Ribeira Palace was the main residence of the Kings of Portugal, in Lisbon, for around 250 years. Its construction was ordered by King Manuel I of Portugal when he found the Royal Alcáçova of São Jorge unsuitable; the palace complex underwent numerous reconstructions and reconfigurations from the original Manueline design, ending with its final Mannerist and Baroque form. The Ribeira Palace, as well as most of the city of Lisbon, was destroyed in the 1755 Lisbon earthquake. After the earthquake, the reigning monarch, King José I, suffered from claustrophobia and chose to live the rest of his life in a group of pavilions in the hills of Ajuda, thus the palace was never rebuilt. Today, Lisbon's primary square, is situated on the site of the former palace; the square is still popularly referred to as the Terreiro do Paço, reminiscent of the now destroyed royal residence. After the Siege of Lisbon, in 1147, the monarchs of Portugal had used the Palace of Alcáçova, in the São Jorge Castle, as their residence while in Lisbon, which did not become Portugal's definite capital until 1225.
Over the years, various Portuguese monarchs added to the Palace of Alcáçova, by the time King Manuel I of Portugal succeeded the throne, the Palace of Alcáçova was a large, but cramped, not fitting with the tastes of King Manuel I. With his lucrative profits from Portugal's monopoly on the spice trade, King Manuel I set off on a building spree, renovating the Lisbon landscape, starting with the construction of a new royal palace; the groundbreaking of the palace was in 1498. The new palace was not to be located on a high and protected fortress hill, like the Palace of Alcáçova was, but instead was built on the river shore of the Tagus river, giving it the name of Ribeira Palace, or Palace of the Riverside; the new royal palace was located in the heart of renaissance Lisbon, which had become one of the most important cities and ports in all Europe, on account of its importance in the spice trade and Age of Discoveries. Ribeira palace was situated next to the Ribeira das Naus shipyard and near all the major Lisbon trading houses.
In 1502, the palace had been built large enough so that the Portuguese Royal Court could begin moving into the palace. In 1508, King Manuel I started expansion works on the palace, which ended in 1510, appointed Diogo de Arruda as head architect of the project; the King was an absolutist in all manners, sought to concentrate all his powers in Ribeira Palace, by holding the Portuguese Cortes and installing the Casa da Índia, the imperial administration, in the palace's walls. The palace of King Manuel I, his successors until King Henry I of Portugal, was a true palace of the Portuguese Renaissance. Done in the Manueline style, among others, the palace included various wings, balconies and courtyards; the main loggia of the palace, facing the Terreiro do Paço, followed the style employed by King Manuel I at many of his palaces, most notably at the Royal Palace of Évora. The hallmark of the palace, not just in the Manueline era but in all its history, was its Tower of the King, in the southern wing.
During the Manueline era, the Casa da Índia was installed in the tower, which hoisted a large sculpture of the Royal Coat of Arms of Portugal on the exterior of the tower, facing the river. Starting in 1525, King John III sponsored a set of enlargements and renovations to the palace, most notably, altered the Tower of the King, expanding it and opening a large balcony, faced towards the Tagus, it was during the Manueline era, when the House of Aviz ruled Portugal, that the Portuguese Renaissance flourished, Ribeira Palace was one of its centers. It was a beacon for artists, scientists and noblemen from all over Portugal and Europe alike, it was at Ribeira Palace, in 1515, that Gil Vicente, the father of Portuguese and Spanish theatre, first performed his play Quem Tem Farelos? for King Manuel I. The palace was where other great Portuguese and European artists and scholars presented themselves, including Luís de Camões, Portuguese playwright, Cristóvão de Morais, Portuguese painter, Pedro Nunes, Portuguese mathematician and royal tutor.
When the House of Habsburg seized the throne, in 1580, the newly acclaimed King Philip I of Portugal started a large series of constructions and renovations throughout Portugal, seeking to rehabilitate the kingdom after the War of the Portuguese Succession. During his three-year stay in Lisbon, from 1580 to 1583, King Philip I, who ruled as King of Castile and Naples, considered turning Lisbon into the imperial capital of his trans-European monarchy and empire. To better suit Lisbon for King Philip I's extravagant court, the King ordered the remodeling and expansion of Ribeira Palace, under the authority of Filipe Terço, the Master of the Royal Works. King Philip I decided to modernize the palace, stripping it of its early renaissance, Manueline style and planning and converting Ribeira Palace into a monumental, organized Mannerist complex; the highlight of the Philippine renovations was the reconstruction and enlargement of the Tower of the King, which transformed a three-story Manueline tower, which housed the Casa da Índia, into a five-story Mannerist tower, complete with an observatory and one of the largest royal libraries in all of Europe.
When King Philip I left Lisbon, in 1583, Ribeira Palace became the official seat of the Council of Portugal and the residence of the Viceroys of Portugal. King Philip I's successors, King Philip II, King Philip III, did not continue his legacy of stressing the importance of Lisbon, instead visited their Portuguese capital only on rare ceremonial occasions. However, each time King Philip II and
Kingdom of the Algarve
The Kingdom of the Algarve, after 1471 Kingdom of the Algarves, was a nominal kingdom within the Kingdom of Portugal, located in the southernmost region of continental Portugal. It was the second dominion of the Portuguese Crown and a kingdom apart from Portugal, though in fact the Algarvian kingdom had no institutions, special privileges, or autonomy. In actuality, it was just an honorific title for the Algarve based on its history and was similar to the rest of the Portuguese provinces; the title King of Silves was first used by Sancho I of Portugal after the first conquest of the city Silves in 1189. As this conquest did not take all of the Algarve, Sancho never used the title King of Portugal and the Algarve, but instead it was adopted by his grandson Afonso III of Portugal as a part of the titles and honours of the Portuguese Crown. During the Reconquista and Castilian conquests went south, to retake lands, conquered by Muslim armies in the 8th century. Portugal conquered and secured much of its southern borders during the reigns of King Sancho II of Portugal and King Afonso III of Portugal.
In 1189, King Sancho I of Portugal conquered Silves, one of the most prosperous cities in Al-Andalus, aligned at the time with the Almohad Caliphate. Portuguese control over Silves would be short, with the Almohads conquering the city again in 1191 in a massive counter-attack led by Abu Yusuf Yaqub al-Mansur the Almohad Caliph in person. With the decline of the Almohads, the southern taifa city-states united under a single Emir, Mûsâ Ibn Muhammad Ibn Nassir Ibn Mahfûz, former governor of Niebla, known among the Christians as Aben Mafom. Aben Mafom, King of Niebla and Emir of the Algarve, trying to counter the achievements made by the Portuguese in their territories, declared himself a vassal to Alfonso X of Castile. Through his vassals, Alfonso X hoped to claim dominion over the Algarve not yet conquered by the Portuguese; the Emir's vow of vassalage to Castille however did not stop the knights of the Order of Santiago, under the command of the Grand-Master Paio Peres Correia, from conquering most of the region city by city, between 1242 and 1249, including Silves.
In March 1249, King Afonso III of Portugal captured Faro, the last Muslim stronghold in Algarve, ending the Portuguese Reconquista. The entitlement of Afonso III of Portugal as King of Portugal and the Algarve would serve as a reaction to Alfonso X of Castile's claim to the Algarve and was designed to demonstrate the rights of the Portuguese monarch on the region concerned; the issue between the sovereigns of Castille and Portugal was settled by the Treaty of Badajoz, where King Alfonso X gave up his claims of the Algarve, making his grandson Dinis the heir to the throne of the Algarve, which dictated the terms of its incorporation into the Portuguese crown. The treaty, allowed the use of the title of King of the Algarve for King Alfonso X and his descendants, since King Alfonso X had acquired the territories of Al-Gharb Al-Andalus on the other side of the Guadiana river; the kings of Castile, Spain, would add the title to their repertoire of titles until the ascent of Queen Isabel II of Spain to the throne.
During the Age of Discovery, the Algarve served as the location for the embarkment for many voyages those funded by the Infante D. Henrique. Prince Henry set up his famous school of navigation at Sagres Point, though the idea of a real school building and campus is disputed. Most of the voyages set sail from Lagos; the name of the Algarvian Kingdom suffered some minor changes due to the Portuguese North African conquests, which were considered an extension of the kingdom of Algarve. John I of Portugal added to the title of "King of Portugal and the Algarve", the title "Lord of Ceuta", his grandson Afonso V of Portugal, in turn, styled himself "Lord of Ceuta and Alcacer-Ceguer in Africa"; the 1471 conquest of Asilah and Larache, together with North African previous holdings, led to the creation of the title "the Algarves from either side of the sea in Africa", leaving the European Algarve to become "the Algarve behind the sea." Thus, it was not until 1471 that "the Kingdom of the Algarve" led to "the Kingdom of the Algarves", due to the increase of Portuguese possessions in Northern Africa, which were made as possessions of the Kingdom of the Algarve.
The Portuguese monarchs therefore adopted the title that they would use until the fall of the monarchy in 1910: "Kings of Portugal and the Algarves of either side of the sea in Africa". The title would continue to be used after the abandonment of the last North African holding in Mazagan. During the 19th century, a serious clash between liberals and Miguelites, caused an exodus of people from the Algarvian inlands to the coastal cities. José Joaquim Sousa Reis, the Remexido, fought in the inlands and attacked the coastal cities, bringing the urban population into turmoil; the turmoil of the Algarve intensified in the years between 1834 and 1838, when the Algarve saw battles on a level it had never seen before. On November 26, 1836, Miguel I of Portugal named Remexido Governor of the Kingdom of the Algarve and Acting Commander in Chief of all the Royalist Troops and Irregular Armies, the Operations in the South. Remexido, was shot in Faro on August 2, 1838. Kingdom of Portugal United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves Algarve
Battle of Aljubarrota
The Battle of Aljubarrota was a battle fought between the Kingdom of Portugal and the Crown of Castile on 14 August 1385. Forces commanded by King John I of Portugal and his general Nuno Álvares Pereira, with the support of English allies, opposed the army of King John I of Castile with its Aragonese and French allies at São Jorge, between the towns of Leiria and Alcobaça, in central Portugal; the result was a decisive victory for the Portuguese, ruling out Castilian ambitions to the Portuguese throne, ending the 1383–85 Crisis and assuring John as King of Portugal. Portuguese independence was confirmed and a new dynasty, the House of Aviz, was established. Scattered border confrontations with Castilian troops would persist until the death of John I of Castile in 1390, but these posed no real threat to the new dynasty. To celebrate his victory and acknowledge divine help, John I of Portugal ordered the construction of the monastery of Santa Maria da Vitória na Batalha and the founding of the town of Batalha, close to the site where the battle was fought.
The king, his wife Philippa of Lancaster, several of his sons are buried in this monastery, now a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The end of the 14th century in Europe was a time of revolution and crisis, with the Hundred Years' War between the English and the French for Western France, the Black Death devastating the continent, famine afflicting the poor. Portugal was no exception. In October 1383, King Ferdinand I of Portugal died with no son to inherit the crown; the only child of his marriage with Leonor Telles de Meneses was a girl, Princess Beatrice of Portugal. In April of that same year the King had signed the Treaty of Salvaterra de Magos with King Juan I of Castile; the treaty determined that Princess Beatrice was to marry Juan I, king of Castile, the Crown of Portugal would belong to the descendants of this union. This situation left the majority of the Portuguese discontent, the Portuguese nobility was unwilling to support the claim of the princess because that could mean the incorporation of Portugal into Castile.
The powerful merchants of the capital, were enraged at being excluded from the negotiations. Without an undisputed option, Portugal remained without a king from 1383–85, in an interregnum known as the 1383–85 Crisis; the first clear act of hostility was carried out in December 1383 by the faction of John, the Grand Master of the Aviz Order, with the murder of Count Andeiro. This prompted the Lisbon merchants to name him "rector and defender of the realm". However, the Castilian king would not relinquish his wife's claims to the throne. In an effort to normalize the situation and secure the crown for himself or Beatrice, he forced Leonor to abdicate from the regency. In April 1384, in Alentejo, a punitive expedition was promptly defeated by Nuno Álvares Pereira, leading a much smaller Portuguese army at the Battle of Atoleiros; this was an example of the use of the defensive tactic of forming an infantry square to repel cavalry without any casualties to the Portuguese. A larger second expedition led by the Castilian king himself reached and besieged Lisbon for four months in the summer of 1384, before being forced to retreat by a shortage of food supplies due to harassment from Nuno Álvares Pereira, the bubonic plague.
In order to secure his claim, John of Aviz engaged in politics and intense diplomatic negotiations with both the Holy See and England. In October 1384, Richard II wrote to John, regent of Portugal, reporting on negotiations, conducted in England, with John's envoys - Dom Fernando, master of the order of Santiago, Laurence Fogaça, chancellor of Portugal saying that an agreement had been reached under which a small English contingent was to be sent to Portugal, to help defend the kingdom against its Castilian neighbor. On 6 April 1385, the Council of the kingdom assembled in Coimbra and declared him King John I of Portugal. After his accession to the throne, John I of Portugal proceeded to annex the cities whose military commanders supported Princess Beatrice and her husband's claims, namely Caminha and Guimarães among others. Enraged by this "rebellion", Juan I ordered a host of 31,000 men to engage in a two-pronged invasion in May; the smaller Northern force sacked and burnt towns along the border, a common practice at the time and similar to what the English were doing in Scotland, before being defeated by local Portuguese nobles in the battle of Trancoso, in the first week of June.
On the news of the invasion by the Castilians, John I of Portugal's army met with Nuno Álvares Pereira, the Constable of Portugal, in the town of Tomar. There they decided to face the Castilians before they could get close to Lisbon and lay siege to it again. English allies arrived at Easter of 1385, consisting of a company of about 100 English longbowmen, veterans from the Hundred Years' War, sent to honor the Anglo-Portuguese Treaty of 1373; the Portuguese set out to intercept the invading army near the town of Leiria. Nuno Álvares Pereira took on the task of choosing the ground for the battle. Russell notes that the two Portuguese leaders had shown themselves masters of the new developments in methods of warfare, i.e. the use of archers and dismounted men-at-arms. The chosen location was São Jorge near Aljubarrota suitable for the chosen military tactic, being a small flattened hill surrounded by creeks, with the small settlement of Chão da Feira (Fair's
Portuguese is a Western Romance language originating in the Iberian Peninsula. It is the sole official language of Portugal, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Angola, São Tomé and Príncipe, it has co-official language status in East Timor, Equatorial Guinea and Macau in China. As the result of expansion during colonial times, a cultural presence of Portuguese and Portuguese creole speakers are found in Goa and Diu in India. Reintegrationists maintain that Galician is not a dialect of Portuguese. A Portuguese-speaking person or nation is referred to as "Lusophone". Portuguese is part of the Ibero-Romance group that evolved from several dialects of Vulgar Latin in the medieval Kingdom of Galicia and the County of Portugal, has kept some Celtic phonology and lexicon. With 215 to 220 million native speakers and 250 million total speakers, Portuguese is listed as the sixth most natively spoken language in the world, the third-most spoken European language in the world in terms of native speakers, the most spoken language in the Southern Hemisphere.
It is the most spoken language in South America and the second-most spoken in Latin America after Spanish, one of the 10 most spoken languages in Africa and is an official language of the European Union, Mercosur, OAS, ECOWAS and the African Union. The Community of Portuguese Language Countries is an international organization made up of all of the world's Lusophone nations; when the Romans arrived at the Iberian Peninsula in 216 BC, they brought the Latin language with them, from which all Romance languages descend. The language was spread by Roman soldiers and merchants, who built Roman cities near the settlements of previous Celtic or Celtiberian civilizations established long before the Roman arrivals. For that reason, the language has kept a relevant substratum of much older, Atlantic European Megalithic Culture and Celtic culture. Between 409 AD and 711 AD, as the Roman Empire collapsed in Western Europe, the Iberian Peninsula was conquered by Germanic peoples of the Migration Period.
The occupiers Suebi and Buri who spoke Germanic languages adopted late Roman culture and the Vulgar Latin dialects of the peninsula and over the next 300 years integrated into the local populations. After the Moorish invasion beginning in 711, Arabic became the administrative and common language in the conquered regions, but most of the remaining Christian population continued to speak a form of Romance known as Mozarabic, which lasted three centuries longer in Spain. Like other Neo-Latin and European languages, Portuguese has adopted a significant number of loanwords from Greek for technical and scientific terminology; these borrowings occurred via Latin, during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Portuguese evolved from the medieval language, known today by linguists as Galician-Portuguese, Old Portuguese or Old Galician, of the northwestern medieval Kingdom of Galicia and County of Portugal, it is in Latin administrative documents of the 9th century that written Galician-Portuguese words and phrases are first recorded.
This phase is known as Proto-Portuguese, which lasted from the 9th century until the 12th-century independence of the County of Portugal from the Kingdom of León, which had by assumed reign over Galicia. In the first part of the Galician-Portuguese period, the language was used for documents and other written forms. For some time, it was the language of preference for lyric poetry in Christian Hispania, much as Occitan was the language of the poetry of the troubadours in France; the Occitan digraphs lh and nh, used in its classical orthography, were adopted by the orthography of Portuguese by Gerald of Braga, a monk from Moissac, who became bishop of Braga in Portugal in 1047, playing a major role in modernizing written Portuguese using classical Occitan norms.. Portugal became an independent kingdom under King Afonso I of Portugal. In 1290, King Denis of Portugal created the first Portuguese university in Lisbon and decreed for Portuguese simply called the "common language", to be known as the Portuguese language and used officially.
In the second period of Old Portuguese, in the 15th and 16th centuries, with the Portuguese discoveries, the language was taken to many regions of Africa and the Americas. By the mid-16th century, Portuguese had become a lingua franca in Asia and Africa, used not only for colonial administration and trade but for communication between local officials and Europeans of all nationalities, its spread was helped by mixed marriages between Portuguese and local people and by its association with Roman Catholic missionary efforts, which led to the formation of creole languages such as that called Kristang in many parts of Asia. The language continued to be popular in parts of Asia until the 19th century; some Portuguese-speaking Christian communities in India, Sri Lanka and Indonesia preserved their language after they were isolated from Portugal. The end of the Old Portuguese period was marked by the publication of the Cancioneiro Geral by Garcia de Resende, in 1516; the early times of Modern Portuguese, which spans the period from the 16th century to the present day, were characterized by an increase in the number of learned w
Council of the Indies
The Council of the Indies. The crown held absolute power over the Indies and the Council of the Indies was the administrative and advisory body for those overseas realms, it was established in 1524 by Charles V to administer "the Indies," Spain's name for its territories. Such an administrative entity, on the conciliar model of the Council of Castile, was created following the Spanish conquest of the Aztec empire in 1521, which demonstrated the importance of the Americas. An itinerary council that followed Charles V, it was subsequently established as an autonomous body with legislative and judicial functions by Philip II of Spain and placed in Madrid in 1561; the Council of the Indies was abolished in 1812 by the Cádiz Cortes restored in 1814 by Ferdinand VII of Spain, definitively abolished in 1834 by the regency, acting on behalf of the four-year-old Isabella II of Spain. Queen Isabella had granted extensive authority to Christopher Columbus, but withdrew that authority, established direct royal control, putting matters of the Indies in the hands of her chaplain, Juan Rodríguez de Fonseca in 1493.
The Catholic Monarchs designated Rodríguez de Fonseca to study the problems related to the colonization process arising from what was seen as tyrannical behavior of Governor Christopher Columbus and his misgovernment of Natives and Iberian settlers. Rodríguez de Fonseca became minister for the Indies and laid the foundations for the creation of a colonial bureaucracy, he presided over a committee or council, which contained a number of members of the Council of Castile, formed a Junta de Indias of about eight counselors. Emperor Charles V was using the term "Council of the Indies" in 1519; the Council of the Indies was formally created on August 1, 1524. The king was informed weekly, sometimes daily, of decisions reached by the Council, which came to exercise supreme authority over the Indies at the local level and over the Casa de Contratación founded in 1503 at Seville as a customs storehouse for the Indies. Civil suits of sufficient importance could be appealed from an audiencia in the New World to the Council, functioning as a court of last resort.
There were two secretaries of the Council, one in charge of Peru, Chile and the Kingdom of New Granada. The name of the Council did not change with the addition of the indias orientales of the Philippines and other Pacific territories claimed by Spain to the original indias occidentales. Internecine fighting and political instability in Peru and the untiring efforts of Bartolomé de las Casas on behalf of the natives' rights resulted in Charles's overhaul of the structure of the Council in 1542 with issuing of the "New Laws," which put limits on the rights of Spanish holders of encomiendas, grants of indigenous labor. Under Charles II the Council undertook the project to formally codify the large volume of Council and Crown's decisions and legislation for the Indies in the 1680 publication, the Laws of the Indies and re-codified in 1791; the Council of the Indies was headed by an ecclesiastic, but the councilors were non-clerics trained in law. In years and royal favorites were in the ranks of councilors, as well as men who had experience in the high courts of the Indies.
A key example of such an experienced councilor was Juan de Solórzano Pereira, author of Política Indiana, who served in Peru prior to being named to the Council of the Indies and led the project on the Laws of the Indies. Other noteworthy Presidents of the Council were es:Francisco Tello de Sandoval. Although the Council had responsibility for all aspects of the Indies, under Philip II the financial aspects of the empire were shifted to the Council on Finance in 1556-57, a source of conflict between the two councils since Spanish America came to be the source of the empire's wealth; when the Holy Office of the Inquisition was established as an institution in Mexico and Lima in the 1570s, the Council of the Indies was removed from control. The head of the Supreme Council of the Inquisition, es:Juan de Ovando y Godoy became president of the Council of the Indies 1571-75, he was appalled by the ignorance of the Indies by those serving on the Council. He sought the creation of a general description of the territories, never completed, but the Relaciones geográficas were the result of that project.
The height of the Council's power was in the sixteenth century. Its power declined and the quality of the councillors decreased. In the final years of the Hapsburg dynasty, some appointments were sold or were accorded to people unqualified, such as a nine-year-old boy, whose father had rendered services to the crown. With the ascension of the Bourbon dynasty at the start of the eighteenth century, a series of administrative changes, known as the Bourbon reforms, were introduced. In 1714 Philip V created a Secretariat of the Navy and the Indies with a single Minister of the Indies, which superseded the administrative functions of the Council, although the Council continued to function in a secondary role until the ninet
Monarchy of the North
The Monarchy of the North the Kingdom of Portugal, was a short-lived revolution and monarchist government that occurred in the North of Portugal, in early 1919. The movement known as the Kingdom of Traulitânia, based in Porto, lasted from 19 January to 13 February 1919; the movement was led by Henrique Mitchell de Paiva Couceiro, a prominent member of the Portuguese imperial government, without any sanction from the deposed King of Portugal, Manuel II. Paiva Couceiro, who had led and participated in many previous attempts at restoring the Portuguese monarchy, stated that the revolution was necessary because "if the North does not agree with the South, I will be, until the end, on the side of the faithful to tradition"; the revolution's inability to gain strong popular support throughout the country, coupled with its unorganized structure, led to its quick demise and the re-establishment of the Portuguese republican regime in the north. The North of Portugal has been the historical setting for revolutions and revolts against the position of the Portuguese government, from the Liberal Revolution of 1820, which went against the absolutist government, to the Republican Revolt of 1891, which went against the monarchist government.
However, the North has been the traditional seat of the Portuguese nobility. When the 5 October 1910 revolution deposed King Manuel II of Portugal, the Portuguese monarchy, which traced its roots back to 868, was substituted for the First Portuguese Republic. King Manuel II and the royal family, now banished from Portuguese soil, fled from Ericeira into exile, first to Gibraltar and to the United Kingdom, where the British monarch gave them refuge. After the revolution, King Manuel II and many others speculated the downfall of the newly installed republican regime, as it was installed without much popular support. Though King Manuel II was ready to reassume his rightful throne, he stressed the importance of being diplomatically and electorally restored, not militarily. On 3 October 1911, Paiva Couceiro commanded the first counter-republican revolt after the revolution, the first monarchist incursion into the northern city of Chaves; the monarchist forces raised the blue and white flag of the monarchy at the city hall and held Chaves for three days, until they retreated when republican forces marched towards the city.
Though the first monarchist incursion into Chaves had failed, Paiva Couceiro regrouped with his supporters across the border in Galicia to launch a second, more powerful attempt at capturing the city. Unlike the initial incursion, the preparations for the second movement were well supplied and supported, having received unofficial aid from Spain, which feared that the radical republican policies of the First Portuguese Republic would cross the border into Spain, where the monarchy stood on uneasy stilts. In total, about 450 men, both civilian and military, joined the monarchist revolt, more volunteers and supporters were expected to join the movement as it made its way through the countryside. By the time the monarchist forces reached Chaves, on 8 July 1912 700 men were planned to take the city for the monarchy, but the incursion lacked the large amounts of public support that Paiva Couceiro had expected, being cheered on by pacifist priests and noblemen who could not support the movement on a military basis.
By the time the monarchist forces made their way into the city proper, 150 local volunteers, with brief training, had organized themselves to protect the city in the name of the republican regime, while a company of 100 soldiers from the Portuguese Army marched towards the city. Though the monarchist forces had superior numbers, they lacked the supplies that the 100 regular soldiers brought and by the end of the attack, 30 monarchists were killed and the rest either fled into exile or were arrested. Though the royalist attack on Chaves was a failure for monarchist forces, it laid the ground for what would become the Monarchy of the North, in that it demonstrated that monarchists were prepared to use military force. On 15 January 1919, Prime Minister Tamagnini Barbosa took control of the Portuguese republican government and made João do Canto e Castro President of the Portuguese Republic, filling the position after the assassination of Sidónio Pais. Sidonists, supporters of the assassinated president, gathered under the command of General Almeida and formed the Provisional Military Junta outside of Lisbon, in opposition to President Canto e Castro.
In the North of Portugal, Sidonists formed the Governing Military Junta, which proclaimed to control of the North under provisional circumstances. Taking advantage of the turmoil caused by President Sidónio Pais' assassination and replacement, Paiva Couceiro made his way to North of Portugal, where he assessed that the setting was conducive to the restoration of the monarchy, to meet with the monarchist central command; the Integralismo Lusitano Central Junta met on 17 January 1919, where António Maria de Sousa Sardinha and Luís Carlos de Lima e Almeida Braga decided to proceed with Paiva Couceiro's plan of taking Porto, with the intention was to cut-off Porto from Lisbon and thereby foster unanimity for a restoration of the Portuguese monarchy. Although António Sardinha and Paiva Couceiro marched into Porto, without any resistance from local military or citizens, on the morning of the 18 January, it was not until the following day that a formal ceremony that included the hoisting of the blue and white royal flag proclaimed the Monarchy of the North.
Following the proclamation of the restoration of the monarchy, the blue and white flag was hoisted at government buildings throughout the North, from
Kingdom of Portugal
The Kingdom of Portugal was a monarchy on the Iberian Peninsula and the predecessor of modern Portugal. It was in existence from 1139 until 1910. After 1415, it was known as the Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves, between 1815 and 1822, it was known as the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves; the name is often applied to the Portuguese Empire, the realm's extensive overseas colonies. The nucleus of the Portuguese state was the County of Portugal, established in the 9th century as part of the Reconquista, by Vímara Peres, a vassal of the King of Asturias; the county became part of the Kingdom of León in 1097, the Counts of Portugal established themselves as rulers of an independent kingdom in the 12th century, following the battle of São Mamede. The kingdom was ruled by the Alfonsine Dynasty until the 1383–85 Crisis, after which the monarchy passed to the House of Aviz. During the 15th and 16th century, Portuguese exploration established a vast colonial empire. From 1580 to 1640, the Kingdom of Portugal was in personal union with Habsburg Spain.
After the Portuguese Restoration War of 1640–1668, the kingdom passed to the House of Braganza and thereafter to the House of Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. From this time, the influence of Portugal declined, but it remained a major power due to its most valuable colony, Brazil. After the independence of Brazil, Portugal sought to establish itself in Africa, but was forced to yield to the British interests, leading to the collapse of the monarchy in the 5 October 1910 revolution and the establishment of the First Portuguese Republic. Portugal was a decisive absolute monarchy before 1822, it rotated between absolute and constitutional monarchy from 1822 until 1834, was a decisive constitutional monarchy after 1834. The Kingdom of Portugal finds its origins in the County of Portugal; the Portuguese County was a semi-autonomous county of the Kingdom of León. Independence from León took place in three stages: The first on 26 July 1139 when Afonso Henriques was acclaimed King of the Portuguese internally.
The second was on 5 October 1143, when Alfonso VII of León and Castile recognized Afonso Henriques as king through the Treaty of Zamora. The third, in 1179, was the Papal Bull Manifestis Probatum, in which Portugal's independence was recognized by Pope Alexander III. Once Portugal was independent, D. Afonso I's descendants, members of the Portuguese House of Burgundy, would rule Portugal until 1383. After the change in royal houses, all the monarchs of Portugal were descended from Afonso I, one way or another, through both legitimate and illegitimate links. With the start of the 20th century, Republicanism grew in numbers and support in Lisbon among progressive politicians and the influential press; however a minority with regard to the rest of the country, this height of republicanism would benefit politically from the Lisbon Regicide on 1 February 1908. While returning from the Ducal Palace at Vila Viçosa, King Carlos I and the Prince Royal Luís Filipe were assassinated in the Terreiro do Paço, in Lisbon.
With the death of the King and his heir, Carlos I's second son would become monarch as King Manuel II. Manuel's reign, would be short-lived, ending by force with the 5 October 1910 revolution, sending Manuel into exile in Great Britain and giving way to the Portuguese First Republic. On 19 January 1919, the Monarchy of the North was proclaimed in Porto; the monarchy would be deposed a month and no other monarchist counterrevolution in Portugal has happened since. After the republican revolution in October 1910, the remaining colonies of the empire became overseas provinces of the Portuguese Republic until the late 20th century, when the last overseas territories of Portugal were handed over. Kingdom of Algarve United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves List of titles and honours of the Portuguese Crown Portuguese nobility