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Council of Three Fires

The Council of Three Fires are known as the People of the Three Fires. The council is a long-standing Anishinaabe alliance of the Ojibwe and Potawatomi North American Native tribes. One people, or a collection of related bands, the ethnic identities of Ojibwa and Potawatomi developed after the Anishinaabe reached Michilimackinac on their journey westward from the Atlantic coast. Using the Midewiwin scrolls, Potawatomi elder Shup-Shewana dated the formation of the Council of Three Fires to 796 AD at Michilimackinac. In this Council, the Ojibwe were addressed as the "Older Brother," the Odawa as the "Middle Brother," and the Potawatomi as the "Younger Brother." Whenever the three Anishinaabe nations are mentioned in this specific and consecutive order of Ojibwe and Potawatomi, it is an indicator implying Council of Three Fires as well. In addition, the Ojibwa are the "keepers of the faith," the Odawa are the "keepers of trade," and the Potawatomi are the designated "keepers/maintainers of/for the fire", which became the basis for their name Boodewaadamii or Bodéwadmi.

Though the Three Fires had several meeting places, Michilimackinac became the preferred meeting place due to its central location. From this place, the Council met for political purposes. From this site, the Council maintained relations with fellow Anishinaabeg nations, the Ozaagii, Omanoominii, Naadawe, Nii'inaawi-Naadawe, Wemitigoozhi and the Gichi-mookomaan. Through the totem-system and promotion of trade, the Council had a peaceful existence with its neighbours. However, occasional unresolved disputes erupted into wars. Under these conditions, the Council notably fought against the Sioux. During the French and Indian War and Pontiac's War, the Council fought against Great Britain. After the formation of the United States of America in 1776, the Council became the core member of the Western Lakes Confederacy, joined together with the Wyandots, Nipissing, Sacs and others. Treaty of Fort Niagara – as part of the Western Lakes Confederacy Treaty of Fort Harmar – implied Treaty of Greenville – implied Treaty of Fort Industry – not implied, though all 3 nations present Treaty of Detroit – not implied, though all 3 nations present Treaty of Brownstown – implied Treaty of Springwells – implied Treaty of St. Louis Treaty of Fort Meigs – not implied, though all 3 nations present Treaty of Chicago – not implied, though all 3 nations present First Treaty of Prairie du Chien – implied, as well as individually with the Ojibwa and Odawa.

Second Treaty of Prairie du Chien Mackinaw City, Michigan Confederacy of Three Fires: A History of the Anishinabek Nation

Stirling torcs

The Stirling torcs make up a hoard of four gold Iron Age torcs, a type of necklace, all of which date to between 300 and 100 BC and which were buried deliberately at some point in antiquity. They were found by a metal detectorist in a field near Blair Drummond, Scotland on 28 September 2009; the hoard has been described as the most significant discovery of Iron Age metalwork in Scotland and is said to be of international significance. The torcs were valued at £462,000, after a public appeal were acquired for the National Museums of Scotland in March 2011; the finder was a novice metal detectorist, David Booth, who found the torcs on his first treasure-hunting outing, using a basic model metal detector. Having identified an area he considered to be of good potential, Booth obtained the landowner's permission to search on his land. I got the metal detector out. There was an area of flat ground behind the car, I thought, I’ll just scan this first, before I head out into the field. About seven steps behind where I had parked, I found them.

Booth washed them in water. After researching them on the internet, he completed a form on the Scottish Treasure Trove website and sent a photograph to the Scottish Treasure Trove Unit at the National Museum of Scotland in Edinburgh. Dr Fraser Hunter said he "almost fell off seat" when he first saw photographs of the discovery the next morning, members of staff had arrived at the site within three hours; the subsequent archaeological excavation at the site exposed the remains of a wooden roundhouse but found no more artefacts. All four torcs were buried together, some 15–20 centimetres below the surface. Subsequent archaeological investigations determined that the torcs had been buried within a roundhouse, a prehistoric circular building; this building may have had religious significance, as hoard finds tend to be either votive offerings to the gods, or items of great value, hidden in time of unrest or war, because the building did not seem to have features like a hearth associated with a dwelling.

All four torcs date to between 300 and 100 BC, they are and unexpectedly varied in form and style which adds to the significance of the find. Two twisted ribbon torcs, in perfect condition, are elegant and simple in design, they are fashioned from a flat strip of gold, twisted, represent a local style of jewellery, originating from Scotland and Ireland, going back to the Late Bronze Age. One has plain hooked terminals; the third torc is broken, with only half of the original artefact surviving in two fragments. It is a tubular annular torc, which would catch, it is of ornate design compared to the ribbon torcs, experts have identified it as a type originating from the Toulouse area in southern France. It is the first of its kind to have been found in Britain; the fourth torc is a looped terminal complete and in good condition. It is made from eight gold wires twisted together, it has a short length of safety chain. It has been described by Dr Fraser Hunter, Iron Age and Roman curator at the National Museum of Scotland, as a remarkable hybrid of Mediterranean craftsmanship and more traditional Iron Age motifs.

This might have been made for a local chieftain by a craftsman who had learned his craft in the Mediterranean region, with the third torc suggests significant links between Scotland and Southern Europe. There are no directly comparable other artefacts; the last significant find of torcs in Scotland was in 1857, when gold ribbon torcs were found on Law Farm, Moray. The eclecticism of the styles and origins is comparable to that of the objects in the Broighter Hoard from Northern Ireland of a later period. Following the completion of the archaeological excavations, the torcs were made public on 4 November 2009 when they were shown to the press in Edinburgh by Booth and museum staff at the National Museum of Scotland. According to Scottish Treasure Trove laws, the crown can claim any archaeological objects found in Scotland. Finders must report any objects to Scotland's Treasure Trove Unit. Booth is entitled to a reward equal to the value of the torcs. Dr David Caldwell of the Scottish Treasure Trove Unit said that the torcs would "definitely" stay in Scotland.

In October 2010 the torcs were valued at £462,000 by the Scottish Archaeological Finds Allocation Panel, the crown stated it would allocate the torcs to National Museums Scotland if the museum made an ex-gratia payment of £462,000 to the finder, David Booth. By March 2011 the amount was raised by a public appeal and significant grants by the Art Fund and the National Heritage Memorial Fund, the hoard was acquired. Newark Torc Sedgeford Torc Ipswich Hoard Leekfrith torcs Staffordshire Hoard Vale of York Hoard List of hoards in Britain Cahill, Mary, "The Dooyork Hoard", Irish Arts Review, Vol. 19, No. 1, pp. 118-121, JSTOR "MOS": Museum of Scotland page "Metal detectorist on first trip finds iron-age treasure" The Guardian "Treasure hunt novice struck £1m gold on first outing" The Times "£1m golden hoard rewrites history of ancient Scotland" The Times "Treasure hunter found £1m haul on first outing" The Telegraph "On first time out with his metal detector, amateur treasure hunter finds £1m hoard of ancient golden jewellery" Daily Mail "Amateur'stunned' after £1m find" BBC The torcs at the National Museum of Scotland

Steve Cishek

Steven R. Cishek is an American professional baseball pitcher for the Chicago White Sox of Major League Baseball, he played for the Florida / Miami Marlins, St. Louis Cardinals, Seattle Mariners, Tampa Bay Rays and Chicago Cubs, he holds the Marlins franchise record for consecutive saves with 33 in a row. Born and raised in Falmouth, Cishek attended Falmouth High School where he starred as a pitcher and played basketball. Not recruited out of high school by Division I schools, Cishek attended Division II Carson-Newman College in Jefferson City and led the team to a conference championship in 2007. Cishek was selected by the Marlins in the fifth round of the 2007 Major League Baseball draft. Cishek was called up to the major leagues for the first time on September 20, 2010, he pitched 4.1 scoreless innings towards the end of the season. On May 24, 2011, Cishek was called up once again to join the Marlins after Jay Buente was designated for assignment. In 2012, Heath Bell was demoted as the team's closer and Cishek assumed the role for about a week.

After a few relief appearances by Bell, he regained the closer's role. After about two months as the closer, Bell was demoted to a relief pitcher and Cishek took over the closer role again. Cishek flourished in 2013, his first full season as Miami's closer, converting 34 of his 36 save opportunities, while posting a 2.33 ERA and 1.08 WHIP. He played with Miami again in 2014 and 2015. On June 1, 2015, Cishek was optioned to Double-A Jacksonville to work on his mechanics. To that point in the season, he had posted a 6.98 ERA with 10 walks. On July 24, 2015, Cishek was traded to the St. Louis Cardinals for RHP Kyle Barraclough, he debuted for the Cardinals on July 26 in a 3–2 loss to the Atlanta Braves, pitching one scoreless inning but being charged with an error on a pickoff attempt. The Cardinals did not tender Cishek a contract for the 2016 season. On December 14, 2015, Cishek agreed to a two-year contract worth $10 million with the Seattle Mariners. After going 25 for 31 in save opportunities, the Mariners removed Cishek as closer for a temporary basis.

On August 5, he was placed on the disabled list with a hip injury. On July 28, 2017, the Mariners traded Cishek to the Tampa Bay Rays for Erasmo Ramírez. On December 16, 2017, Cishek signed a two-year, $13 million contract with the Chicago Cubs. On August 20, 2019, he was reactivated from the Triple-A Iowa Cubs. On January 14, 2020, Cishek signed a one-year deal with the Chicago White Sox. Cishek is a sinkerballer who, despite utilizing a sidearm delivery, is able to throw his sinker with above-average velocity ranging from 91 miles per hour to 94 miles per hour, his secondary pitch is a slider in the 82 miles per hour to 85 miles per hour range, a pitch he uses more against right-handed hitters. Additionally, he has a changeup. Cishek features his slider liberally in two-strike counts 1–2. Cishek married Marissa Cishek in November 2012, their first child, was born in October 2014. Their second child, was born in October 2016. Cishek is a Christian. Growing up in Massachusetts, Cishek was a fan of the Boston Red Sox.

Career statistics and player information from MLB, or ESPN, or Baseball-Reference, or Fangraphs, or Baseball-Reference

The Gambia College

The Gambia College is a Gambian tertiary institution with campuses located in Banjul and Brikama. Its origins lie in the Yundum Teachers Training College, founded in 1952 and became the Yundum College in 1955, the Gambia School of Nursing and Midwifery, the School of Agriculture and the School of Public Health. In 1978, those hitherto separated institutions were merged by an Act of Parliament and The Gambia College was established; the new college opened in 1980 with two campuses: the School of Nursing and Midwifery is based in Banjul, whereas the Schools of Agriculture and Public Health are located in Brikama. It closed in March 1981 due to major disturbances by students, but reopened in October 1982. After the Gambia College Act was passed in 1989 which required the college to provide further education, it expanded in the 1990s. Official website of The Gambia College

James Brockett Tudhope

James Brockett Tudhope was a Canadian manufacturer and politician. Tudhope was born in Oro Township, Canada West in 1858, the son of William Tudhope, a carriage manufacturer, Mary Reid. In 1897, he formed the Tudhope Carriage Company in Orillia with his brothers. In 1902, with partner Harry Anderson, Tudhope established a company which manufactured agricultural implements. Following a fire at the carriage factory, in 1909, he formed the Tudhope Motor Company which manufactured automobiles. Production was converted for military use during World War I and vehicle production was not resumed following the war. In 1928, a new company was formed that produced specialty metal products, such as electrical appliances. Following his death in 1936, his son took over the operation of the company. Tudhope was elected to the Legislative Assembly of Ontario in 1902 for the provincial riding of Simcoe East. A Liberal, he was re-elected in 1905 and 1908. In 1917, he was elected to the House of Commons of Canada for the federal riding of Simcoe East.

Tudhope served as reeve and mayor for Orillia. In 1966, he was inducted into the Orillia Hall of Fame. Tudhope Building, the former home of his auto company supplied military parts for two world wars used by Orillia Tudhope Anderson Company before shuttering the 1990. In 1995 it was used as headquarters for the Ontario Provincial Police and now home to Orillia City Hall. Tudhope Park, a 65 acre public park and beach, was donated by the Tudhopes to the town. Ontario Legislative Assembly parliamentary history James Brockett Tudhope – Parliament of Canada biography Tudhope Specialties Ltd - UWO Business Library

Unley Oval

Unley Oval, is a multi-use stadium in Unley, an inner southern suburb of Adelaide, South Australia. It is used for lower-grade South Australian Grade Cricket League matches, but its main use is as the home ground for the Sturt Football Club in the South Australian National Football League; the stadium has a capacity of 15,000 people, with seating for up to 2,000. Its record crowd is 24,000 attending a SANFL match between Sturt and Norwood on 9 June 1924 – at the time the highest for any suburban oval in Adelaide; the highest verified attendance was 22,015 for a league game against Port Adelaide during the 1968 season. This would stand as the record SANFL attendance at a suburban ground until 22,738 saw Port Adelaide play Norwood at Port's home ground Alberton Oval in 1977. Unley Oval was the venue of one first-class match between South Australia and Lord Hawke's XI in 1903; the match itself was remarkable: South Australia won by 97 runs after following on, two different bowlers took nine-wicket innings hauls.

The dimensions of the playing surface for football are 160m × 115m. The oval is egg-shaped, such that the northern end is more narrow and has shallower pockets than the southern end. Unley Oval has two main grandstands located on the western side of the ground; as the ground is a public park, the perimeter of the venue is unfenced, forcing the Sturt Football Club to erect temporary fencing on match days in order to charge admission, a large financial burden for the club. The stadium has been known as "Envestra Park", "House Brothers Oval", "Commander Centre Oval", under various sponsorship deals. In 2015 Unley Oval was renamed Peter Motley Oval in honour of former Sturt champion and club #1 ticket holder Peter Motley. Unley Oval at Austadiums