Foreign relations of Cuba
Cuba's foreign policy has been fluid throughout history depending on world events and other variables, including relations with the United States. Without massive Soviet subsidies and its primary trading partner, Cuba became isolated in the late 1980s and early 1990s after the fall of the USSR and the end of the Cold War, but Cuba opened up more with the rest of the world again starting in the late 1990s when they have since entered bilateral co-operation with several South American countries, most notably Venezuela and Bolivia beginning in the late 1990s after the Venezuela election of Hugo Chávez in 1999, who became a staunch ally of Castro's Cuba; the United States used to stick to a policy of isolating Cuba until December 2014, when Barack Obama announced a new policy of diplomatic and economic engagement. The European Union accuses Cuba of "continuing flagrant violation of human rights and fundamental freedoms". Cuba has developed a growing relationship with the People's Republic of Russia.
In all, Cuba continues to have formal relations with 160 nations, provided civilian assistance workers – principally medical – in more than 20 nations. More than one million exiles have escaped to foreign countries. Cuba's present foreign minister is Bruno Rodríguez Parrilla. Cuba is a lead country on the United Nations Human Rights Council, is a founding member of the organization known as the Bolivarian Alternative for the Americas, a member of the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States, the Latin American Integration Association and the United Nations. Cuba hosted its September 2006 summit. In addition as a member of the Association of Caribbean States, Cuba was re-appointed as the chair- of the special committee on transportation issues for the Caribbean region. Following a meeting in November 2004, several leaders of South America have attempted to make Cuba either a full or associate member of the South American trade bloc known as Mercosur. Prior to achieving its independence, Cuba was a colony of Spain.
Prior to the triumph of the Cuban Revolution, Cuba maintained strong economic and political ties to the United States. From 1902 until its abrogation in 1934, the Platt Amendment authorized the US to use military force to preserve Cuba's independence. In 1917, Cuba entered World War I on the side of the allies. Cuba joined the League of Nations in 1920. In 1941, Cuba declared war on Italy and Japan. Cuba joined the United Nations in 1945. Cuba joined the Organization of American States in 1948. During the Presidency of Fulgencio Batista, Cuba did not face trade restrictions. In mid-1958, the United States imposed an arms embargo on the Batista administration. Following the establishment of diplomatic ties to the Soviet Union, after the Cuban Missile Crisis, Cuba became dependent on Soviet markets and military and economic aid. Castro was able to build a formidable military force with the help of Soviet equipment and military advisors; the KGB kept in close touch with Havana, Castro tightened Communist Party control over all levels of government, the media, the educational system, while developing a Soviet-style internal police force.
Castro's alliance with the Soviet Union caused something of a split between Guevara. In 1966, Guevara left for Bolivia in an ill-fated attempt to stir up revolution against the country's government. On August 23, 1968, Castro made a public gesture to the USSR that caused the Soviet leadership to reaffirm their support for him. Two days after Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia to repress the Prague Spring, Castro took to the airwaves and publicly denounced the Czech rebellion. Castro warned the Cuban people about the Czechoslovakian'counterrevolutionaries', who "were moving Czechoslovakia towards capitalism and into the arms of imperialists", he called the leaders of the rebellion "the agents of West Germany and fascist reactionary rabble." In return for his public backing of the invasion, at a time when some Soviet allies were deeming the invasion an infringement of Czechoslovakia's sovereignty, the Soviets bailed out the Cuban economy with extra loans and an immediate increase in oil exports.
The relationship between the Soviet Union's KGB and the Cuban Intelligence Directorate was complex and marked by times of close cooperation and times of extreme competition. The Soviet Union saw the new revolutionary government in Cuba as an excellent proxy agent in areas of the world where Soviet involvement was not popular on a local level. Nikolai Leninov, the KGB Chief in Mexico City, was one of the first Soviet officials to recognize Fidel Castro's potential as a revolutionary and urged the Soviet Union to strengthen ties with the new Cuban leader. Moscow saw Cuba as having far more appeal with new revolutionary movements, western intellectuals, members of the New Left with Cuba's perceived David and Goliath struggle against US imperialism. Shortly after the Cuban missile crisis in 1963, Moscow invited 1,500 DI agents, including Che Guevara, to the KGB's Moscow Center for intensive training in intelligence operations. After the revolution of 1959, Cuba soon took actions inimical to American trade interests on the island.
In response, the U. S. refused to supply its former trading partner with much needed oil. Relations between the countries deteriorated rapidly. In April 1961, following air attacks preparing for the Bay of Pigs Invasion by CIA-trained Cuban exiles, prime minister Fidel Castro declared Cuba to be a socialist republic, moved to develop the growing relations between Cuba and the Soviet Union. In 1962, Cuba was expelled from the Organization of American States. Shortly afterwards, many nations throughout Latin America broke t
Vice President of Cuba
Vice Presidents of Cuba called from 1976 Vice President of the Council of State, is the second highest political position obtainable in Council of State of Cuba. There is a provision for several Vice Presidents, who are elected in the same manner as the President of Cuba. Vice President of Cuba was elected in the same ticket with the President; the position has been in use 1902–1928, 1936, 1940–1958, since 1976. Vice-Presidents elected by the National Assembly on 19 April 2018: First Vice-President: Salvador Valdés Mesa Vice-President: Ramiro Valdes Menendez Vice-President: Roberto Tomas Morales Ojeda Vice-President: Gladys Maria Bejerano Portela Vice-President: Ines Maria Chapman Vice-President: Beatriz Johnson President of Cuba List of current Vice Presidents
Esteban Lazo Hernández
Juan Esteban Lazo Hernández is a Cuban politician, the President of the National Assembly of People's Power, Cuba's parliament, since 2013. He was Vice-President of the Cuban Council of State, he is a member of the Politburo of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Cuba since 1980 and National Assembly of People's Power member since 1981. On February 25, 2013, Lazo was named as the President of the National Assembly of People's Power. Biography by CIDOB
Municipalities of Cuba
The provinces of Cuba are divided into 168 municipalities or municipios. They were defined by Cuban Law Number 1304 of July 3, 1976 and reformed in 2010 with the abrogation of the municipality of Varadero and the creation of two new provinces: Artemisa and Mayabeque in place of former La Habana Province; the municipalities are listed below, by province: Source: Population from 2004 Census. Area from 1976 municipal re-distribution. Artemisa Province is sub-divided into 11 municipalities. Artemisa was created in 2011 as a split of the former La Habana province and addition of the three most eastern municipalities of Pinar del Río. Camagüey Province is sub-divided into 13 municipalities. Ciego de Ávila Province is sub-divided into 10 municipalities. Cienfuegos Province is sub-divided into 8 municipalities. Granma Province is sub-divided into 13 municipalities. Guantánamo Province is sub-divided into 10 municipalities. Havana, the national capital, is sub-divided into 15 municipalities. Holguín Province is sub-divided into 14 municipalities.
Labeled as "special municipality", Isla de la Juventud is administered as a single administrative unit with 86,420 inhabitants. Nueva Gerona is the municipal capital. Las Tunas Province is sub-divided into 8 municipalities; as for 2011 Matanzas Province is sub-divided into 13 municipalities, since Varadero municipality was abrogated. Mayabeque Province is sub-divided into 11 municipalities. Mayabeque was created in 2011 as a split of former La Habana province; as for 2011 Pinar del Río Province is sub-divided into 11 municipalities, since the three most eastern municipalities were transferred to Artemisa Province. Sancti Spíritus Province is sub-divided into 8 municipalities. Santiago de Cuba Province is sub-divided into 9 municipalities. Villa Clara Province is sub-divided into 13 municipalities; the maps below show the municipal subdivision of each province, in yellow, within Cuba. Each provincial capital is shown in red.1 Note: Provinces of Cuba List of cities in Cuba List of places in Cuba Statoids
Prime Minister of Cuba
The Prime Minister of Cuba, known as the President of the Council of Ministers between 1976 and 2019, is the head of the Council of Ministers of Cuba. The office of Prime Minister was first instituted in 1940 in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution of Cuba as amended in that year; the first Prime Minister of Cuba was Carlos Saladrigas Zayas, the nephew of former President Alfredo Zayas. The prime minister was sometimes referred to as "premier". Between 1940 and 1959, Cuba saw fifteen changes of prime minister. Fidel Castro became prime minister in 1959; the title of the office was changed on 2 December 1976 when a new national constitution, restructuring the government, came into force. Under that constitution, the post of President was abolished and replaced by a Soviet-style collective head of state, the Council of State, elected by the National Assembly of People's Power. However, unlike the USSR's arrangements, where the Chairmen of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet and the Council of Ministers were distinct posts, the Cuban Council of Ministers was chaired by the same person as the Council of State.
Furthermore, unlike English and Russian, Spanish does not distinguish between the terms "chairman/председатель" and "president/президент", translating both as "presidente". The incumbent since 19 April 2018 has been Miguel Díaz-Canel, who took over from Raúl Castro on that date. On February 24, 2019, another constitution – Cuba's current – was adopted in a referendum. Under it, the government was again re-organized, the posts of President and Prime Minister were restored; this reorganization, has yet to enter into effect. Council of Ministers List of Prime Ministers of Cuba President of Cuba
2018 Cuban parliamentary election
Parliamentary elections were held in Cuba on 11 March 2018 to elect members of the National Assembly of People's Power, alongside provincial elections. Prior to the elections, President Raúl Castro declared he would not be seeking a new term, a new President of the Council of State will be elected by the National Assembly, his deputy, Miguel Díaz-Canel, was subsequently elected as the new president. However, Castro remained the First Secretary of the Communist Party of Cuba, the most senior position in the country. All Cuban citizens who are over the age of 18 years, process full political rights for at least five years prior to the election are eligible to partake within the election. 50% of candidates must be nominated by people from the municipality and elected by direct vote in local assemblies, where people decide who they consider to have the qualities to best represent them. The other 50% of candidates are proposed by nominating assemblies which comprise representatives of workers, women and farmers, as well as members of the Committees for the Defense of the Revolution.
The final list of candidates, which corresponds to the number of seats to be filled, is drawn up by the National Candidature Commission taking into account criteria such as candidates' merit, ethical values, revolutionary history. Voter requirements are set within article 132 of the Cuban constitution. All voters must be Cuban citizens who have reached the age of 16 years, who have not been declared mentally disabled by a court, who have not committed a crime; the electoral system is designed to give the winner of the election a majority. To be declared elected, one candidate must obtain more than 50% of the valid votes cast in the constituency in which they are running. If this is not attained, the seat in question remains vacant unless the Council of State decides to hold a second round of voting. On 12 March, the Cuba National Election Commission released preliminary results. In a press conference, the CNE reported that all 605 candidates had been elected as Deputies to the National Assembly
Minister of Foreign Affairs (Cuba)
Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Cuba is a cabinet minister in charge of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Cuba, responsible for conducting foreign relations of the country. The following is a list of foreign ministers of Cuba since 1933: Cabinet of Cuba List of current foreign ministers List of current Permanent Representatives to the United Nations