees, each charged with a particular area of interest. One of these, the Consultative Committee for Units, amongst other things, the first CGPM formally approved the use of 40 prototype metres and 40 prototype kilograms from the British firm Johnson Matthey as the standards mandated by the Convention of the Metre
22.
Multiplicative inverse
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In mathematics, a multiplicative inverse or reciprocal for a number x, denoted by 1/x or x−1, is a number which when multiplied by x yields the multiplicative identity,1. The multiplicative inverse of a fraction a/b is b/a, for the multiplicative inverse of a real number, divide 1 by the number. For example, the reciprocal of 5 is one fifth, the reciprocal function, the function f that maps x to 1/x, is one of the simplest examples of a function which is its own inverse. In the phrase multiplicative inverse, the qualifier multiplicative is often omitted, multiplicative inverses can be defined over many mathematical domains as well as numbers. In these cases it can happen that ab ≠ ba, then inverse typically implies that an element is both a left and right inverse. The notation f −1 is sometimes used for the inverse function of the function f. For example, the multiplicative inverse 1/ = −1 is the cosecant of x, only for linear maps are they strongly related. The terminology difference reciprocal versus inverse is not sufficient to make this distinction, since many authors prefer the opposite naming convention, in the real numbers, zero does not have a reciprocal because no real number multiplied by 0 produces 1. With the exception of zero, reciprocals of every real number are real, reciprocals of every rational number are rational, the property that every element other than zero has a multiplicative inverse is part of the definition of a field, of which these are all examples. On the other hand, no other than 1 and −1 has an integer reciprocal. In modular arithmetic, the multiplicative inverse of a is also defined. This multiplicative inverse exists if and only if a and n are coprime, for example, the inverse of 3 modulo 11 is 4 because 4 ·3 ≡1. The extended Euclidean algorithm may be used to compute it, the sedenions are an algebra in which every nonzero element has a multiplicative inverse, but which nonetheless has divisors of zero, i. e. nonzero elements x, y such that xy =0. A square matrix has an inverse if and only if its determinant has an inverse in the coefficient ring, the linear map that has the matrix A−1 with respect to some base is then the reciprocal function of the map having A as matrix in the same base. Thus, the two notions of the inverse of a function are strongly related in this case, while they must be carefully distinguished in the general case. A ring in which every element has a multiplicative inverse is a division ring. As mentioned above, the reciprocal of every complex number z = a + bi is complex. In particular, if ||z||=1, then 1 / z = z ¯, consequently, the imaginary units, ±i, have additive inverse equal to multiplicative inverse, and are the only complex numbers with this property
23.
Metric prefix
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A metric prefix is a unit prefix that precedes a basic unit of measure to indicate a multiple or fraction of the unit. While all metric prefixes in use today are decadic, historically there have been a number of binary metric prefixes as well. Each prefix has a symbol that is prepended to the unit symbol. The prefix kilo-, for example, may be added to gram to indicate multiplication by one thousand, the prefix milli-, likewise, may be added to metre to indicate division by one thousand, one millimetre is equal to one thousandth of a metre. Decimal multiplicative prefixes have been a feature of all forms of the system with six dating back to the systems introduction in the 1790s. Metric prefixes have even been prepended to non-metric units, the SI prefixes are standardized for use in the International System of Units by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures in resolutions dating from 1960 to 1991. Since 2009, they have formed part of the International System of Quantities, the BIPM specifies twenty prefixes for the International System of Units. Each prefix name has a symbol which is used in combination with the symbols for units of measure. For example, the symbol for kilo- is k, and is used to produce km, kg, and kW, which are the SI symbols for kilometre, kilogram, prefixes corresponding to an integer power of one thousand are generally preferred. Hence 100 m is preferred over 1 hm or 10 dam, the prefixes hecto, deca, deci, and centi are commonly used for everyday purposes, and the centimetre is especially common. However, some building codes require that the millimetre be used in preference to the centimetre, because use of centimetres leads to extensive usage of decimal points. Prefixes may not be used in combination and this also applies to mass, for which the SI base unit already contains a prefix. For example, milligram is used instead of microkilogram, in the arithmetic of measurements having units, the units are treated as multiplicative factors to values. If they have prefixes, all but one of the prefixes must be expanded to their numeric multiplier,1 km2 means one square kilometre, or the area of a square of 1000 m by 1000 m and not 1000 square metres. 2 Mm3 means two cubic megametres, or the volume of two cubes of 1000000 m by 1000000 m by 1000000 m or 2×1018 m3, and not 2000000 cubic metres, examples 5 cm = 5×10−2 m =5 ×0.01 m =0. The prefixes, including those introduced after 1960, are used with any metric unit, metric prefixes may also be used with non-metric units. The choice of prefixes with a unit is usually dictated by convenience of use. Unit prefixes for amounts that are larger or smaller than those actually encountered are seldom used
24.
Absolute value
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In mathematics, the absolute value or modulus |x| of a real number x is the non-negative value of x without regard to its sign. Namely, |x| = x for a x, |x| = −x for a negative x. For example, the value of 3 is 3. The absolute value of a number may be thought of as its distance from zero, generalisations of the absolute value for real numbers occur in a wide variety of mathematical settings. For example, a value is also defined for the complex numbers. The absolute value is related to the notions of magnitude, distance. The term absolute value has been used in this sense from at least 1806 in French and 1857 in English, the notation |x|, with a vertical bar on each side, was introduced by Karl Weierstrass in 1841. Other names for absolute value include numerical value and magnitude, in programming languages and computational software packages, the absolute value of x is generally represented by abs, or a similar expression. Thus, care must be taken to interpret vertical bars as an absolute value sign only when the argument is an object for which the notion of an absolute value is defined. For any real number x the value or modulus of x is denoted by |x| and is defined as | x | = { x, if x ≥0 − x. As can be seen from the definition, the absolute value of x is always either positive or zero. Indeed, the notion of a distance function in mathematics can be seen to be a generalisation of the absolute value of the difference. Since the square root notation without sign represents the square root. This identity is used as a definition of absolute value of real numbers. The absolute value has the four fundamental properties, The properties given by equations - are readily apparent from the definition. To see that equation holds, choose ε from so that ε ≥0, some additional useful properties are given below. These properties are either implied by or equivalent to the properties given by equations -, for example, Absolute value is used to define the absolute difference, the standard metric on the real numbers. Since the complex numbers are not ordered, the definition given above for the absolute value cannot be directly generalised for a complex number
25.
Avogadro constant
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In chemistry and physics, the Avogadro constant is the number of constituent particles, usually atoms or molecules, that are contained in the amount of substance given by one mole. Thus, it is the proportionality factor that relates the mass of a compound to the mass of a sample. Avogadros constant, often designated with the symbol NA or L, has the value 7023602214085700000♠6. 022140857×1023 mol−1 in the International System of Units and this number is also known as Loschmidt constant in German literature. The constant was later redefined as the number of atoms in 12 grams of the isotope carbon-12, for instance, to a first approximation,1 gram of hydrogen element, having the atomic number 1, has 7023602200000000000♠6. 022×1023 hydrogen atoms. Similarly,12 grams of 12C, with the mass number 12, has the number of carbon atoms. Avogadros number is a quantity, and has the same numerical value of the Avogadro constant given in base units. In contrast, the Avogadro constant has the dimension of reciprocal amount of substance, the Avogadro constant can also be expressed as 0.602214. ML mol−1 Å−3, which can be used to convert from volume per molecule in cubic ångströms to molar volume in millilitres per mole, revisions in the base set of SI units necessitated redefinitions of the concepts of chemical quantity. Avogadros number, and its definition, was deprecated in favor of the Avogadro constant, the French physicist Jean Perrin in 1909 proposed naming the constant in honor of Avogadro. Perrin won the 1926 Nobel Prize in Physics, largely for his work in determining the Avogadro constant by several different methods, accurate determinations of Avogadros number require the measurement of a single quantity on both the atomic and macroscopic scales using the same unit of measurement. This became possible for the first time when American physicist Robert Millikan measured the charge on an electron in 1910, the electric charge per mole of electrons is a constant called the Faraday constant and had been known since 1834 when Michael Faraday published his works on electrolysis. By dividing the charge on a mole of electrons by the charge on a single electron the value of Avogadros number is obtained, since 1910, newer calculations have more accurately determined the values for the Faraday constant and the elementary charge. Perrin originally proposed the name Avogadros number to refer to the number of molecules in one gram-molecule of oxygen, with this recognition, the Avogadro constant was no longer a pure number, but had a unit of measurement, the reciprocal mole. While it is rare to use units of amount of other than the mole, the Avogadro constant can also be expressed in units such as the pound mole. NA = 7026273159734000000♠2. 73159734×1026 −1 = 7025170724843400000♠1. 707248434×1025 −1 Avogadros constant is a factor between macroscopic and microscopic observations of nature. As such, it provides the relationship between other physical constants and properties. The Avogadro constant also enters into the definition of the atomic mass unit. The earliest accurate method to measure the value of the Avogadro constant was based on coulometry
26.
Ampere hour
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The commonly seen milliampere hour is one-thousandth of an ampere hour. The ampere hour is used in measurements of electrochemical systems such as electroplating. A milliampere second is a unit of measure used in X-ray imaging, diagnostic imaging and this quantity is proportional to the total X-ray energy produced by a given X-ray tube operated at a particular voltage. The same total dose can be delivered in different time periods depending on the X-ray tube current, an ampere hour is not a unit of energy. In a battery system, for example, accurate calculation of the energy delivered requires integration of the power delivered over the discharge interval, generally, the battery voltage varies during discharge, an average value or nominal value may be used to approximate the integration of power. The Faraday constant is the charge on one mole of electrons and it is used in electrochemical calculations. An AA size dry cell has a capacity of about 2 to 3 ampere hours, automotive car batteries vary in capacity but a large automobile propelled by an internal combustion engine would have about a 50 ampere hour battery capacity. Since one ampere hour can produce 0.336 grams of aluminium from aluminium chloride
27.
Von Klitzing constant
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The prefactor, ν is known as the filling factor, and can take on either integer or fractional values. The quantum Hall effect is referred to as the integer or fractional quantum Hall effect depending on whether ν is an integer or fraction, the striking feature of the integer quantum Hall effect is the persistence of the quantization as the electron density is varied. The fractional quantum Hall effect is more complicated, as its existence relies fundamentally on electron–electron interactions, although the microscopic origins of the fractional quantum Hall effect are unknown, there are several phenomenological approaches that provide accurate approximations. For example, the effect can be thought of as an integer quantum Hall effect, not of electrons, in 1988, it was proposed that there was quantum Hall effect without Landau levels. This quantum Hall effect is referred to as the quantum anomalous Hall effect, there is also a new concept of the quantum spin Hall effect which is an analogue of the quantum Hall effect, where spin currents flow instead of charge currents. The quantization of the Hall conductance has the important property of being exceedingly precise, actual measurements of the Hall conductance have been found to be integer or fractional multiples of e2/h to nearly one part in a billion. This phenomenon, referred to as exact quantization, has shown to be a subtle manifestation of the principle of gauge invariance. It has allowed for the definition of a new standard for electrical resistance. This is named after Klaus von Klitzing, the discoverer of exact quantization, since 1990, a fixed conventional value RK-90 is used in resistance calibrations worldwide. The quantum Hall effect also provides an extremely precise independent determination of the structure constant. Several researchers subsequently observed the effect in experiments carried out on the layer of MOSFETs. For this finding, von Klitzing was awarded the 1985 Nobel Prize in Physics, the link between exact quantization and gauge invariance was subsequently found by Robert Laughlin, who connected the quantized conductivity to the quantized charge transport in Thouless charge pump. Most integer quantum Hall experiments are now performed on gallium arsenide heterostructures, in 2007, the integer quantum Hall effect was reported in graphene at temperatures as high as room temperature, and in the oxide ZnO-MgxZn1−xO. In two dimensions, when electrons are subjected to a magnetic field they follow circular cyclotron orbits. When the system is treated quantum mechanically, these orbits are quantized, the energy levels of these quantized orbitals take on discrete values, E n = ℏ ω c, where ωc = eB/m is the cyclotron frequency. For strong magnetic fields, each Landau level is highly degenerate, the integers that appear in the Hall effect are examples of topological quantum numbers. They are known in mathematics as the first Chern numbers and are related to Berrys phase. A striking model of much interest in this context is the Azbel-Harper-Hofstadter model whose quantum phase diagram is the Hofstadter butterfly shown in the figure, the vertical axis is the strength of the magnetic field and the horizontal axis is the chemical potential, which fixes the electron density
28.
Static electricity
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Static electricity is an imbalance of electric charges within or on the surface of a material. The charge remains until it is able to move away by means of a current or electrical discharge. Static electricity is named in contrast with current electricity, which flows through wires or other conductors, a static electric charge can be created whenever two surfaces contact and separate, and at least one of the surfaces has a high resistance to electric current. The familiar phenomenon of a static shock–more specifically, an electrostatic discharge–is caused by the neutralization of charge, materials are made of atoms that are normally electrically neutral because they contain equal numbers of positive charges and negative charges. The phenomenon of static electricity requires a separation of positive and negative charges, when two materials are in contact, electrons may move from one material to the other, which leaves an excess of positive charge on one material, and an equal negative charge on the other. When the materials are separated they retain this charge imbalance and this is known as the triboelectric effect and results in one material becoming positively charged and the other negatively charged. The polarity and strength of the charge on a material once they are separated depends on their positions in the triboelectric series. The triboelectric effect is the cause of static electricity as observed in everyday life. Contact-induced charge separation causes your hair to stand up and causes static cling, pressure-induced charge separation Applied mechanical stress generates a separation of charge in certain types of crystals and ceramics molecules. Heat-induced charge separation Heating generates a separation of charge in the atoms or molecules of certain materials, all pyroelectric materials are also piezoelectric. The atomic or molecular properties of heat and pressure response are closely related, charge-induced charge separation A charged object brought close to an electrically neutral object causes a separation of charge within the neutral object. Charges of the same polarity are repelled and charges of the opposite polarity are attracted, as the force due to the interaction of electric charges falls off rapidly with increasing distance, the effect of the closer charges is greater and the two objects feel a force of attraction. The effect is most pronounced when the object is an electrical conductor as the charges are more free to move around. Careful grounding of part of an object with a charge separation can permanently add or remove electrons, leaving the object with a global. This process is integral to the workings of the Van de Graaff generator, removing or preventing a buildup of static charge can be as simple as opening a window or using a humidifier to increase the moisture content of the air, making the atmosphere more conductive. Air ionizers can perform the same task, fabric softeners and dryer sheets used in washing machines and clothes dryers are an example of an antistatic agent used to prevent and remove static cling. Many semiconductor devices used in electronics are particularly sensitive to static discharge, conductive antistatic bags are commonly used to protect such components. People who work on circuits that contain these devices often ground themselves with an antistatic strap
29.
Lightning
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Lightning is a sudden electrostatic discharge that occurs during a thunder storm. This discharge occurs between electrically charged regions of a cloud, between two clouds, or between a cloud and the ground. The charged regions in the atmosphere temporarily equalize themselves through this discharge referred to as an if it hits an object on the ground. Lightning causes light in the form of plasma, and sound in the form of thunder, Lightning may be seen and not heard when it occurs at a distance too great for the sound to carry as far as the light from the strike or flash. This article incorporates public domain material from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration document Understanding Lightning, the details of the charging process are still being studied by scientists, but there is general agreement on some of the basic concepts of thunderstorm electrification. The main charging area in a thunderstorm occurs in the part of the storm where air is moving upward rapidly and temperatures range from -15 to -25 Celsius. At that place, the combination of temperature and rapid upward air movement produces a mixture of super-cooled cloud droplets, small ice crystals, the updraft carries the super-cooled cloud droplets and very small ice crystals upward. At the same time, the graupel, which is larger and denser. The differences in the movement of the precipitation cause collisions to occur, when the rising ice crystals collide with graupel, the ice crystals become positively charged and the graupel becomes negatively charged. The updraft carries the positively charged ice crystals upward toward the top of the storm cloud, the larger and denser graupel is either suspended in the middle of the thunderstorm cloud or falls toward the lower part of the storm. The result is that the part of the thunderstorm cloud becomes positively charged while the middle to lower part of the thunderstorm cloud becomes negatively charged. This part of the cloud is called the anvil. While this is the charging process for the thunderstorm cloud. In addition, there is a small but important positive charge buildup near the bottom of the cloud due to the precipitation. Many factors affect the frequency, distribution, strength and physical properties of a lightning flash in a particular region of the world. These factors include ground elevation, latitude, prevailing wind currents, relative humidity, proximity to warm and cold bodies of water, to a certain degree, the ratio between IC, CC and CG lightning may also vary by season in middle latitudes. Lightnings relative unpredictability limits a complete explanation of how or why it occurs, the actual discharge is the final stage of a very complex process. At its peak, a thunderstorm produces three or more strikes to the Earth per minute
30.
Alkaline battery
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Alkaline batteries are a type of primary battery dependent upon the reaction between zinc and manganese dioxide. Another type of batteries are secondary rechargeable alkaline battery, which allows reuse of specially designed cells. Compared with zinc-carbon batteries of the Leclanché or zinc chloride types, alkaline batteries have an energy density and longer shelf-life. The alkaline battery gets its name because it has an electrolyte of potassium hydroxide. Other battery systems also use alkaline electrolytes, but they use different active materials for the electrodes, Alkaline batteries account for 80% of manufactured batteries in the US and over 10 billion individual units produced worldwide. In Japan alkaline batteries account for 46% of all battery sales. In Switzerland alkaline batteries account for 68%, in the UK 60%, Alkaline batteries are used in many household items such as MP3 players, CD players, digital cameras, pagers, toys, lights, and radios, to name a few. Batteries with alkaline electrolyte were first developed by Waldemar Jungner in 1899, on October 9,1957, Urry, Karl Kordesch, and P. A. Marsal filed US patent for the alkaline battery and it was granted in 1960 and was assigned to the Union Carbide Corporation. When introduced in the late 1960s, alkaline batteries contained a small amount of mercury amalgam to control side reactions at the zinc anode. With mercury content reduced by law and improvements in the purity and consistency of materials, in an alkaline battery, the negative electrode is zinc and the positive electrode is manganese dioxide. The alkaline electrolyte of potassium hydroxide is not part of the reaction, only the zinc, the alkaline electrolyte of potassium hydroxide remains, as there are equal amounts of OH− consumed and produced. An alkaline cell can provide three and five times capacity. The capacity of a battery is strongly dependent on the load. An AA-sized alkaline battery might have a capacity of 3000 mAh at low drain, but at a load of 1 ampere, which is common for digital cameras. The voltage of the battery declines steadily during use, so the usable capacity depends on the cut-off voltage of the application. Unlike Leclanche cells, the alkaline cell delivers about as much capacity on intermittent or continuous light loads, on a heavy load, capacity is reduced on continuous discharge compared with intermittent discharge, but the reduction is less than for Leclanche cells. The nominal voltage of an alkaline cell as established by manufacturer standards is 1.5 V
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AA battery
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The AA battery—also called a double A or Mignon battery—is a standard size single cell cylindrical dry battery. The IEC60086 system calls it size R6, and ANSIC18 calls it size 15, historically, it is known as HP7 in official documentation the United Kingdom, though it is colloquially known as a double A battery. AA batteries are common in electronic devices. An AA battery is composed of an electrochemical cell that may be either a primary battery or a rechargeable battery. The exact terminal voltage and capacity of an AA size battery depends on cell chemistry, however, ANSI and IEC Battery nomenclature gives several designations for cells in this size, depending on cell features and chemistry. An AA cell measures 49. 2–50.5 mm in length, alkaline AA cells have a weight of roughly 23 g, lithium AA cells have a mass around 15 g, and rechargeable Ni-MH cells around 31 g. Primary zinc–carbon AA batteries have around 400–900 milliamp-hours capacity, with measured capacity highly dependent on test conditions, duty cycle, zinc–carbon batteries are usually marketed as general purpose batteries. Zinc-chloride batteries store around 1000 to 1500 mAh are often sold as heavy duty or super heavy duty, alkaline batteries from 1700 mAh to 3000 mAh cost more than zinc-chloride batteries, but last proportionally longer. Lithium iron disulfide batteries are intended for use in equipment compatible with alkaline zinc batteries, a fresh alkaline zinc battery can have an open-circuit voltage of 1.6 volts, but an iron-disulfide battery with an open-circuit voltage below 1.7 volts is entirely discharged. Lithium ion chemistry has a voltage of 3. 6-3.7 volts. Nickel-zinc cell AAs are also available, but not widely used, in 2011, AA cells accounted for approximately 60% of alkaline battery sales in the United States. In Japan, 58% of alkaline batteries sold were AA, known in country as tansan. In Switzerland, AA batteries totaled 55% in both primary and secondary battery sales, list of battery sizes Battery nomenclature Datasheet for Energizer alkaline AA battery Datasheet for Energizer lithium AA battery Datasheet for Duracell alkaline AA battery
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Hydraulic analogy
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The electronic–hydraulic analogy is the most widely used analogy for electron fluid in a metal conductor. Since electric current is invisible and the processes at play in electronics are difficult to demonstrate. Electricity was originally understood to be a kind of fluid, as with all analogies, it demands an intuitive and competent understanding of the baseline paradigms. There is no unique paradigm for establishing this analogy, two paradigms can be used to introduce the concept to students, Version with pressure induced by gravity. Large tanks of water are held up high, or are filled to differing levels. This is reminiscent of electrical diagrams with an up arrow pointing to +V, grounded pins that otherwise are not shown connecting to anything and this has the advantage of associating electric potential with gravitational potential. Completely enclosed version with pumps providing pressure only, no gravity and this is reminiscent of a circuit diagram with a voltage source shown and the wires actually completing a circuit. This paradigm is further discussed below, Hydraulic ohms are the units of hydraulic impedance, which is defined as the ratio of pressure to volume flow rate. The pressure and volume flow variables are treated as phasors in this definition, a slightly different paradigm is used in acoustics, where acoustic impedance is defined as a relationship between pressure and air speed. In this paradigm, a cavity with a hole is analogous to a capacitor that stores compressional energy when the time-dependent pressure deviates from atmospheric pressure. A hole is analogous to an inductor that stores kinetic energy associated with the flow of air, electric potential In general, this is equivalent to hydraulic head. This model assumes that the water is flowing horizontally, so that the force of gravity can be ignored, in this case electric potential is equivalent to pressure. The voltage is a difference in pressure between two points, electric potential and voltage are usually measured in volts. Current Equivalent to a volume flow rate, that is. Electric charge Equivalent to a quantity of water, conducting wire A relatively wide pipe completely filled with water is equivalent to a piece of wire. When comparing to a piece of wire, the pipe should be thought of as having semi-permanent caps on the ends, connecting one end of a wire to a circuit is equivalent to un-capping one end of the pipe and attaching it to another pipe. With few exceptions, a wire with one end attached to a circuit will do nothing, the pipe remains capped on the free end. Resistor A constriction in the bore of the pipe which requires more pressure to pass the same amount of water, all pipes have some resistance to flow, just as all wires have some resistance to current
33.
Coulomb's law
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Coulombs law, or Coulombs inverse-square law, is a law of physics that describes force interacting between static electrically charged particles. The force of interaction between the charges is attractive if the charges have opposite signs and repulsive if like-signed, the law was first published in 1784 by French physicist Charles Augustin de Coulomb and was essential to the development of the theory of electromagnetism. It is analogous to Isaac Newtons inverse-square law of universal gravitation, Coulombs law can be used to derive Gausss law, and vice versa. The law has been tested extensively, and all observations have upheld the laws principle, ancient cultures around the Mediterranean knew that certain objects, such as rods of amber, could be rubbed with cats fur to attract light objects like feathers. Thales was incorrect in believing the attraction was due to a magnetic effect and he coined the New Latin word electricus to refer to the property of attracting small objects after being rubbed. This association gave rise to the English words electric and electricity, however, he did not generalize or elaborate on this. In 1767, he conjectured that the force between charges varied as the square of the distance. In 1769, Scottish physicist John Robison announced that, according to his measurements, in the early 1770s, the dependence of the force between charged bodies upon both distance and charge had already been discovered, but not published, by Henry Cavendish of England. Finally, in 1785, the French physicist Charles-Augustin de Coulomb published his first three reports of electricity and magnetism where he stated his law and this publication was essential to the development of the theory of electromagnetism. The torsion balance consists of a bar suspended from its middle by a thin fiber, the fiber acts as a very weak torsion spring. In Coulombs experiment, the balance was an insulating rod with a metal-coated ball attached to one end. The ball was charged with a charge of static electricity. The two charged balls repelled one another, twisting the fiber through an angle, which could be read from a scale on the instrument. By knowing how much force it took to twist the fiber through a given angle, the force is along the straight line joining them. If the two charges have the sign, the electrostatic force between them is repulsive, if they have different signs, the force between them is attractive. Coulombs law can also be stated as a mathematical expression. The vector form of the equation calculates the force F1 applied on q1 by q2, if r12 is used instead, then the effect on q2 can be found. It can be calculated using Newtons third law, F2 = −F1
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Electrostatics
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Electrostatics is a branch of physics that deals with the phenomena and properties of stationary or slow-moving electric charges. Since classical physics, it has known that some materials such as amber attract lightweight particles after rubbing. The Greek word for amber, ήλεκτρον, or electron, was the source of the word electricity, Electrostatic phenomena arise from the forces that electric charges exert on each other. Such forces are described by Coulombs law, Electrostatics involves the buildup of charge on the surface of objects due to contact with other surfaces. This is because the charges that transfer are trapped there for a long enough for their effects to be observed. We begin with the magnitude of the force between two point charges q and Q. It is convenient to one of these charges, q, as a test charge. As we develop the theory, more source charges will be added.854187817 ×10 −12 C2 N −1 m −2, the SI units of ε0 are equivalently A2s4 kg−1m−3 or C2N−1m−2 or F m−1. Coulombs constant is, k e ≈14 π ε0 ≈8.987551787 ×109 N m 2 C −2. A single proton has a charge of e, and the electron has a charge of −e and these physical constants are currently defined so that ε0 and k0 are exactly defined, and e is a measured quantity. Electric field lines are useful for visualizing the electric field, field lines begin on positive charge and terminate on negative charge. Electric field lines are parallel to the direction of the field. The electric field, E →, is a field that can be defined everywhere. It is convenient to place a hypothetical test charge at a point, by Coulombs Law, this test charge will experience a force that can be used to define the electric field as follow F → = q E →. For a single point charge at the origin, the magnitude of electric field is E = k e Q / R2. The fact that the force can be calculated by summing all the contributions due to individual source particles is an example of the superposition principle. If the charge is distributed over a surface or along a line, the Divergence Theorem allows Gausss Law to be written in differential form, ∇ → ⋅ E → = ρ ε0. Where ∇ → ⋅ is the divergence operator, the definition of electrostatic potential, combined with the differential form of Gausss law, provides a relationship between the potential Φ and the charge density ρ, ∇2 ϕ = − ρ ε0
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National Institute of Standards and Technology
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The National Institute of Standards and Technology is a measurement standards laboratory, and a non-regulatory agency of the United States Department of Commerce. Its mission is to promote innovation and industrial competitiveness, in 1821, John Quincy Adams had declared Weights and measures may be ranked among the necessities of life to every individual of human society. From 1830 until 1901, the role of overseeing weights and measures was carried out by the Office of Standard Weights and Measures, president Theodore Roosevelt appointed Samuel W. Stratton as the first director. The budget for the first year of operation was $40,000, a laboratory site was constructed in Washington, DC, and instruments were acquired from the national physical laboratories of Europe. In addition to weights and measures, the Bureau developed instruments for electrical units, in 1905 a meeting was called that would be the first National Conference on Weights and Measures. Quality standards were developed for products including some types of clothing, automobile brake systems and headlamps, antifreeze, during World War I, the Bureau worked on multiple problems related to war production, even operating its own facility to produce optical glass when European supplies were cut off. Between the wars, Harry Diamond of the Bureau developed a blind approach radio aircraft landing system, in 1948, financed by the Air Force, the Bureau began design and construction of SEAC, the Standards Eastern Automatic Computer. The computer went into operation in May 1950 using a combination of vacuum tubes, about the same time the Standards Western Automatic Computer, was built at the Los Angeles office of the NBS and used for research there. A mobile version, DYSEAC, was built for the Signal Corps in 1954, due to a changing mission, the National Bureau of Standards became the National Institute of Standards and Technology in 1988. Following 9/11, NIST conducted the investigation into the collapse of the World Trade Center buildings. NIST had a budget for fiscal year 2007 of about $843.3 million. NISTs 2009 budget was $992 million, and it also received $610 million as part of the American Recovery, NIST employs about 2,900 scientists, engineers, technicians, and support and administrative personnel. About 1,800 NIST associates complement the staff, in addition, NIST partners with 1,400 manufacturing specialists and staff at nearly 350 affiliated centers around the country. NIST publishes the Handbook 44 that provides the Specifications, tolerances, the Congress of 1866 made use of the metric system in commerce a legally protected activity through the passage of Metric Act of 1866. NIST is headquartered in Gaithersburg, Maryland, and operates a facility in Boulder, nISTs activities are organized into laboratory programs and extramural programs. Effective October 1,2010, NIST was realigned by reducing the number of NIST laboratory units from ten to six, nISTs Boulder laboratories are best known for NIST‑F1, which houses an atomic clock. NIST‑F1 serves as the source of the official time. NIST also operates a neutron science user facility, the NIST Center for Neutron Research, the NCNR provides scientists access to a variety of neutron scattering instruments, which they use in many research fields
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DESY
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Its name refers to its first project, an electron synchrotron. DESY is publicly financed by the Federal Republic of Germany, the States of Germany, DESY is a member of the Helmholtz Association and operates at sites in Hamburg and Zeuthen. DESYs function is to conduct fundamental research and it specializes in, Particle accelerator development, construction and operation. The primary location is in a suburb of Hamburg, in 1992, DESY expanded to a second site in Zeuthen near Berlin. The DESY Hamburg site is located in the suburb Bahrenfeld, west of the city, most of DESYs research in high energy physics with elementary particles has been taking place here since 1960. The site is bounded by the ring of the former PETRA particle accelerator, besides these accelerators there is also the free electron laser FLASH, and its offspring XFEL, which is under construction since 2009. This project is meant to secure DESYs future place among the top centers of the world. The institute was merged with DESY on 1 January 1992, DESY employs approximately 2000 people, of which 650 are scientists, working in the fields of accelerator operation, research and development. DESY also hosts 3000 scientists from over 40 countries annually, the research center has an annual budget around €192 million. Of this, approximately €173 million is budgeted for the Hamburg site, the primary source of financing is the Federal Ministry for Education and Research with 10% support coming from the German States of Hamburg and Brandenburg. Individual experiments and projects at the accelerators are financed by the participating German and foreign institutes, special projects are funded by the German Research Foundation. 2500 external scientists used the DESY facilities for research with photons at PETRA III, the construction of the accelerator HERA was one of the first really internationally financed projects of this magnitude. Beforehand the construction of facilities was always financed by the country in which it is located. Only the costs for the experiments were carried by the national or foreign institutes. But due to the scope of the HERA project many international facilities consented to already help with the construction. Following the example of HERA, many projects of a large scale are financed jointly by several states. By now this model is established and international cooperation is pretty common with the construction of those facilities, in the course of the construction of new accelerators the older ones were converted to pre-accelerators or to sources for synchrotron radiation for laboratories with new research tasks. The development of the different facilities will be described chronologically in the following section, the construction of the first particle accelerator DESY began in 1960