Kyriakos Mitsotakis is a Greek politician, President of New Democracy and Leader of the Opposition since January 2016. He served as Minister of Administrative Reform and e-Governance from 2011 to 2015, he has been a Member of the Hellenic Parliament for the Athens B parliamentary constituency since 2004. Born in Athens, he is the son of the former Prime Minister of Greece and honorary president of New Democracy, Konstantinos Mitsotakis and his wife Marika. At the time of his birth his family had been placed under house arrest by the Greek military junta that had declared his father persona non grata and imprisoned him on the night of the coup; the family left Greece for Paris in 1968, when Kyriakos Mitsotakis was six months old, returned to Greece in 1974, when democracy was restored. On in his life Mitsotakis described the first six months of his life as political imprisonment. In 1986, he graduated from Athens College. From 1986 to 1990, he earned a bachelor's degree in social studies, he was a recipient of the Tocqueville prizes.
From 1992 to 1993 he attended Stanford University, earning an master's degree in International Relations. From 1993 to 1995, he attended Harvard Business School where he earned an MBA From 1990 to 1991 Kyriakos Mitsotakis worked as a financial analyst at the corporate finance division of Chase Bank in London. From 1991 to 1992, Mitsotakis returned to Greece and joined the Hellenic Air Force to fulfil his mandatory national service obligations. From 1995 to 1997, following the completion of his post-graduate studies, he was employed by the consultancy McKinsey & Company in London, focusing on the telecommunications and financial services industries. From 1997 to 1999 he worked for Alpha Ventures, a private equity subsidiary of Alpha Bank, as a senior investment officer, executing venture capital and private equity transactions. In 1999 he founded NBG Venture Capital, the private equity and venture capital subsidiary of the National Bank of Greece, acted as its CEO until April 2003, when he resigned to pursue a career in politics, managing its portfolio and executing transactions in Greece and the Balkans.
In January 2003 he was nominated by the World Economic Forum as a global leader of tomorrow. During the 2000 legislative election, Mitsotakis worked for New Democracy's national campaign. In the 2004 legislative election, Mitsotakis ran in the Athens B constituency, receiving more votes than any other New Democracy candidate in the country and was elected to the Hellenic Parliament. Mitsotakis is honorary president of Konstantinos K. Mitsotakis Foundation, aiming at promoting the life and works of Konstantinos Mitsotakis and at reporting the modern political history of Greece. In 24 June 2013, Mitsotakis was appointed as the Minister of Administrative Reform and e-Governance in Antonis Samaras' cabinet, succeeding Antonis Manitakis, he served in this position until January 2015. During this time, he pursued comprehensive national reforms by implementing a functional reorganization of institutions and processes, he steadfastly supported the drastic downsizing of the Public Sector and the structural reform of the tax administration.
In 2015, Mitsotakis served as a parliamentary representative for New Democracy, representing the President of the party in Parliament, as well as the body of the party's Representatives. He was charged with expressing the positions of his party during Parliamentary procedures and discourse, as well as ensuring the proper function of Parliament through a process of checks and balances. In March 2015, he claimed that then-Minister of Finance Yanis Varoufakis was undermining the Greek negotiations over the third bailout programme, saying: "Every time he opens his mouth, he creates a problem for the country’s negotiating position." Mitsotakis was the first of four New Democracy members to announce their candidacy in the leadership election, declared following the resignation of Antonis Samaras as party leader and the failure of New Democracy in the September 2015 snap election. Amongst the other contestants was then-interim leader and former Speaker of the Hellenic Parliament Vangelis Meimarakis.
According to the Financial Times, Mitsotakis was "billed as an outsider in the leadership race" due to the party establishment's support of Meimarakis' candidacy. Following the first round of voting with no clear winner, Mitsotakis came second, 11% behind Meimarakis. On 10 January 2016, Mitsotakis was elected president of the New Democracy political party succeeding Ioannis Plakiotakis with 4% difference from opponent Vangelis Meimarakis. A week following Mitsotakis' election as leader, two opinion polls were published that put New Democracy ahead of Syriza for the first time in a year. In his words he "is an ardent defender of a small and efficient state, education reform, the fight against red-tape and monopolistic practices that impede development and the fight against partisanship and cronyism in government". In 2007 it was reported that Mitsotakis was involved in the Siemens Greek bribery scandal, Mitsotakis has denied any involvement and no indication of guilt has so far been proven; the Siemens trial, in which Mitsotakis is not involved, is still pending.
Electronic office equipment, call centers, air conditioners etc. worth approx. €130,000 was received in the period preceding the 2007 elections by Mitsotakis from Siemens and two of its subsidiaries. The invoices indicate payment period of up to 60 days, however no part of the amount was paid until February 2008, when part of it was paid, just when the Siemens case was reopened by the courts, an amount of €43,850 was paid by check from Mr. Mitsotakis on Monday June 2. Earlier (on 2
1973 Greek republic referendum
A constitutional referendum was held in Greece on 29 July 1973. The amendments would establish a republic; the proposal was approved by 78.6% of voters with a turnout of 75.0%. This initiated the first period of the Metapolitefsi; the military junta had ruled Greece since a group of middle-ranking officers, under the leadership of Colonel Georgios Papadopoulos, staged a coup on 21 April 1967. King Constantine II reluctantly endorsed the coup, but started preparing for a counter-coup by elements of the armed forces loyal to him; this counter-coup was launched on 13 December 1967 and failed, forcing the King and most of the Royal Family to flee to Italy. Greece remained a Kingdom, the King's functions were exercised by a Regent, a post held until 1972 by General Georgios Zoitakis, assumed by an dominant Papadopoulos, who held the position of Prime Minister and several ministerial posts. In May 1973, however, a wide-ranging anti-junta movement was discovered and suppressed, just before its outbreak, among the ranks of the royalist Navy.
One ship, the destroyer Velos did mutiny, upon reaching Italy, the captain Nikolaos Pappas and 31 officers and crew disembarked and asked for political asylum, creating worldwide interest. The failed Navy revolt demonstrated that after six years of junta "normality", the opposition had not died off, that it existed amongst large parts of the armed forces, which were the regime's main internal supporter; this revelation created a major crisis for the junta leadership. Papadopoulos was thus forced to act, in a move which would bolster his own authority, get rid of the King, appear as moving into the direction of genuine reforms. On 1 June, a Constituent Act was proclaimed, which declared Greece a presidential republic, with Papadopoulos as President; the Act was to be confirmed by a plebiscite, held on 29 July 1973. The defunct political parties and their leaders urged for a "No" as a sign of opposition to the regime, but the vote was controlled by the junta, the results were predictably favourable to the regime.
General Papadopoulos promised a return to democratic and parliamentary rule, based on the provisions of the new Constitution, appointed Spyros Markezinis as Prime Minister. His attempt at controlled democratisation failed after the Athens Polytechnic uprising and the hardliners' coup under Dimitrios Ioannides that followed; the forms of the Republic were maintained until the final collapse of the junta in August 1974, on 8 December 1974, another plebiscite was held, in which the Greek people confirmed the abolition of the monarchy, the establishment of the current Third Hellenic Republic
Politics of Greece
The politics of Greece takes place in a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Greece is the head of government, of a multi-party system. Legislative power is vested in the Hellenic Parliament. Between the restoration of democracy in 1974 and the Greek government-debt crisis the party system was dominated by the liberal-conservative New Democracy and the social-democratic Panhellenic Socialist Movement; the Judiciary is independent of the legislature. The Constitution of Greece, which describes Greece as a "presidential parliamentary republic", includes extensive specific guarantees of civil liberties and vests the powers of the head of state in a president elected by parliament; the Greek governmental structure is similar to that found in many other Western democracies, has been described as a compromise between the French and German models. The prime minister and cabinet play the central role in the political process, while the president perform some executive and legislative functions in addition to ceremonial duties.
Voting in Greece is not enforced. The Cabinet of Greece, the main organ of the government, includes the heads of all executive ministries, appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister; the President of the Republic is elected by the Parliament for a five-year term, a maximum of two terms in office. When a presidential term expires, Parliament votes to elect the new President. In the first two votes, a 2⁄3 majority is necessary; the third and final vote requires a 3⁄5 majority. If the third vote is fruitless, Parliament is dissolved and elections are proclaimed by the outgoing President within the next 30 days. In the new Parliament, the election for President is repeated with a 3/5 majority required for the initial vote, an absolute majority for the second one and a simple majority for the third and final one; the system is so designed as to promote consensus presidential candidates among the main political parties. The president has the power to declare war, to grant pardon and to conclude agreements of peace and participation in international organizations.
An absolute or a three-fifths majority is required in exceptional cases. The president can exercise certain emergency powers, which must be countersigned by the appropriate cabinet minister; the president may not dissolve parliament, dismiss the government, suspend certain articles of the constitution, issue a proclamation or declare a state of siege without countersigning by the prime minister or the appropriate cabinet minister. To call a referendum, he must obtain approval from parliament; the prime minister is elected by the Parliament and he or she is the leader of the party controlling the absolute majority of MPs. According to the Constitution, the prime minister safeguards the unity of the government and directs its activities, he or she is the most powerful person of the Greek political system and recommends ministers to the President for appointment or dismissal. Greek parliamentary politics hinge upon the principle of the "δεδηλωμένη", the "declared confidence" of Parliament to the Prime Minister and his/her administration.
This means that the President of the Republic is bound to appoint, as Prime Minister, a person who will be approved by a majority of the Parliament's members. With the current electoral system, it is the leader of the party gaining a plurality of the votes in the Parliamentary elections who gets appointed Prime Minister. An administration may at any time seek a "vote of confidence". Conversely a number of Members of Parliament may ask. Both are rare occurrences with predictable outcomes as voting outside the party line happens seldom. On 4 October 2009, George Papandreou, president of the Panhellenic Socialist Movement party and son and grandson of Prime Ministers, was elected as the new Prime Minister of Greece, following five years of government under New Democracy leader Kostas Karamanlis, the nephew of long-time Prime Minister and President Konstantinos Karamanlis. Greece elects a legislature by universal suffrage of all citizens over the age of 18; the Greek Parliament has 300 members, elected for a four-year term by a system of reinforced proportional representation in 48 multi-seat constituencies, 8 single-seat constituencies and a single nationwide list.
288 of the 300 seats are determined by constituency voting, voters may select the candidate or candidates of their choice by marking their name on the party ballot. The remaining 12 seats are filled from nationwide party lists on a top-down basis and based on the proportion of the total vote each party received. Greece uses a complex reinforced proportional representation electoral system which discourages splinter parties and makes a parliamentary majority possible if the leading party falls short of a majority of the popular vote. Under the current electoral law, any single party must receive at least a 3% nationwide vote tally in order to elect Members of Parliament; the largest party gets a 50-seat bonus ostensibly to ensure elections return viable governing majorities. The law in its current form favors the first past the post party to achieve an absolute majorit
Prokopios Pavlopoulos, GColIH shortened to Prokopis, is the current President of Greece, in office since 2015. A lawyer, university professor and politician, he was Minister for the Interior from 2004 to 2009. On 18 February 2015, Pavlopoulos was elected by the Hellenic Parliament as President of Greece, with 233 votes in favour. Prokopis Pavlopoulos was born in Kalamata to high school principal and classics teacher Vasilios Pavlopoulos and grew up in the same city. After finishing school in his home town, he entered the Law School of the University of Athens in 1968. In 1975, on a government scholarship, he received his DEA from the Paris Panthéon-Assas University, followed by his PhD in 1977 on Public Law, he returned to Greece to serve his military service in the Hellenic Army. He was elected Lecturer at the University of Athens in 1980, he was promoted to Reader in 1981. In 1983 he became Assistant Professor and he was promoted to Associate Professor in 1986. In 1989, he was elected Professor of Administrative Law.
In 1986, Pavlopoulos was an adjunct faculty member at the Panthéon-Assas University. Pavlopoulos was secretary to the first President of the metapolitefsi, Michail Stasinopoulos, in 1974. From November 1989 to April 1990, he served as alternate Minister for the Presidency and government spokesman in the ecumenical government headed by Xenophon Zolotas, he served as head of the legal office to President Konstantinos Karamanlis from 1990 to 1995, political advisor to Miltiadis Evert chairman of New Democracy, from September 1995. He was elected as a State MP for the New Democracy party in the 1996 parliamentary election, in the 2000 parliamentary election he was elected as an MP for the Athens A constituency, he was appointed as New Democracy's Press and Information Spokesman by Evert on 20 April 1996. Pavlopoulos was successively re-elected for Athens A in the 2000, 2004, 2007, 2009 and 2012 elections. Following the March 2004 legislative election, won by New Democracy, Pavlopoulos became Minister for the Interior, Public Administration and Decentralisation in the new government of the Prime Minister Kostas Karamanlis on 10 March 2004.
In the government appointed following New Democracy's victory in the September 2007 parliamentary election, the Interior Ministry was merged with the Ministry of Public Order, Pavlopoulous became Minister of the Interior and Public Order. He is a member of the Central Committee of New Democracy, on 29 July 2004 he was designated as a member of the party's Political Council as one of seven MP candidates. On 17 February, Prime Minister Alexis Tsipras nominated Pavlopoulos as the ruling SYRIZA–ANEL coalition's candidate for the post of President of Greece in the presidential election that had begun in December 2014. On 18 February 2015, backed by SYRIZA, ANEL and his own New Democracy party, Pavlopoulos was elected by the Greek Parliament as the new President of Greece with 233 votes in favour, he succeeded Karolos Papoulias after the end of the latter's term on 13 March 2015. Pavlopoulos is married to Vlassia Pavlopoulou-Peltsemi and together they have two daughters and Zoe, one son, Vasilis.
David Davis, son of the Katherine, Crown Princess of Yugoslavia, are Godchildren of President Prokopis Pavlopoulos. Grand Master and Grand Cross of the Order of the Redeemer - 13 March 2015 Grand Master of the Order of Honour Grand Master of the Order of the Phoenix Grand Master of the Order of BeneficencePavlopoulos was awarded the following foreign order: Grand Cross of the Order of the Legion of Honour - 22 October 2015 Knight Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic - 23 November 2015 Grand Collar of the Order of Prince Henry - 27 January 2017 Knight of the Order of the White Eagle - 18 November 2017 Media related to Prokopis Pavlopoulos at Wikimedia Commons Terms of office of Prokopis Pavlopoulos at the Hellenic Parliament
2010 Greek local elections
The 2010 Greek local elections were held on 7 November 2010 and 14 November 2010 to elect representatives to Greece's restructured local authorities, comprising 13 regions and 325 municipalities. Traditionally, candidates at local elections do not run under the official name of any party as the constitution only foresees the participation of electoral lists and not parties. Despite this theoretical independence and distinction, for all practical purposes most candidates run as local front organisations for political parties; the election comes at a time of increasing unrest in Greece following numerous bombs being sent to foreign embassies, as well protests against austerity measures forced by the EU and IMF in order for Greece to receive external financial support. With the economy being touted as the mandate sought in the election Prime Minister George Papandreou said he would dissolve the national parliament should the candidates of his Panhellenic Socialist Movement fail to win an unspecified threshold.
"Citizens will decide in today's election if we will hold steady on the path of salvation... or if we will go back to decay and to the Greece of bankruptcy." In the municipalities, as well as the regions, any candidate can participate in the 1st round. If the leading candidate doesn't have the required 50%+1 of the votes a second round is held between the two leading candidates of the 1st round. Source: Hellenic Ministry of the Interior Notes: † Ioannis Dimaras was elected a parliament member with Panhellenic Socialist Movement in the National Elections of 2009. § Alexios Mitropoulos is a member of the National Council of the Panhellenic Socialist Movement. ‡ Alekos Alavanos is a prominent member of the Coalition of Radical Left, although his party didn't support him some fractions such as KOE, DEA and KEDA did. Notes: † Dimitrios Giannoulakis was independent at the time of the elections, but was supported by Dora Bakoyannis and is related to her newly founded Democratic Alliance party The government saw its share of vote drop by 9% but it remained the largest party.
Prime Minister George Papandreou said that he would continue with tough austerity measures to alleviate Greece's debt burden following a narrow victory in the election
Constitutional history of Greece
In the modern history of Greece, starting from the Greek War of Independence, the Constitution of 1975/1986/2001 is the last in a series of democratically adopted Constitutions. During the Greek War of Independence, three constitutional texts were adopted by the Greek National Assemblies, the national representative political gatherings of the Greek revolutionaries; these constitutions were influenced by: the French Constitutions of 1793 and 1795, the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, the Draft Constitution of Rigas Velestinlis, the three Constitutions of the Ionian Islands. A year before the adoption of the Greek Constitution of 1822, local Assemblies had ratified the so-called Greek local statutes, such as the Senate Organization of Western Greece, the Legal Order of Eastern Greece and the Peloponnesian Senate Organization. King Otto governed for more than 10 years without any constitutional restrictions, since the "hegemonical" Greek Constitution of 1832 was never implemented.
On 3 September 1843, the infantry, led by Colonel Dimitrios Kallergis and the Revolutionary captain Ioannis Makriyannis, assembled in the square in front of the palace in Athens. Joined by much of the population of the small capital, the rebellion refused to disperse until the king agreed to grant a constitution. Left with little recourse, King Otto gave in to the pressure and agreed to the demands of the crowd over the objections of his opinionated Queen; this square was renamed to Constitution Square to commemorate the events of September 1843. The Greek Constitution of 1844 defined Greece as a constitutional monarchy, providing for a bicameral parliament, consisting of a Chamber of Deputies and a Senate; the Greek Constitution of 1864 was somewhat more liberal, transferred most of the real power to the parliament. In 1874 Charilaos Trikoupis published a manifesto entitled "Who's to blame?", naming King George I as the answer. He condemned the king for bypassing parliamentary opinion in his selection of Prime Ministers.
The article landed him in jail, but boosted his popularity significantly. A year on 8 May 1874 he mustered a parliamentary plurality and George reluctantly named him as Prime Minister. Thanks to Trikoupis' article, a new constitutional principle was recognized and implemented: the king was required to give the largest party in parliament first choice of forming a government. In 1911 Eleftherios Venizelos amended 54 of the 110 articles of the Constitution, trying to bring the constitution in line with his Liberal Party's principles; the National schism of 1916 caused a huge constitutional crisis, as two governments were formed: one in Athens and one in Thessaloniki. The Constitution of 1925 provided for a Republic in accordance with the results of the plebiscite of 1924. Nonetheless, on 24 June 1925, officers loyal to Theodoros Pangalos, fearing that the political instability was putting the country at risk, overthrew the government in a coup and violated the Constitution. On 24 August 1926, a counter-coup deposed him and Pavlos Kountouriotis returned as President.
Since the previous Constitution was not implemented, it was the Constitution of 1927 which formally established the Second Hellenic Republic and provided for a ceremonial president as head of state. After the plebiscite of 1935, King George II was restored, but the Third Revisionary Parliament of 1936 did not have the time to replace or amend the Constitution of the Republic. Instead, the Constitution of 1911 was restored, ostensibly on a temporary basis; the elections of 1936 had produced a political deadlock and, George II appointed Ioannis Metaxas to be interim prime minister. Widespread industrial unrest in May allowed Metaxas to declare a state of emergency. On 4 August, he suspended the parliament indefinitely and suspended various articles of the constitution, with the king's approval. For all intents and purposes, Metaxas was now a dictator. No constitutional amendment was adopted before Germany invaded Greece in 1941. After the end of the Second World War, King George II was once again restored by virtue of the plebiscite of 1946.
The implications of the Greek Civil War did not allow the ratification of the liberal Draft Constitution of 1948. A more conservative Constitution was passed in 1952, which imposed restrictions on basic human rights and banned the Communist Party of Greece. On 21 April 1967, a coup took place by right-wing officers, which established a dictatorship known as the Colonels' Regime. An attempted counter-coup by King Constantine II in December failed, forcing him to leave the country, thus there was no government and no Head of State in Athens. Thereby, the Revolutionary Council of Stylianos Pattakos, George Papadopoulos and Nikolaos Makarezos made a brief appearance to cause a Resolution to be published in the Government Gazette, appointing another member to the military administration, Major General Georgios Zoitakis, as Regent. Zoitakis appointed Papadopoulos as Prime Minister. A new constitution was adopted by referendum in 1968. King Constantine was retained as head of state, though he would not be allowed to return until the first parliamentary election unless the government recalled him sooner.
Many of the guarantees of civil rights were suspended, elections were postponed until the "Revolution of April 21" had reformed the "Greek mentality." Five years during Papadopoulos' attempts at controlled democratization, he abolished the monarchy and declared Greece a republic with himself as president. A plebiscite formally abolished the monarchy on 29 July 1973. A new Constitution
Elections in Greece
Elections in Greece gives information on elections and election results in Greece. The Greek Parliament has 300 members, elected for a four-year term by a system of'reinforced' proportional representation in 56 constituencies, 48 of which are multi-seat and 8 single-seat. Seats are determined by constituency voting, voters may select the candidate or candidates of their choice by marking their name on the party ballot. However, the party receiving the largest number of votes receives a 50-seat premium, filled by candidates of that party not declared elected on the lower rungs. Greek citizens aged 17 and over on the year of the election are eligible to vote, at the age of 25 and over are eligible to be elected to Parliament. Women's suffrage was adopted in 1930. Constituencies in Greece have traditionally been multi-seat, they coincide with prefectures; the number of seats is adjusted once every ten years, following the decennial population census. Prefecture constituencies may not be deprived of representation, nor may they be merged with another prefecture.
Population changes have left eight prefectures with a single parliamentary seat each, whereas some urban or suburban constituencies have seen large increases in their seat allotment over the years. For example, the "Athens B" constituency encompasses 15% of the country's electorate and elects 42 members of parliament; the "Athens A" constituency elects 17 MPs, "Thessaloniki A" elects 16, Attica elects 12, the remaining constituencies elect single-digit numbers of MPs. Polling takes place in school buildings on a Sunday, a festive occasion for students who are given a four-day weekend off; the procedure is run by a presiding judge or attorney-at-law appointed by the local Bar association, secretarially assisted by local citizens selected by lot in a process resembling jury duty. Local police are available too. Local party representatives are allowed to monitor tallying. Traditionally, voting takes place "from sunrise to sunset" but times are rounded to the nearest "top of the hour". Individual precincts may prolong voting time at the judge's discretion, if there are still voters queueing up to vote.
Voters identify themselves by their ID cards and are given the full number of ballot papers for the constituency plus a blank ballot paper and an empty envelope. They withdraw to a secluded cubicle equipped with a lectern and waste basket, where they select the ballot paper of their choice, if any, mark the candidate of their choice, if any. Voters may select specific candidates within the party list of their choice by marking a cross next to the candidate name or names; the maximum allowable number of crosses on the ballot paper depends on the number of seats contested. Signs other than crosses next to a candidate name may mark the ballot as invalid during tallying, as such findings may be construed to violate voting secrecy. Ballot papers with more crosses than the maximum number allowed, or without any cross, are counted in the total party tally but are disqualified during the second part of tallying, i.e. the determination of which individual candidate is elected to a seat won by the candidate's party.
Once on-the-spot tallying is over and the tallies reported the ballots are sealed and transported to the Central Election Service of the Interior Ministry. There ballots are recounted in order to ascertain the validity or invalidity of the few ambiguously marked ballot papers. Any unresolved matters following this recount are referred to the specially convened Eklogodikeion, which adjudicates and officially publishes the names of elected MPs, so that the new Parliament may convene; the Court of Election may reconvene at any time in order to discuss appeals by candidates who failed to be elected, to fill seats that become vacant in the case of death or abdication of an MP. Such seats are filled by going down the preference tally of the party list that won the seat in the first place. Greek citizens permanently living in European Union countries are allowed to vote in European Parliament elections; the Greek electoral system was codified for the first time by Presidential Decree in 2012. The current system is called "reinforced proportionality" in Greece, is a form of semi-proportional representation with a 50-seat majority bonus for the party that wins a plurality of the vote.
There is an electoral threshold of 3% which all parties and individuals need to pass on a national level before being awarded any seats. These provisions are aimed at helping the largest party secure an absolute majority of parliamentary seats, enhancing governmental stability; the majority bonus of 50 seats was abolished in 2016, but will still be applied at the 2019 Greek legislative election because th