Flathead Indian Reservation
The Flathead Indian Reservation, located in western Montana on the Flathead River, is home to the Bitterroot Salish and Pend d'Oreilles tribes - known as the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Nation. The reservation was created through the July 1855, Treaty of Hellgate, it has land in four of Montana's counties: Lake, Sanders and Flathead, controls most of Flathead Lake. The Flathead Indian Reservation, west of the Continental Divide, consists of 1,938 square miles of forested mountains and valleys. Native Americans have lived in Montana based on archaeological findings; the Bitterroot Salish came from the West Coast, whereas the Kootenai lived in the interior of present-day Idaho and Canada. The Kootenai left artifacts in prehistoric time. One group of the Kootenai in the northeast lived on bison hunting. Another group lived on the lakes of the mountains in the west; when they moved east, they turned to eating plants and bison. During the 18th century, the Salish and the Kootenai tribes shared hunting grounds.
As European-American settlers entered the area, the different cultures of peoples came into conflict. In 1855 the United States made the Treaty of Hellgate, by which it set aside a reservation for use of the Flathead, encompassing an area including much of Flathead Lake. By the late 19th and early 20th century, the federal government had adopted a policy of allotting lands to individual Indian households from their communal holdings, in order to encourage subsistence farming and adoption of European-American ways; such allotments took place in what became the state of Oklahoma, former Indian Territory, in order to extinguish Indian land claims. Although the Flathead opposed such European-style allotments and farming, the US Congress passed the 1904 Flathead Allotment Act. After allotments of land to individual households of members on the tribal rolls, the government declared the rest of the communal land to be "surplus" and opened the reservation to homesteading by whites. United States Senator Joseph M. Dixon of Montana played a key role in getting this legislation passed.
Its passage caused much resentment by the Flathead, the allotment of reservation lands remains "a sensitive issue". The Flathead still would like to regain control of their reservation lands; the area was favorably compared to the Yakima River Valley in Washington State. Thousands of acres on the reservation were reserved for town sites and the National Bison Range; the Flathead were given first choice of either 160 acres of land per household. The rest was made open to whites in 1910. A total of 81,363 applications by whites were received for 1,600 parcels of land; the applications were placed in plain brown envelopes, piled onto a pallet, three young girls drew 6,000 of them, choosing who would have a chance to homestead on the land. The first 3,000 were notified in the spring and the second 3,000 were notified in the fall. But, lottery winners took only 600 tracts; these were taken in what the tribe considers a subsequent "land grab". The distribution of their lands did not end the Native American problems with whites.
According to their treaty, the tribes have the right to off-reservation hunting, but the state believed it could regulate those activities. State game wardens were responsible for a confrontation in 1908 with a small Pend d'Oreilles hunting party, which resulted in deaths of four of the Native Americans, in what is known as the Swan Valley Massacre. A court challenge to their hunting rights reached the US Supreme Court, which upheld tribal treaty rights to hunt off-reservation in their former territory. All but the northern tip of Flathead Lake is part of the reservation. Flathead Lake lies in the northeast corner of the reservation, with most of the reservation to the south and west of the lake. Polson, the county seat of Lake County, is located at the southern end of the lake and within the reservation boundaries. Part of the Mission Mountains range is on the reservation; the western end of the range is protected by the Mission Mountains Tribal Wilderness and the eastern end of the range is protected by the Mission Mountains Wilderness.
Parts of the Bob Marshall Wilderness are nearby. Recent years have seen a decline in the numbers of native fish species, which include: bull trout, westslope cutthroat trout, northern whitefish, northern pikeminnow. Non-native species includes: yellowstone cutthroat trout, brook trout, rainbow trout, brown trout, lake trout, lake whitefish, black bullhead, kokanee salmon, yellow perch, northern pike, largemouth bass, smallmouth bass; the tribe prohibits hunting furbearing animals on the reservation. The tribe permits hunting by non-natives of the following birds: Hungarian partridge, ducks, geese and coots. Other animals that can not be hunted by non-natives are: elk, white-tailed deer, mule deer, grizzly bear, moose. Wolves, bison and falcons are present; the total population of the reservation was 28,324 as of the 2010 census, an 8% increase over the 2000 census. Some 9,138 persons living there identified as Native American; the largest community on the reservation is the city of Polson, the county seat of Lake County.
The seat of government of the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Nation is Pablo. The tribes derive income from selling timber and from operating a variety of businesses: Gray Wolf Peak casino in the south of the reservation between Arlee and Evaro, KwaTaqNuk ("where the water leaves t
Red Rock Lakes National Wildlife Refuge
Red Rock Lakes National Wildlife Refuge is a remote refuge located in the high altitude of the Centennial Valley, in the southwestern region of the U. S. state of Montana. Adjacent to Gallatin National Forest and near Yellowstone National Park, the refuge is an integral part of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Red Rock Lakes is best known for being the primary location for the efforts saving the trumpeter swan from extinction, which by 1932 had fewer than 200 known specimens in the United States and Canada. By the year 2002, an estimated 3,000 trumpeters were wintering on the refuge, many having migrated south from their summer range in Canada; the trumpeters are now so plentiful that efforts are being undertaken to help them reestablish historical migratory routes to areas further south in the Rocky Mountains and the Great Basin region. The elegant trumpeter swan is North America's largest waterfowl, with a wingspans of 8 feet and they can weigh up to 30 pounds; the altitude of the refuge ranges from 6,600 feet to 10,000 feet and consists of 65,810.25 acres of high altitude prairie and forested uplands.
The lakes and cold water marshlands provide a uncommon wetland environment favored by certain waterfowl and predatory birds such as the bald eagle and peregrine falcon. There have been sightings of over 250 different bird species in the refuge and over 100 different species are known to nest here. There are 20 nesting pairs of bald eagles on the refuge, there have been several sightings of the endangered whooping crane. Numerous mammals can be found here such as the American black bear, the Rocky Mountain elk, mule deer, beaver and badger, it is believed that the grizzly bear and wolf packs may frequent the refuge, wolverine have been recorded. The refuge has been designated a National Natural Landmark and the creation of the 32,350 acre Red Rock Lakes Wilderness in 1976 ensures that no further human improvements will be undertaken on the vast bulk of the refuge land. There are no maintained trails in the refuge and access to some areas is prohibited during certain times of the year; the refuge is staffed year round but accessibility to the refuge in the winter is difficult.
Red Rock Lakes National Wildlife Refuge is located 28 miles east of Monida, Montana off Interstate 15. List of largest National Wildlife Refuges "Red Rock Lakes National Wildlife Refuge". U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Retrieved 2006-08-16. "The Trumpeter Swan". Red Rock Lakes National Wildlife Refuge. U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Archived from the original on 2006-07-16. Retrieved 2006-08-16. Red Rock Lakes NWR gallery by USFWS
Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks
The Montana Department of Fish and Parks is a government agency in the executive branch state of Montana in the United States with responsibility for protecting sustainable fish and state-owned park resources in Montana for the purpose of providing recreational activities. The agency engages in law enforcement activities to enforce laws and regulations regarding fish and state parks, encourages safe recreational use of these resources; the Montana Territorial Legislature enacted the first fish or wildlife law in 1854. The first game bird hunting laws were passed in 1869, hunting seasons for antelope, bighorn sheep, elk, mountain goats, rabbits set in 1872. Fur trapping and bird hunting seasons followed in 1876. In 1885, the territorial legislature established Game Commission; the state's first state game warden was hired in the same year that Montana became a state. Under Montana state law, each county was authorized to hire one game warden, but a lack of funds and interest led to no wardens being hired.
By 1900, only four of Montana's then-24 counties had game wardens. The Montana State Legislature established the state Fish and Game Board in 1895. Governor John E. Rickards appointed the first Fish and Game Commissioners on March 4, 1895; the Fish and Game Board hired its first state game warden, R. A. Wagner, in July 1898. Hunting and fishing licenses were imposed on out-of-state residents in 1901; the funds from sale of licenses and fines imposed on violators funded the state's court system, in its first year more than 300 justices of the peace were supported by the law. The Fish and Game commissioners recommended the establishment of a Fish and Game Department, the legislature created this agency on April 1, 1901; the game warden and his deputies were all authorized law enforcement officers. Fish and game districts were created and eight deputy game wardens authorized for each district. Hunting and fishing licenses for in-state residents were required in 1905; the state reorganized its fish and wildlife management structure in 1913, creating the first state Fish and Game Commission.
In 1921, the state legislature reorganized the Commission: A board of five Commissioners was established, with the power to create fish and game districts and close hunting seasons, more. The state's first game management area opened in 1926, by 1936 the state had 46 areas in operation; the first three preservation areas to be set aside were at Snow Creek, Pryor Mountain, the Gallatin River. On September 2, 1937, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed into law the Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration Act; the law created an excise tax on ammunition, archery equipment and hunting firearms, apportioned the revenue among state wildlife agencies on a matching funds basis. Montana used these funds to purchase its first wildlife management area in 1938; the state used these funds to hire its first wildlife biologist in 1940. Congress passed the Federal Aid in Sport Fish Restoration Act in 1950, allowing the Montana Fish and Game Commission to hire fisheries biologists, establish its first fisheries management projects, initiate the first studies of problems affecting fisheries.
In 1941, the state legislature gave the Fish and Game Commission the power to engage in rulemaking, gave it additional power to open and close seasons, set bag limits, create game preserves. That same year, the Fish and Game Commission established a program to collect data and conduct research on wildlife management so that a more rational wildlife management program might be established. Montana adopted a new state constitution in 1972. Article IX, Section 1 of the new constitution provided for the protection and improvement of the environment. Subsection 3 of Section 1 declared that the state legislature "shall provide adequate remedies for the protection of the environmental life support system from degradation and provide adequate remedies to prevent unreasonable depletion and degradation of natural resources." On July 1, 1973, the state adopted model legislation known as the Nongame and Endangered Species Conservation Act, which required the state Fish and Game Commission to identify and protect threatened and endangered wildlife, conduct research on non-game and endangered species, acquire and manage habitat for their use.
The state legislature changed the name of the Montana Fish and Game Commission to the Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks Commission in 1991. The Montana Fish and Parks Commission is a quasi-judicial body, authorized to engage in rulemaking for the Montana Department of Fish and Parks, approves the purchase of land for use by the department, approves certain activities of the department. There are five members of the commission, all of whom must be citizens of the state and each one of whom represents one of the department's five geographical regions. Members serve for four years. Members are appointed by the Governor, with three membe
Missoula is a city in the U. S. is the county seat of Missoula County. It is located along the Clark Fork River near its confluences with the Bitterroot and Blackfoot Rivers in western Montana and at the convergence of five mountain ranges, thus it is described as the "hub of five valleys". In 2017, the United States Census Bureau estimated the city's population at 73,340 and the population of the Missoula Metropolitan Area at 117,441. After Billings, Missoula is both metropolitan area in Montana. Missoula is home to the University of a public research university. People of European descent first settled in the Missoula area in 1858, with William T. Hamilton setting up a trading post near current Missoula along the Rattlesnake Creek, Captain Richard Grant settling near Grant Creek, David Pattee near Pattee Canyon. Missoula was founded in 1860 as Hellgate Trading Post while still part of Washington Territory. By 1866, the settlement had moved east, 5 miles upstream, renamed Missoula Mills shortened to Missoula.
The mills provided supplies to western settlers traveling along the Mullan Road. The establishment of Fort Missoula in 1877 to protect settlers further stabilized the economy; the arrival of the Northern Pacific Railway in 1883 brought rapid growth and the maturation of the local lumber industry. In 1893, the Montana Legislature chose the city as the site for the state's first university. Along with the U. S. Forest Service headquarters founded in 1908, lumber and the university remained staples of the local economy for the next hundred years. By the 1990s, Missoula's lumber industry had disappeared, as of 2009, the city's largest employers were the University of Montana, Missoula County Public Schools, Missoula's two hospitals; the city is governed by a mayor–council government with twelve city council members, two from each of the six wards. In and around Missoula are 400 acres of parkland, 22 miles of trails, nearly 5,000 acres of open-space conservation land with adjacent Mount Jumbo home to grazing elk and mule deer during the winter.
The city is home to both Montana's largest and its oldest active breweries as well as the Montana Grizzlies, one of the strongest college football programs in the Division I Football Championship Subdivision of the National Collegiate Athletic Association. Notable residents include the first woman in the U. S. Congress, Jeannette Rankin, the United States' longest-serving Senate Majority Leader, Mike Mansfield. Archaeological artifacts date the Missoula Valley's earliest inhabitants to the end of the last ice age 12,000 years ago with settlements as early as 3500 BCE. From the 1700s until European settlements began a hundred years it was the Salish, Pend d'Oreille and Shoshone who used the land. Located at the confluence of five mountain valleys, the Missoula Valley was traversed by local and distant native tribes that periodically went to the Eastern Montana plains in search of bison, leading to conflict; the narrow valley at Missoula's eastern entrance was so strewn with human bones from repeated ambushes that French fur trappers would refer to this area as Porte de l'Enfer, translated as "Gate of Hell".
Hell Gate would remain the name of the area until it was renamed "Missoula" in 1866. The Lewis and Clark Expedition brought the first U. S. citizens to the area. They twice stopped just south of Missoula at Traveler's Rest, they camped there the first time on their westbound trip in September 1805. When they stayed there again on their return in June–July 1806, Clark left heading south along the Bitterroot River and Lewis traveled north east, through Hellgate Canyon. In 1860, Hell Gate Village was established 5 miles west of present-day downtown by Christopher P. Higgins and Frank Worden as a trading post to serve travelers on the completed Mullan Road, the first wagon road to cross the Rocky Mountains to the inland of the Pacific Northwest; the desire for a more convenient water supply to power a lumber and flour mill led to the movement of the settlement to its modern location in 1864. The Missoula Mills replaced Hell Gate Village as the economic power of the valley and replaced it as the county seat in 1866.
The name "Missoula" came from the Salish name for the Clark Fork River, "nmesuletkw", which translates as "place of frozen water". Fort Missoula was established in 1877 to help protect further arriving settlers. Growth accelerated with the arrival of the Northern Pacific Railway in 1883, the Town of Missoula was chartered the same year. In 1893, Missoula was chosen as the location of the state's first university, the University of Montana; the need for lumber for the railway and its bridges spurred the opening of multiple saw mills in the area and, in turn, the beginning of Missoula's lumber industry, which remained the mainstay of the area's economy for the next hundred years. The United States Forest Service work in Missoula began in 1905. Missoula is home of the smokejumpers' headquarters and will be the site of the National Museum of Forest Service History. Nationally, there are nine Forest Service regions. Logging remained a mainstay of industry in Missoula with the groundbreaking of the Hoerner-Waldorf pulp mill in 1956, which resulted in protests over the resultant air pollution.
An article in Life magazine thirteen years speaks of Missoulians sometimes needing to drive with headlights on during the day to navigate through the smog. In 1979, still 40% of the county's labor income came from the wood and paper products sector; the lumber industry was hit hard by the recession of the early 1980s, Missoula's economy began to diversify
Montana is a landlocked state in the Northwestern United States. Montana has several nicknames, although none are official, including "Big Sky Country" and "The Treasure State", slogans that include "Land of the Shining Mountains" and more "The Last Best Place". Montana is the 4th largest in area, the 8th least populous, the 3rd least densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. The western half of Montana contains numerous mountain ranges. Smaller island ranges are found throughout the state. In all, 77 named; the eastern half of Montana is characterized by badlands. Montana is bordered by Idaho to the west, Wyoming to the south, North Dakota and South Dakota to the east, the Canadian provinces of British Columbia and Saskatchewan to the north; the economy is based on agriculture, including ranching and cereal grain farming. Other significant economic resources include oil, coal, hard rock mining, lumber; the health care and government sectors are significant to the state's economy. The state's fastest-growing sector is tourism.
Nearly 13 million tourists annually visit Glacier National Park, Yellowstone National Park, the Beartooth Highway, Flathead Lake, Big Sky Resort, other attractions. The name Montana comes from the Spanish word Montaña, which in turn comes from the Latin word Montanea, meaning "mountain", or more broadly, "mountainous country". Montaña del Norte was the name given by early Spanish explorers to the entire mountainous region of the west; the name Montana was added to a bill by the United States House Committee on Territories, chaired at the time by Rep. James Ashley of Ohio, for the territory that would become Idaho Territory; the name was changed by Representatives Henry Wilson and Benjamin F. Harding, who complained Montana had "no meaning"; when Ashley presented a bill to establish a temporary government in 1864 for a new territory to be carved out of Idaho, he again chose Montana Territory. This time Rep. Samuel Cox of Ohio, objected to the name. Cox complained the name was a misnomer given most of the territory was not mountainous and that a Native American name would be more appropriate than a Spanish one.
Other names such as Shoshone were suggested, but it was decided the Committee on Territories could name it whatever they wanted, so the original name of Montana was adopted. Montana is one of the nine Mountain States, located in the north of the region known as the Western United States, it borders North South Dakota to the east. Wyoming is to the south, Idaho is to the west and southwest, three Canadian provinces, British Columbia and Saskatchewan, are to the north. With an area of 147,040 square miles, Montana is larger than Japan, it is the fourth largest state in the United States after Alaska and California. S. state. The state's topography is defined by the Continental Divide, which splits much of the state into distinct eastern and western regions. Most of Montana's 100 or more named mountain ranges are in the state's western half, most of, geologically and geographically part of the Northern Rocky Mountains; the Absaroka and Beartooth ranges in the state's south-central part are technically part of the Central Rocky Mountains.
The Rocky Mountain Front is a significant feature in the state's north-central portion, isolated island ranges that interrupt the prairie landscape common in the central and eastern parts of the state. About 60 percent of the state is part of the northern Great Plains; the Bitterroot Mountains—one of the longest continuous ranges in the Rocky Mountain chain from Alaska to Mexico—along with smaller ranges, including the Coeur d'Alene Mountains and the Cabinet Mountains, divide the state from Idaho. The southern third of the Bitterroot range blends into the Continental Divide. Other major mountain ranges west of the Divide include the Cabinet Mountains, the Anaconda Range, the Missions, the Garnet Range, Sapphire Mountains, Flint Creek Range; the Divide's northern section, where the mountains give way to prairie, is part of the Rocky Mountain Front. The front is most pronounced in the Lewis Range, located in Glacier National Park. Due to the configuration of mountain ranges in Glacier National Park, the Northern Divide crosses this region and turns east in Montana at Triple Divide Peak.
It causes the Waterton River and Saint Mary rivers to flow north into Alberta, Canada. There they join the Saskatchewan River, which empties into Hudson Bay. East of the divide, several parallel ranges cover the state's southern part, including the Gravelly Range, the Madison Range, Gallatin Range, Absaroka Mountains and the Beartooth Mountains; the Beartooth Plateau is the largest continuous land mass over 10,000 feet high in the continental United States. It contains Granite Peak, 12,799 feet high. North of these ranges are the Big Belt Mountains, Bridger Mountains, Tobacco Roots, several island ranges, including the Crazy Mountains and Little Belt Mountains. Between many mountain ranges are rich river valleys; the Big Hole Valley, Bitterroot Valley, Gallatin Valley, Flathead Valley, Paradise Valley have extensive agricultural resources and multiple opportunities for tourism and recreation. East and north of this transition zone are the expansive and sparsely populated Northern Plains, with tableland prairies, smaller island mountain ranges, badlands.
The isolated island ranges east of the Divide include the Bear Paw Mountains, Bull Mountains, Castle Mountains, Crazy Mountains, Highwood Mountains, Judi
War Horse National Wildlife Refuge
War Horse National Wildlife Refuge, located in the center of the U. S. state of Montana, is divided into three separate sections, with each centered on a small body of water. It is an integral part of the Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge Complex, although the refuge is unstaffed and has few visitor improvements. One reservoir is stocked with rainbow trout; when the lakes and reservoir are filled, the refuge provides excellent habitat for migratory bird species. The region is surrounded by sagebrush plains and Ponderosa pine groves that flourish in the region due to its acid-shale soils. Along with over 100 bird species, regular inhabitants include Sage Grouse and mule deer. War Horse National Wildlife Refuge
The Kutenai known as the Ktunaxa, Ksanka and Kootenai, are an indigenous people of Canada and the United States. Kutenai bands live in southeastern British Columbia, northern Idaho, western Montana; the Kutenai language is a language isolate, unrelated to the languages of neighboring peoples. Four bands form the Ktunaxa Nation in British Columbia; the Ktunaxa Nation were closely associated with the Shuswap Indian Band through tribal association and intermarriage. Two federally recognized tribes represent Kutenai people in the U. S.: the Kootenai Tribe of Idaho and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes in Montana, a confederation including Bitterroot Salish and Pend d'Oreilles bands. Around 40 variants of the name Kutenai have been attested since 1820. Kootenay is the common spelling in British Columbia, including in the name of the Lower Kootenay First Nation. Kootenai is used in Montana and Idaho, including in the Kootenai Tribe of Idaho and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes; these two spellings have been used for various placenames on their respective sides of the Canadian-U.
S. Border. Kutenai is the common form in the literature about the people, has been adopted by Kutenai in both countries as an international spelling when discussing the people as a whole; the name evidently derives from the Blackfoot word for the people, Kotonáwa, which itself may derive from the Kutenai term Ktunaxa. There are two words in their language: Ktunaxa and Ksanka. Ktunaxa is the primary form for the British Columbia groups. Two etymologies have been suggested, tying the name to a verb for "to go out into the open", or to a verb for "to eat lean meat". Ksanka is the word used by the Montana people. Four Kutenai bands live in southeastern British Columbia, one lives in northern Idaho, one lives in northwestern Montana: Canada - British Columbia The Ktunaxa Nation Council includes the four Canadian bands: Akisqnuk First Nation. An Upper Kutenai group, they are headquartered in Akisqnuk, south of Windermere. Reserves include: Columbia Lake #3, St. Mary's #1A, ca. 33 km2, population: 264) Lower Kootenay Band.
A Lower Kutenai group, they are headquartered in Creston, on the most populous reserve Creston #1 along the Kootenay River, ca. 6 km north of the US-Canada border. Reserves include: Creston #1, Lower Kootenay #1A, #1B, #1C, #2, #3, #5, #4, St. Mary's #1A, ca. 26 km2, population: 214) St. Mary's First Nation. An Upper Kutenai group, they live along the St. Mary's River near Cranbrook. Tribal headquarters are located on the most populous reserve, Kootenay #1, they are a Secwepemc band. They were incorporated into the group and intermarried with them, spoke the Kutenai language, they are now part of the Shuswap Nation Tribal Council. They are located near Invermere, just northeast of Windermere Lake. United States - Idaho Kootenai Tribe of Idaho. A Lower Kutenai group, they govern the Kootenai Indian Reservation in Boundary County, their population is 75. United States - Montana Kootenai are members of the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes, along with Bitterroot Salish and Pend d'Oreilles bands.
An Upper Kutenai group, they live on the Flathead Reservation in western Montana. A total population of about 6,800 live on the reservation, while 3,700 live outside the reservation nearby; the Kutenai today live in southeastern British Columbia and Montana. They are loosely divided into two groups: the Upper Kutenai and the Lower Kutenai, referring to the different sections of the Kootenay River where the bands live; the Upper Kutenai are the Akisqnuk First Nation, the St. Mary's Band, the Tobacco Plains Indian Band in British Columbia, as well as the Montana Kootenai; the Lower Kutenai are the Lower Kootenay First Nation of British Columbia and the Kootenai Tribe of Idaho. Scholars have numerous ideas about the origins of the Ktunaxa. One theory is that they lived on the prairies, were driven across the Rockies by the competing Blackfoot people or by famine and disease; some Upper Kootenay participated in a Plains Native lifestyle for part of the year, crossing the Rockies to the east for the bison hunt.
They were well known to the Blackfoot, sometimes their relations with them were in the form of violent confrontation over food competition. Some Ktunaxa returned to the prairies year round; this group of Ktunaxa suffered high mortality rates because of the depredations of the Blackfoot, because of smallp