click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Council of Friends (Woolley)

The Council of Friends was one of the original expressions of Mormon fundamentalism, having its origins in the teachings of Lorin C. Woolley, a courier and bodyguard for polygamous leaders of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, excommunicated in 1924; the LDS Church practiced plural marriage from 1852 and went through a series of legal battles with the U. S. government, ended the practice in 1890. Sometime before 1920, Woolley taught that LDS Church President John Taylor had set apart five men, including himself and his father John W. Woolley, to ensure that the practice of polygamy would continue into perpetuity if abandoned by the church. Taylor's alleged action came shortly after the 1886 Revelation on the subject of polygamy. Between 1929 and 1933, Woolley extended the same supposed apostolic authority that Taylor granted to him, to a seven-man Council of Friends. Following the death of Woolley in September 1934, of his Second Elder J. Leslie Broadbent six months the leadership of the Group fell to John Y.

Barlow. In May 1935, Barlow and his fellow Friends sent a handful of followers to the small ranching town of Short Creek in the Arizona Strip, with the express purpose of building "a branch of the Kingdom of God." Barlow believed that the isolated Creek could provide a place of refuge for those engaging in the covert practice of polygamy, a felony. After the failure of an attempted communal United Trust in 1935, the Group Apostle Rulon Jeffs, an accountant, worked to develop the United Effort Plan, intended to prepare the way for the collectivist United Order described by Mormon founder Joseph Smith; the UEP was incorporated on November 9, 1942. By 1944, the illicit activities of the Group, now boasting about 2,500 members, had come to the attention of LDS Church President Heber J. Grant, who agreed to cooperate with state and federal authorities in a multi-state raid intended to wipe out polygamy. In the 1944 raid, forty-six Community adults were accused of "unlawful cohabitation" and similar crimes, of whom fifteen received state prison sentences and nine federal prison sentences, with two, Charles Zitting and David Darger, receiving both.

The group was notorious for the practice of polygamy due to media coverage during the Short Creek raids of 1945 and 1953. The Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints developed in the same geographical region and changed the name of the town to Colorado City and Hildale to eliminate any ties to the Short Creek raids. Additions were made to Woolley's Council of Friends as time went on and former members died or left the movement. Leroy S. Johnson and Rulon Jeffs, future leaders of the FLDS Church, were ordained by John Y. Barlow in the 1940s, while Joseph Musser's ordination of Rulon C. Allred in 1952 caused a division in the community and led to the creation of the Apostolic United Brethren. Today, the AUB continues to be led by a Priesthood Council, while the FLDS Church transitioned to autocratic "One Man Rule" by a single prophet in the 1980s. Other fundamentalist groups led by a Priesthood Council include the Centennial Park group, the Latter Day Church of Christ, the Righteous Branch of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.

The authority of the Council of Friends pertained to the Priesthood and not to the church, early Mormon fundamentalists, most of whom had been excommunicated from the LDS Church, felt that its existence gave them the right to continue solemnizing plural marriages after LDS Church President Wilford Woodruff's 1890 Manifesto discountenancing the practice. Indeed, Woolley claimed to have been ordained to the Council for that purpose by President John Taylor in 1886, along with his father John W. Woolley and four others. In order to ensure that "no year passed by without children being born in the principle of plural marriage." Woolley, who had ostensibly become the last member of the Council after his father's death in December 1928, ordained six more men to the same calling between 1929 and 1933: J. Leslie Broadbent, John Y. Barlow, Joseph White Musser, Charles Zitting, LeGrande Woolley, Louis A. Kelsch; the following are the leaders of the Council of Friends prior to the 1954 split: John W. Woolley Lorin C.

Woolley J. Leslie Broadbent John Y. Barlow Joseph W. Musser Charles Zitting

Frank Jay Markey Syndicate

The Frank Jay Markey Syndicate was a small print syndication service that distributed comic strips and columns from the mid-1930s to c. 1950. Although small in size, the syndicate distributed strips by a number of notable cartoonists, including Ed Wheelan, Rube Goldberg, Boody Rogers, Frank Borth; the syndicate provided material for the burgeoning comic book industry, for companies like Quality Comics and Columbia Comics. Founder Frank Jay Markey was an executive with the McNaught Syndicate, his first strip was Rube Goldberg's Lala Palooza, followed by Bill Ed Wheelan's Big Top. In 1937, the Markey syndicate partnered with two other syndicates, the McNaught Syndicate and the Register and Tribune Syndicate, as well as with entrepreneur Everett M. "Busy" Arnold, to provide material for Arnold's Feature Funnies. In 1939, Cowles Media Company and Arnold bought out the Markey interests. In 1940, Markey and the McNaught Syndicate made a similar partnership with artist/editor Vin Sullivan to form Columbia Comics.

The Markey syndicate made a bit of a splash in 1947 with Frank Borth's sea adventure daily strip Ken Stuart in 1947, but the strip was out of syndication a few years and with it went the syndicate. Big Top by Bill Walsh and Ed Wheelan Bouford by Frank Borth Honey Dear by Johnny Devlin Ken Stuart by Frank Borth Lala Palooza by Rube Goldberg Sparky Watts by Boody Rogers

Elisha Cuthbert

Elisha Ann Cuthbert Phaneuf is a Canadian actress and model. She played Kim Bauer in the series 24, Darcie Goldberg in the 2003 college comedy Old School, Danielle in the 2004 teen comedy film The Girl Next Door, Carly Jones in the 2005 remake of House of Wax; as of June 2019, she plays Abby Phillips in the Netflix Original Series The Ranch. In 2013, Maxim magazine named her "TV's most beautiful woman". At the age of 14, Cuthbert made her feature film debut in the 1997 family-drama Dancing on the Moon, her first major lead role came in the 1998 drama film Airspeed alongside Joe Mantegna. In 2001, she starred in the movie Lucky Girl, in which she received her first award, the Gemini Awards, but her career began in earnest in the 2000s when she played Kim Bauer, daughter of Jack Bauer in the action series 24. Subsequently, Cuthbert appeared in the lead role in the films Captivity. From 2011 to 2013, Cuthbert starred as Alex Kerkovich in the three seasons of the ABC comedy Happy Endings. Beginning in 2016, Cuthbert had a recurring role on the Netflix series The Ranch, before becoming a main cast member in the series' second season.

Elisha Ann Cuthbert was born November 30, 1982, in Calgary, Canada, the daughter of Patricia, a housewife, Kevin, an automotive design engineer. She grew up in Quebec, she lived in Toronto, before moving on to acting. In 2000, she graduated from Centennial Regional High School and moved to Los Angeles at the age of 17; when she was nine, Cuthbert started modelling children's clothing and became a foot model. She made her first televised appearance as an extra in the horror-themed series for children, Are You Afraid of the Dark?. Cuthbert co-hosted Popular Mechanics for Kids with Jay Baruchel, filmed in Montreal, her reporting captured the attention of Hillary Clinton. Cuthbert landed a role in a feature film in the family drama Dancing on the Moon, she appeared in an airplane thriller, Airspeed. In 2000, Cuthbert co-starred in a Canadian film with Ricky Mabe; the following year, she starred in the Canadian television movie, Lucky Girl, was awarded a Gemini Award for her performance. Soon after her move to Hollywood, she was cast as Kim Bauer, daughter of federal agent Jack Bauer, in the television series 24.

She appeared in the show's first three seasons, but not in its fourth. She reprised her role as Kim Bauer in 24: The Game and again guest-starred in five episodes of the seventh season and in two episodes of the eighth season, she began her Hollywood film career with small roles in Old School. Her next film, Love Actually, earned $246.4 million worldwide. Her first break in a major film role was in The Girl Next Door, she played an ex–porn star, opposite Emile Hirsch. She was persuaded by director Luke Greenfield, she researched the role, speaking to adult actresses from Vivid Entertainment. The film was compared to Risky Business, although Cuthbert said her character was not directly based on Rebecca De Mornay's. Critics were divided. Ebert wrote that he saw Cuthbert's character as "quite the most unpleasant character I have seen in some time."The View London said: "Cuthbert is good, too – aside from being drop dead gorgeous, she proves herself a capable comic actress in the Cameron Diaz mould".

Cuthbert won two nominations for the MTV Movie Awards for Best Kiss and Best Breakthrough Performance. In her next film, Cuthbert starred with Paris Hilton and Chad Michael Murray in the 2005 remake of the horror film House of Wax. In one scene, her character attempted to open her mouth. For realism, she used Superglue over prosthetics. House of Wax was panned, critics citing a range of flaws, it was called "notable for having some of the most moronic protagonists to populate a horror film," though of those characters, critics tended to think Cuthbert "fares the best." Though it received negative reviews the film was a box office success, which grossed $70 million worldwide. The Houston Chronicle cited Cuthbert as an exception. Mick LaSalle of the San Francisco Chronicle said of the film, "Elisha Cuthbert's matter-of-fact, likable quality helps. Seeing her turn into wax would be as bad as seeing that happen to Glenda Farrell." The Movie said: "The performances are always professional and understated in their believable cogency Cuthbert, a talented, beautiful young actress who has proven time and again just what a multilayered and promising future she has ahead of her.

Cuthbert digs into the role of Carly with strength and horrified realism. Sergio Leone of Filmjerk.com said: " Hilton... only plays her known personality in the film. She's overshadowed by the strong work from the rest of the cast, notably Chad Michael Murray and Elisha Cuthbert, who gives the film a strong dose of enthusiasm with her Jamie Lee Curtis esque performance." Cuthbert was nominated at Teen Choice Awards in two categories Choice Movie: Actress – Action / Adventure / Thriller and Choice Movie: Rumble. Cuthbert's next film was the indie film The Quiet, she was co-producer. She played a temperamental 17-year-old cheerleader who suffers sexual abuse by her father. Cuthbert looked

California's 29th congressional district

California's 29th congressional district is a congressional district in the U. S. state of California based in the north central San Fernando Valley, it includes the city of San Fernando as well as the Los Angeles communities of Van Nuys, Arleta, Panorama City and parts of Sun Valley and North Hollywood. The district is represented by Democrat Tony Cárdenas. District created January 3, 1953 From 2003 through 2013, the district consisted of parts of northern Los Angeles, including Burbank and Pasadena. Due to redistricting after the 2010 United States Census, the district shifted north west within Los Angeles County and includes the northern San Fernando Valley. List of United States congressional districts GovTrack.us: California's 29th congressional district RAND California Election Returns: District Definitions California Voter Foundation map - CD29

Thermodynamic solar panel

A thermodynamic solar panel is a type of air source heat pump. Instead of a large fan to take energy from the air, it has a flat plate collector; this means the system gains energy from the sun as well as the ambient air. Thermodynamic water heaters use a compressor to transfer the collected heat from the panel to the hot water system using refrigerant fluid that circulates in a closed cycle. In the UK, thermodynamic solar panels cannot be used to claim the Renewable Heat Incentive; this is due to the lack of technical standards for the installation. The UK Microgeneration Certification Scheme is working to develop a testing standard, either based on MIS 3001 or MIS 3005 or a brand new scheme document if appropriate. Lab testing has been carried out by Das Wärmepumpen-Testzentrum Buchs in Buchs Switzerland on an Energi Eco 200esm/i thermodynamic solar panel system; this showed a Coefficient of performance of 2.8 or 2.9. In the UK, the first independent test is under-way at Narec Distributed Energy.

So far data is available for January to April 2014. As with the Carnot cycle, the achievable efficiency is dependent on the temperatures on both side of the system. Narec Distributed Energy thermodynamic solar panel test data

Kanak people

Kanak are the indigenous Melanesian inhabitants of New Caledonia, an overseas collectivity of France in the southwest Pacific. According to the 2014 census, they make up 39.1% of the total population with around 104,000 people. Though Melanesian settlement is recorded on Grande Terre's Presqu'île de Foué as far back as the Lapita culture, the origin of Kanak people is unclear. Ethnographic research has shown that Polynesian seafarers have intermarried with the Kanaks over the centuries; the Kanaks refer to the European inhabitants of New Caledonia as Caldoches. New Caledonia was annexed to France in 1853, became an overseas territory of France in 1956. An independence movement led to a failed revolt in 1967, was restarted in 1984, pursuing total independence status from the French rule; when the 1988 Matignon agreements were signed between the representatives of France and New Caledonia to decide on holding the referendum for independence, Jean-Marie Tjibaou, the Kanak leader of the independence movement, had mooted a proposal to set up an Agency for the Development of Kanak Culture.

After Tjibaou's assassination in 1989, the French President François Mitterrand ordered that a cultural centre on the lines suggested by Tjibaou be set up in Nouméa, the capital of New Caledonia. The Jean-Marie Tjibaou Cultural Centre was formally established in May 1998. Although ancient Lapita potteries date back to 1500 BC, the people of the island have long been involved in the arts, since the establishment of the ADCK, Kanak arts and crafts have become more popular in New Caledonia. Wooden carvings in the shape of hawks, ancient gods and turtles are popular as is flèche faîtière, a carving which resembles a small totem pole with symbolic shapes. Music and singing are part of many a Kanak ceremonial function and dances are performed during the traditional Kanak gatherings with the objective of cementing relationships within the clan and with ancestors; the word'Kanak' is derived from kanaka maoli, a Hawaiian phrase meaning'ordinary person', at one time applied indiscriminately by European explorers and missionaries in Oceania to any non-European Pacific islander.

Prior to European contact, there were no unified states in New Caledonia, no single self-appellation used to refer to its inhabitants. Other words have been coined from Kanak in the past few generations: Kanaky is an ethno-political name for the island or the entire territory. Kanéka is a musical genre associated with the Kanak, stylistically a form of reggae with added flutes and harmonies. Kaneka has political lyrics and is sung in Drehu, Paici or other Melanesian languages, or in French; the word "kanak" is grammatically invariable. The German racial epithet Kanake —, now applied to all non-whites southern Europeans in some cases, to Turkish immigrants — derives from the same source, was applied to people from German colonial possessions in Oceania. Melanesian settlement on Grande Terre dates back at least as far as the Lapita culture. However, the origin of Kanak people is unclear. Obsidian transported from New Guinea was found with the earliest New Caledonian Lapita pottery. In addition, some researchers have claimed there is evidence of New Caledonian human habitation dating from 3000 BC, while others claim to have found pre-Lapita pottery.

At the Fourth Lapita Conference, held in June 2000, in Canberra, the question was posed: "Is Lapita Kanak, or is Lapita the oldest and first ancestor of a culture, labelled Kanak?" Still another problem in determining the origin and early history of Kanak people is that the archaeological interpretation is in conflict with the views of Kanak people which have become politicized subsequent to colonial rule. The earliest history of Europeans arriving on these islands is when Captain Cook of the United Kingdom landed in these islands in 1775 at a time when there were 70,000 Kanaks living in the archipelago. Cook gave the name "New Caledonia" to these islands, after Caledonia, his Scottish highlands. Fifty years the Protestants of London Missionary Society came to New Caledonia, followed by entry of the French Catholics to the island, in 1843; this resulted in a conflict between the two religious factions and the French Catholics' control of the islands prevailed. The island nation was thereafter annexed by France, in 1853.

During the colonial period, in the 19th century, Kanaks were recruited or enslaved, to perform unfree labour in places such as Australia, Canada and Fiji. During the 3,000 years that Kanaks lived in the remote islands, they were unprepared for the arrival of European viruses and bacteria; the Kanaks were uprooted from the land and were employed as forced labour on French plantations and public works. When Kanaks were forced to move to reserve areas of the island, closer to the mountains, they occupied only 10 per cent of the area of their ancestral territories given that their population had declined so due to disease, their living conditions became hard; this situation arose consequent to induction of 20,000 convicts by the French government between 1864 and 1897, most of whom settled permanently in the country, who were employed to extract nickel and copper from 1875 onwards. This caused serious resentment among the Kanaks who revolted in 1878 against the French colonial rule, suppressed by the French who were better armed.

The Kanak leader was decapitated, his head was put on display in the Mu