William the Silent
William I, Prince of Orange known as William the Silent or William the Taciturn, or more known as William of Orange, was the main leader of the Dutch Revolt against the Spanish Habsburgs that set off the Eighty Years' War and resulted in the formal independence of the United Provinces in 1581. He was born in the House of Nassau as Count of Nassau-Dillenburg, he became Prince of Orange in 1544 and is thereby the founder of the branch House of Orange-Nassau and the ancestor of the monarchy of the Netherlands. Within the Netherlands he is known as Father of the Fatherland. A wealthy nobleman, William served the Habsburgs as a member of the court of Margaret of Parma, governor of the Spanish Netherlands. Unhappy with the centralisation of political power away from the local estates and with the Spanish persecution of Dutch Protestants, William joined the Dutch uprising and turned against his former masters; the most influential and politically capable of the rebels, he led the Dutch to several successes in the fight against the Spanish.
Declared an outlaw by the Spanish king in 1580, he was assassinated by Balthasar Gérard in Delft in 1584. William was born on 24 April 1533 at Dillenburg castle in the County of Nassau-Dillenburg, in the Holy Roman Empire, he was the eldest son of William, Count of Nassau by his second wife Juliana of Stolberg-Wernigerode. William's father had one surviving daughter by his previous marriage, his mother had four surviving children by her previous marriage, his parents had twelve children together, of. The family was religiously devout and William was raised a Lutheran. In 1544, William's agnatic first cousin, René of Châlon, Prince of Orange, died childless. In his testament, René of Chalon named William the heir to all his estates and titles, including that of Prince of Orange, on the condition that he receive a Roman Catholic education. William's father acquiesced to this condition on behalf of his 11-year-old son, this was the founding of the house of Orange-Nassau. Besides the principality of Orange and significant lands in Germany, William inherited vast estates in the Low Countries from his cousin.
Because of his young age, Emperor Charles V, the overlord of most of these estates, served as regent until William was old enough to rule them himself. William was sent to the Netherlands to receive the required Roman Catholic education, first at the family's estate in Breda and in Brussels, under the supervision of Mary of Hungary, governor of the Habsburg Netherlands. In Brussels, he was taught foreign languages and received a military and diplomatic education under the direction of Champagney, brother of Granvelle. On 6 July 1551, William married Anna van Egmond en Buren and heiress of Maximiliaan van Egmond, an important Dutch nobleman. Anna's father had died in 1548, therefore William became Lord of Egmond and Count of Buren upon his wedding day; the marriage was a happy one and produced three children. Anna died on 24 March 1558, aged 25. Being a ward of Charles V and having received his education under the tutelage of the Emperor's sister Mary, William came under the particular attention of the imperial family, became a favorite.
He was appointed captain in the cavalry in 1551 and received rapid promotion thereafter, becoming commander of one of the Emperor's armies at the age of 22. This was in 1555, when Charles V sent him to Bayonne with an army to take the city in a siege from the French. William was made a member of the Raad van State, the highest political advisory council in the Netherlands, it was in November of the same year that the gout-afflicted Emperor Charles V leaned on William's shoulder during the ceremony when he abdicated his Spanish possessions in favour of his son, Philip II of Spain. In 1559, Phillip appointed William stadtholder of the provinces of Holland and Utrecht, thereby increasing his political power. A stadtholdership over Franche-Comté followed in 1561. Although he never directly opposed the Spanish king, William soon became one of the most prominent members of the opposition in the Council of State, together with Philip de Montmorency, Count of Hoorn, Lamoral, Count of Egmont, they were seeking more political power for themselves against the de facto government of Count Berlaymont and Viglius of Aytta, but for the Dutch nobility and, for the Estates, complained that too many Spaniards were involved in governing the Netherlands.
William was dissatisfied with the increasing persecution of Protestants in the Netherlands. Brought up as a Lutheran and a Catholic, William was religious but was still a proponent of freedom of religion for all people; the activity of the Inquisition in the Netherlands, directed by Cardinal Granvelle, prime minister to the new governor Margaret of Parma, increased opposition to Spanish rule among the mostly Catholic population of the Netherlands. Lastly, the opposition wished to see an end to the presence of Spanish troops. According to the Apology, William's letter of justification, published and read to the States General in December 1580, his resolve to expel the Spaniards from the Netherlands had originated when, in the summer of 1559, he and the Duke of Alva had been sent to France as hostages for the proper fulfillment o
Geuzen was a name assumed by the confederacy of Calvinist Dutch nobles, who from 1566 opposed Spanish rule in the Netherlands. The most successful group of them operated at sea, so were called Watergeuzen. In the Eighty Years' War, the Capture of Brielle by the Watergeuzen in 1572 provided the first foothold on land for the rebels, who would conquer the northern Netherlands and establish an independent Dutch Republic, they can be considered either as privateers or pirates, depending on the circumstances or motivations. The leaders of the nobles who signed a solemn league known as the Compromise of Nobles, by which they bound themselves to assist in defending the rights and liberties of the Netherlands against the civil and religious despotism of Philip II of Spain were Louis of Nassau, Hendrick van Brederode. On 5 April 1566, permission was obtained for the confederates to present a petition of grievances, called the Request, to the regent, Duchess of Parma. About 250 nobles marched to the palace accompanied by Louis of Brederode.
The regent was at first alarmed at the appearance of so large a body, but one of her councillors, Berlaymont remarked "N'ayez pas peur Madame, ce ne sont que des gueux". The appellation was not forgotten. In a speech at a great feast held by some 300 confederates at the Hotel Culemburg three days Brederode declared that if need be they were all ready to become beggars in their country's cause. Henceforward the name became a party title; the patriot party adopted the emblems of beggary, the wallet and the bowl, as trinkets to be worn on their hats or their girdles, a medal was struck having on one side the head of Philip II, on the other two clasped hands with the motto Fidèle au roy, jusqu'à porter la besace. The original league of Beggars was short-lived, crushed by Alva, but its principles survived and were to be triumphant. In the Dutch language the word geuzennaam is used for linguistic reappropriation: a pejorative term used with pride by the people called that way. In 1569 William of Orange, who had now placed himself at the head of the party of revolt, granted letters of marque to a number of vessels manned by crews of desperadoes drawn from all nationalities.
Eighteen ships received letters of marque, which were equipped by Louis of Nassau in the French Huguenot port of La Rochelle, which they continued to use as a base. By the end of 1569 84 Sea Beggars ships were in action; the sea beggars were powerful military units. These fierce privateers under the command of a succession of daring and reckless leaders, the best-known of whom is William de la Marck, Lord of Lumey, were called "Sea Beggars", "Gueux de mer" in French, or "Watergeuzen" in Dutch. At first they were content to plunder both by sea and land, carrying their booty to the English ports where they were able to refit and replenish their stores. However, in 1572, Queen Elizabeth I of England abruptly refused to admit the Sea Beggars to her harbours. No longer having refuge, the Sea Beggars, under the command of Willem Bloys van Treslong, made a desperate attack upon Brielle, which they seized by surprise in the absence of the Spanish garrison on 1 April 1572. Encouraged by this success, they now sailed to Vlissingen, taken by a coup de main.
The capture of these two towns prompted several nearby towns to declare for revolt, starting a chain reaction that resulted in the majority of Holland joining in a general revolt of the Netherlands, is regarded as the real beginning of Dutch independence. In 1573 the Sea Beggars defeated a Spanish squadron under the command of Admiral Bossu off the port of Hoorn in the Battle on the Zuiderzee. Mixing with the native population, they sparked rebellions against Duke of Alba in town after town and spread the resistance southward; some of the forefathers of the Dutch naval heroes began their naval careers as Sea Beggars, such as Evert Heindricxzen, the grandfather of Cornelis Evertsen the Elder. As part of a propaganda campaign including prints and much else, many Geuzen medals were created as badges of affiliation, using a wide range of symbolism, including that associated with the Ottoman Empire. William I of Orange sought Ottoman assistance against the Spanish king Philip II; the "Geuzen" were expressing their anti-Catholic sentiments.
They considered the Turks to be less threatening than the Spaniards. During the years between 1579 and 1582, representatives from Grand Vizier Sokollu Mehmed Paşa travelled several times from Istanbul to Antwerp. There were, in fact, objective grounds for such an alliance. At the same time that the Dutch rebels were conducting their raids on Spanish shipping, the Ottoman Empire was involved in its own naval war with Spain, culminating in the 1571 Battle of Lepanto. Facing Spain with a coordinated double-pronged naval challenge, by the Ottomans in the Mediterranean and the Dutch in north European waters, would be to the advantage of both of Spain's foes; the slogan Liever Turks dan Paaps seems to have been rhetorical, their beggars medals in the form of a half moon were meant symbolically. The Dutch hardly contemplated life under the Sultan. Moreover, there was no direct contact between the Turkish authorities; the Turks were considered infidels, the heresy of Islam alone disqualified them from assuming a more central role in the rebels' propaganda.
The Geuzen are featured prominently in Dutch and Flemish popular novels, such as Charles
Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, 3rd Duke of Alba
Fernando Álvarez de Toledo y Pimentel, 3rd Duke of Alba, GE, KOGF, GR, known as the Grand Duke of Alba in Spain and the Iron Duke in the Netherlands, was a Spanish noble and diplomat. He was titled the 3rd Duke of Alba de Tormes, 4th Marquess of Coria, 3rd Count of Salvatierra de Tormes, 2nd Count of Piedrahita, 8th Lord of Valdecorneja, Grandee of Spain, a Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece, his motto in Latin was Deo patrum Nostrorum, which in English means "To the God of our fathers". He was an adviser of King Charles I of Spain, his successor, Philip II of Spain, Mayordomo mayor of both, member of their Councils of State and War, governor of the Duchy of Milan, viceroy of the Kingdom of Naples, governor of the Netherlands and viceroy and constable of the Kingdom of Portugal, he represented Philip II in negotiating Philip's betrothal to Elisabeth of Valois and Anna of Austria, who were the third and fourth, last, wives of the king. By some historians he is considered the most effective general of his generation as well as one of the greatest in military history.
Although a tough leader, he was respected by his troops. He touched their sentiments e.g. by addressing them in his speeches as "gentlemen soldiers", but was popular among them for daring statements such as: Kings use men like oranges, first they squeeze the juice and throw away the peel. Alba distinguished himself in the conquest of Tunis during the Ottoman-Habsburg wars when Carlos I defeated Hayreddin Barbarossa and returned the Spanish Monarchy to predominance over the western Mediterranean Sea, he distinguished himself in the battle of Mühlberg, where the army of Emperor Charles defeated the German Protestant princes. On December 26, 1566 he received the Golden Rose, the blessed sword and hat granted by Pope Pius V, through the papal brief Solent Romani Pontifices, in recognition of his singular efforts in favor of Catholicism and for being considered one of his championsHe is best known for his actions against the revolt of the Netherlands, where he instituted the Council of Troubles, defeated the troops of William of Orange and Louis of Nassau during the first stages of the Eighty Years' War.
He is known for the brutalities during the capture of Mechelen, Zutphen and Haarlem. In spite of these military successes, the Dutch revolt was not broken and Alba was recalled to Spain, his last military successes were in the Portuguese succession crisis of 1580, winning the Battle of Alcantara and conquering that kingdom for Philip II. Spain unified all the kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula and expanded its overseas territories. Fernando was born in Piedrahíta, Province of Ávila, on 29 October 1507, he was the son of García Álvarez de Toledo y Zúñiga, heir of Fadrique Álvarez de Toledo and Enríquez de Quiñones, II Duke of Alba de Tormes, of Beatriz Pimentel, daughter of Rodrigo Alonso Pimentel, IV Count - I Duke of Benavente and his wife, María Pacheco. Fernando was orphaned at age three when his father, García, died during a campaign on the island of Djerba in Africa in 1510. At the age of six, Fernando accompanied his grandfather, the second duke of Alba on a military mission to capture Navarre.
His youth and education were typical for Castilian nobility of the age. He was educated at the ducal court of the House of Alba, located in the Castle Palace of Alba de Tormes, by two Italian preceptors, Bernardo Gentile - a Sicilian Benedictine - and Severo Marini and by the Spanish Renaissance poet and writer Juan Boscan, he was educated in humanism. He mastered Latin and knew French and German. In 1524, when he was seventeen, he joined the troops of Constable of Castile, Íñigo Fernández de Velasco, II Duke of Frías, during the capture of Fuenterrabía occupied by France and Navarre. For his role in the siege, Fernando was appointed governor of Fuenterrabía; when his grandfather Fadrique died in 1531, the ducal title passed to Fernando as the firstborn son of Garcia. Throughout his adulthood, he served the Spanish monarchs Charles I and his successor Philip II. In 1541 Fernando Álvarez de Toledo was named Mayordomo Mayor del Rey de España by Charles I of Spain. Alba kept this Office in court until the death of the monarch in 1556.
In 1546, Charles I invested Fernando, the Third Duke of Alba Grand Master as knight of the Illustrious Order of the Golden Fleece. From 1548 King Charles intensified the preparations of Prince Philip as his successor in the Spanish Monarchy, he named Duke of Alba mayordomo mayor of his son to prepare Philip for his new role. Fernando took Philip on a tour around Europe that lasted until 1551. Fernando accompanied Philip to England to attend his marriage to Mary Tudor; the Duke was one of fifteen grandees of Spain who attended the ceremony in the abbey of Winchester on 25 July 1554. After the death of Charles, the new King Philip II maintained Fernando Third Duke of Alba as mayordomo mayor until the death of the Duke in 1582. In 1563, King Philip II created the title Duke of Huéscar to be bestowed on the heir of the Dukes of Alba. Fadrique Álvarez de Toledo, son of Fernando became 1st Duke of Huéscar. In 1566, Alba's son and heir, broke his promise of marriage to Magdalena de Guzman, lady of Queen Anne of Austria, which led to his arrest and imprisonment in the Castle of La Mota in Valladolid.
The following year he was released so he could go to Flanders with his father to serve in the military. In 1578 Philip II ordered the case against Fadrique reopened, it was discovered that in order to avoid marriage, Fadrique had secret
Mechelen is a city and municipality in the province of Antwerp, Belgium. The municipality comprises the city of Mechelen proper, some quarters at its outskirts, the hamlets of Nekkerspoel and Battel, as well as the villages of Walem, Leest and Muizen; the Dyle flows through the city, hence it is referred to as the Dijlestad. Mechelen lies on the major urban and industrial axis Brussels–Antwerp, about 25 km from each city. Inhabitants find employment at Mechelen's southern industrial and northern office estates, as well as at offices or industry near the capital and Zaventem Airport, or at industrial plants near Antwerp's seaport. Mechelen is one of Flanders' prominent cities of historical art, with Antwerp, Brussels and Leuven, it was notably a centre for artistic production during the Northern Renaissance, when painters, printmakers and composers of polyphony were attracted by patrons such as Margaret of York, Margaret of Austria and Hieronymus van Busleyden. Archaeological proof of habitation during the La Tène era in the triangle Brussels-Leuven-Antwerp concentrated around Mechelen which originated in wetlands, includes an 8.4 metre long canoe cut from an oak tree trunk and a settlement of about five wooden houses, at Nekkerspoel.
The area of Mechelen was settled on the banks of the river during the Gallo-Roman period as evidenced by several Roman ruins and roads. Upon Rome's declining influence, during 3rd–4th centuries the area became inhabited by Germanic tribes. A few centuries Christianized assumedly by the Irish or Scottish missionary St Rumbold, said to have built a monastery. Work on the cathedral, dedicated to the saint started around 1200. Antwerp lost profitable stapelrechten for wool and salt to Mechelen in 1303 when John II, Duke of Brabant, granted City rights to the town; this started a rivalry between these cities. In the 15th century, the city came under the rule of the Dukes of Burgundy, marking the beginning of a prosperous period. In 1473 Charles the Bold moved several political bodies to the city, Mechelen served as the seat of the Superior Court until the French Revolution. In 1490, a regular postal service between Mechelen and Innsbruck was established; the lucrative cloth trade gained Mechelen wealth and power during the Late Middle Ages and it became the capital of the Low Countries in the first half of the 16th century under Archduchess Margaret of Austria.
During the 16th century the city's political influence decreased due to many governmental institutions being moved to Brussels. Mechelen compensated for this by increasing prominence in the religious arena: in 1559 it was proclaimed the Archdiocese of Mechelen, seat of religious authority over the territory that would become Belgium. In 1961, "Brussels" was added to the title, resulting in the current Archdiocese of Mechelen-Brussels. Mechelen retained further relevance as the Great Council of Mechelen remained the supreme court of the territory until the French Revolutionary Wars. In 1572, during the Eighty Years' War, the city sacked by the Spanish. After this pillaging, the city was rebuilt, it was during this time. In 1718 a major rebellion took place in the city, angry mobs entered the town hall. During this time Lord Pierre de Romrée was mayor of Mechelen; the chaos ended when the Emperor formally requested the President of the Great Council to restore peace. On 18 June, Christophe-Ernest de Baillet received a full list of the people.
The President received the support of multiple regiments, sent by imperial command. Ten persons were arrested during the night, however this failed and the people managed to pursue the rebellion. After negotiations de Baillet restored order in the city. In 1781, Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor, ordered the destruction of the city's fortified walls – their former location however continues to be referred to in the Latin terms intra muros and extra muros, meanwhile the site became that of the inner ring road; the city entered the industrial age in the 19th century. In 1835, the first railway on the European continent linked Brussels with Mechelen, which became the hub of the Belgian railway network; this led to a development of metalworking industries, among others the central railway workshops which are still located in the town today. During the Second World War, the extensive Mechlinian railway structure had caused the Nazi occupation forces to choose Mechelen for their infamous transit camp. Over 25,000 Jews and Roma were sent by rail to the Auschwitz-Birkenau extermination camp from Mechelen.
The site of the transit camp now houses the Jewish Museum of Resistance. Several famous meetings on the Christian religion are connected to the name of the city. One in 1909 is thought to have inaugurated the Liturgical Movement. Between 1921 and 1925 a series of unofficial conferences, known as the Malines Conversations, presided over by Cardinal Mercier and attended by Anglican divines and laymen, including Lord Halifax, was the most significant of early attempts at the reconciliation between the Anglican and Roman Catholic Churches. Most cities in Flanders have a mock name for their inhabitants. Since 1687, for their heroic attempt to fight the fire high up in the Saint-Rumbold's Tower, where the gothic windows had shown the flaring of only the moon betw
Roman law is the legal system of ancient Rome, including the legal developments spanning over a thousand years of jurisprudence, from the Twelve Tables, to the Corpus Juris Civilis ordered by Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian I. Roman law forms the basic framework for civil law, the most used legal system today, the terms are sometimes used synonymously; the historical importance of Roman law is reflected by the continued use of Latin legal terminology in many legal systems influenced by it, including common law. After the dissolution of the Western Roman Empire, the Roman law remained in effect in the Eastern Roman Empire. From the 7th century onward, the legal language in the East was Greek. Roman law denoted the legal system applied in most of Western Europe until the end of the 18th century. In Germany, Roman law practice remained in place longer under the Holy Roman Empire. Roman law thus served as a basis for legal practice throughout Western continental Europe, as well as in most former colonies of these European nations, including Latin America, in Ethiopia.
English and Anglo-American common law were influenced by Roman law, notably in their Latinate legal glossary. Eastern Europe was influenced by the jurisprudence of the Corpus Juris Civilis in countries such as medieval Romania which created a new system, a mixture of Roman and local law. Eastern European law was influenced by the "Farmer's Law" of the medieval Byzantine legal system. Before the Twelve Tables, private law comprised the Roman civil law that applied only to Roman citizens, was bonded to religion; the jurist Sextus Pomponius said, "At the beginning of our city, the people began their first activities without any fixed law, without any fixed rights: all things were ruled despotically, by kings". It is believed that Roman Law is rooted in the Etruscan religion; the first legal text is the Law of the Twelve Tables, dating from the mid-5th century BC. The plebeian tribune, C. Terentilius Arsa, proposed that the law should be written, in order to prevent magistrates from applying the law arbitrarily.
After eight years of political struggle, the plebeian social class convinced the patricians to send a delegation to Athens, to copy the Laws of Solon. In 451 BC, according to the traditional story, ten Roman citizens were chosen to record the laws. While they were performing this task, they were given supreme political power, whereas the power of the magistrates was restricted. In 450 BC, the decemviri produced the laws on ten tablets, but these laws were regarded as unsatisfactory by the plebeians. A second decemvirate is said to have added two further tablets in 449 BC; the new Law of the Twelve Tables was approved by the people's assembly. Modern scholars tend to challenge the accuracy of Roman historians, they do not believe that a second decemvirate took place. The decemvirate of 451 is believed to have included the most controversial points of customary law, to have assumed the leading functions in Rome. Furthermore, the question on the Greek influence found in the early Roman Law is still much discussed.
Many scholars consider it unlikely that the patricians sent an official delegation to Greece, as the Roman historians believed. Instead, those scholars suggest, the Romans acquired Greek legislations from the Greek cities of Magna Graecia, the main portal between the Roman and Greek worlds; the original text of the Twelve Tables has not been preserved. The tablets were destroyed when Rome was conquered and burned by the Gauls in 387 BC; the fragments which did survive show. It did not provide a complete and coherent system of all applicable rules or give legal solutions for all possible cases. Rather, the tables contained specific provisions designed to change the then-existing customary law. Although the provisions pertain to all areas of law, the largest part is dedicated to private law and civil procedure. Many laws include Lex Canuleia, Leges Licinae Sextiae, Lex Ogulnia, Lex Hortensia. Another important statute from the Republican era is the Lex Aquilia of 286 BC, which may be regarded as the root of modern tort law.
However, Rome's most important contribution to European legal culture was not the enactment of well-drafted statutes, but the emergence of a class of professional jurists and of a legal science. This was achieved in a gradual process of applying the scientific methods of Greek philosophy to the subject of law, a subject which the Greeks themselves never treated as a science. Traditionally, the origins of Roman legal science are connected to Gnaeus Flavius. Flavius is said to have published around the year 300 BC the formularies containing the words which had to be spoken in court to begin a legal action. Before the time of Flavius, these formularies are said to have been secret and known only to the priests, their publication made it possible for non-priests to explore the mea
Philip de Montmorency, Count of Horn
Philip de Montmorency known as Count of Horn or Hoorne or Hoorn, was a victim of the Inquisition in the Spanish Netherlands. De Montmorency was born as the eldest of four children of Josef van Montmorency, Count of Nevele and Anna van Egmont the Elder, who had married shortly after August 26, 1523, lived at Ooidonk Castle, his father died early in 1530 in Bologna, where he was for the coronation of Charles V as Holy Roman Emperor. His mother remarried Johan II, Count of Horn, one of the wealthiest nobles of the Netherlands, who, in 1540, left the County of Horne to his wife's children on condition they assume his name. A page and chamberlain at the court of Charles V, de Montmorency married Walburgis van Nieuwenaer in 1546, he became stadtholder of Guelders in 1555, an Admiral of Flanders, a knight of the Golden Fleece in 1556. In 1559 he commanded the stately fleet which conveyed Philip II from the Netherlands to Spain, he remained at the Spanish court until 1563. On his return he placed himself with the Prince of Orange and Count of Egmont at the head of the party which opposed the imposition of the inquisition by Cardinal Granvelle and forced his resignation.
When Granvelle retired, the three nobles continued to resist the introduction of the Spanish Inquisition and of Spanish rule in the Netherlands. In April 1566, the Council of State sent Philip's younger brother, Floris of Montmorency, to Spain in a last attempt to avoid war. However, Floris was kept in house arrest. Although Philip II of Spain appeared to give way, he had made up his mind to punish the opponents of his policy, he replaced the regent, duchess of Parma, with the duke of Alva, who entered the Netherlands at the head of a veteran army. Orange fled from the country, but Egmont and Horn, despite his warning, decided to remain and face the storm, they were both tried at the Council of Troubles and condemned as traitors. Ceaseless but vain efforts were made to obtain a fair trial for Horn, appeals for clemency on his behalf were made by potentates in all parts of the continent. Egmont and Horn were executed by decapitation on 5 June 1568 at the Grand Place before the town hall in Brussels.
Two years Philip II had his still-detained brother Floris strangled in secret and spread the rumor that he had died of disease. Nowadays, a statue erected on the Petit Sablon Square in Brussels commemorates the Counts of Egmont and Horn, in historical overview mentioned together as Egmond en Hoorne and hailed as the first leaders of the Dutch revolt, as the predecessors of William of Orange, who grew to importance and obtained the leadership after their execution, and, assassinated in 1584 in Delft, having succeeded in liberating parts of The Netherlands in the early years of the Eighty Years' War. Van Egmont and De Montmorency, both remained faithful Roman Catholics and are commemorated in Belgium, with its traditional Catholic majority. William of Orange, brought up as a Lutheran, was a proponent of freedom of religion. Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Horn, Philip de Montmorency, Count of". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Rines, George Edwin, ed.. "Hoorn, Count of". Encyclopedia Americana
Philip II of Spain
Philip II was King of Spain, King of Portugal, King of Naples and Sicily, jure uxoris King of England and Ireland. He was Duke of Milan. From 1555 he was lord of the Seventeen Provinces of the Netherlands; the son of Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain Charles V and Isabella of Portugal, Philip was called "Felipe el Prudente" in Spain. During his reign, Spain reached the height of its power; this is sometimes called the Spanish Golden Age. The expression "the empire on which the sun never sets" was coined during Philip's time to reflect the extent of his dominion. During Philip's reign there were separate state bankruptcies in 1557, 1560, 1569, 1575, 1596; this was the cause of the declaration of independence that created the Dutch Republic in 1581. On 31 December 1584 Philip signed the Treaty of Joinville, with Henry I, Duke of Guise signing on behalf of the Catholic League. A devout Catholic, Philip saw himself as the defender of Catholic Europe against the Ottoman Empire and the Protestant Reformation.
He sent a large armada to invade Protestant England in 1588, with the strategic aim of overthrowing Elizabeth I of England and the establishment of Protestantism in England. He hoped to stop both English interference in the Spanish Netherlands and the harm caused to Spanish interests by English and Dutch privateering. Philip was described by the Venetian ambassador Paolo Fagolo in 1563 as "slight of stature and round-faced, with pale blue eyes, somewhat prominent lip, pink skin, but his overall appearance is attractive"; the Ambassador went on to say "He dresses tastefully, everything that he does is courteous and gracious." Besides Mary I, Philip was married three other times and widowed four times. The son of Charles I and V, King of Spain and Holy Roman Emperor and his wife, Isabella of Portugal, Philip was born in the Spanish capital of Valladolid on 21 May 1527 at Palacio de Pimentel, owned by Don Bernardino Pimentel; the culture and courtly life of Spain were an important influence in his early life.
He was tutored by the future Archbishop of Toledo. Philip displayed reasonable aptitude in letters alike, he would study with more illustrious tutors, including the humanist Juan Cristóbal Calvete de Estrella. Though Philip had good command over Latin and Portuguese, he never managed to equal his father, Charles V, as a polyglot. While Philip was a German archduke of the House of Habsburg, he was seen as a foreigner in the Holy Roman Empire; the feeling was mutual. Philip felt himself to be culturally Spanish; this would impede his succession to the imperial throne. In April 1528, when Philip was eleven months old, he received the oath of allegiance as heir to the crown from the Cortes of Castile. From that time until the death of his mother Isabella in 1539, he was raised in the royal court of Castile under the care of his mother and one of her Portuguese ladies, Dona Leonor de Mascarenhas, to whom he was devotedly attached. Philip was close to his two sisters, María and Juana, to his two pages, the Portuguese nobleman Rui Gomes da Silva and Luis de Requesens, the son of his governor Juan de Zúñiga.
These men would serve Philip throughout their lives, as would Antonio Pérez, his secretary from 1541. Philip's martial training was undertaken by his governor, Juan de Zúñiga, a Castilian nobleman who served as the commendador mayor of Castile; the practical lessons in warfare were overseen by the Duke of Alba during the Italian Wars. Philip was present at the Siege of Perpignan in 1542 but did not see action as the Spanish army under Alba decisively defeated the besieging French forces under the Dauphin of France. On his way back to Castile, Philip received the oath of allegiance of the Aragonese Cortes at Monzón, his political training had begun a year under his father, who had found his son studious and prudent beyond his years, having decided to train and initiate him in the government of Spain. The king-emperor's interactions with his son during his stay in Spain convinced him of Philip's precocity in statesmanship, so he determined to leave in his hands the regency of Spain in 1543. Philip, made the Duke of Milan in 1540, began governing the most extensive empire in the world at the young age of sixteen.
Charles left Philip with experienced advisors—notably the secretary Francisco de los Cobos and the general Duke of Alba. Philip was left with extensive written instructions that emphasised "piety, patience and distrust." These principles of Charles were assimilated by his son, who would grow up to become grave, self-possessed and cautious. Philip spoke and had an icy self-mastery. After living in the Netherlands in the early years of his reign, Philip II decided to return to Spain. Although sometimes described as an absolute monarch, Philip faced many constitutional constraints on his authority, influenced by the growing strength of the bureaucracy; the Spanish Empire was not a single monarchy with one legal system but a federation of separate r