United States Department of Health and Human Services
The United States Department of Health & Human Services known as the Health Department, is a cabinet-level department of the U. S. federal government with the goal of protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services. Its motto is "Improving the health and well-being of America". Before the separate federal Department of Education was created in 1979, it was called the Department of Health and Welfare. HHS is administered by the Secretary of Health and Human Services, appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate; the United States Public Health Service is the main division of the HHS and is led by the Assistant Secretary for Health. The current Secretary, Alex Azar, assumed office on January 29, 2018, upon his appointment by President Trump and confirmation by the Senate; the United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, the uniformed service of the PHS, is led by the Surgeon General, responsible for addressing matters concerning public health as authorized by the Secretary or by the Assistant Secretary of Health in addition to his or her primary mission of administering the Commissioned Corps.
The Federal Security Agency was established on July 1, 1939, under the Reorganization Act of 1939, P. L. 76-19. The objective was to bring together in one agency all federal programs in the fields of health and social security; the first Federal Security Administrator was Paul V. McNutt; the new agency consisted of the following major components: Office of the Administrator, Public Health Service, Office of Education, Civilian Conservation Corps, Social Security Board. By 1953, the Federal Security Agency's programs in health and social security had grown to such importance that its annual budget exceeded the combined budgets of the Departments of Commerce, Justice and Interior and affected the lives of millions of people. In accordance with the Reorganization Act of 1949, President Eisenhower submitted to the Congress on March 12, 1953, Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1953, which called for the dissolution of the Federal Security Agency and elevation of the agency to Cabinet status as the Department of Health and Welfare.
The plan was approved April 1, 1953, became effective on April 11, 1953. Unlike statutes authorizing the creation of other executive departments, the contents of Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1953 were never properly codified within the United States Code, although Congress did codify a statute ratifying the Plan. Today, the Plan is included as an appendix to Title 5 of the United States Code; the result is that HHS is the only executive department whose statutory foundation today rests on a confusing combination of several codified and uncodified statutes. The Department of Health and Welfare was created on April 11, 1953, when Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1953 became effective. HEW thus became the first new Cabinet-level department since the Department of Labor was created in 1913; the Reorganization Plan abolished the FSA and transferred all of its functions to the Secretary of HEW and all components of the Agency to the Department. The first Secretary of HEW was Oveta Culp Hobby, a native of Texas, who had served as Commander of the Women's Army Corps in World War II and was editor and publisher of the Houston Post.
Sworn in on April 11, 1953, as Secretary, she had been FSA Administrator since January 21, 1953. The six major program-operating components of the new Department were the Public Health Service, the Office of Education, the Food and Drug Administration, the Social Security Administration, the Office of Vocational Rehabilitation, St. Elizabeth's Hospital; the Department was responsible for three federally aided corporations: Howard University, the American Printing House for the Blind, the Columbia Institution for the Deaf. The Department of Health and Welfare was renamed the Department of Health & Human Services in 1979, when its education functions were transferred to the newly created United States Department of Education under the Department of Education Organization Act. HHS was left in charge of the Social Security Administration, agencies constituting the Public Health Service, Family Support Administration. In 1995, the Social Security Administration was removed from the Department of Health & Human Services, established as an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States Government.
The 2010 United States federal budget established a reserve fund of more than $630 billion over 10 years to finance fundamental reform of the health care system. The Department of Health & Human Services is led by the United States Secretary of Health and Human Services, a member of the United States Cabinet appointed by the President of the United States with the consent of the United States Senate; the Secretary is assisted in managing the Department by the Deputy Secretary of Health and Human Services, appointed by the President. The Secretary and Deputy Secretary are further assisted by seven Assistant Secretaries, who serve as top Departmental administrators; as of Jan. 20, 2018, this is the top level of the organizational chart. HHS provides further organizational detail on its website. Several agencies within HHS are components of the USPHS or Public Health Service. Secretary, Deputy Secretary, Chief of Staff The Executive Secretariat Office of Intergovernmental and External Affairs Headquarters Staff Regional Offices Office of Human Resources Office of Health Reform Office of the Secretary Office of the Assistant Secretary for Administration Office of the Assistant Secretary for F
United States Department of Education
The United States Department of Education referred to as the ED for Education Department, is a Cabinet-level department of the United States government. It began operating on May 4, 1980, having been created after the Department of Health and Welfare was split into the Department of Education and the Department of Health and Human Services by the Department of Education Organization Act, which President Jimmy Carter signed into law on October 17, 1979; the Department of Education is administered by the United States Secretary of Education. It has an annual budget of $68 billion; the 2019 Budget supports $129.8 billion in new postsecondary grants and work-study assistance to help an estimated 11.5 million students and their families pay for college. Its official abbreviation is "ED" and is often abbreviated informally as "DoEd"; the primary functions of the Department of Education are to "establish policy for and coordinate most federal assistance to education, collect data on US schools, to enforce federal educational laws regarding privacy and civil rights."
The Department of Education does not establish colleges. Unlike the systems of most other countries, education in the United States is decentralized, the federal government and Department of Education are not involved in determining curricula or educational standards; this has been left to state and local school districts. The quality of educational institutions and their degrees is maintained through an informal private process known as accreditation, over which the Department of Education has no direct public jurisdictional control; the Department of Education is a member of the United States Interagency Council on Homelessness, works with federal partners to ensure proper education for homeless and runaway youth in the United States. Opposition to the Department of Education stems from conservatives, who see the department as an undermining of states rights, libertarians who believe it results in a state-imposed leveling towards the bottom and low value for taxpayers' money; the U. S. Department of Education oversees the nation's education system.
The Department sets uniform standards which are applied nationwide. “Since the Department of Education began operations in fiscal year 1980, its mission has included promoting student achievement and ensuring equal access to educational opportunity. To do so, Education partners with state and local governments, which provide most of the resources to school districts for K-12 programs". Civil Rights and Equal Opportunity is one of the most forefront issues, discussed about within the U. S. Department of Education’s four walls; the goal of this agency is to make sure that every student in primary and secondary education has the tools that they need to succeed. Not all of their ideas always work out in the best favor of the students. Throughout recent history, the educational system has not always been focused on furthering the development of all students. However, coming out of the 20th century this ideal has been turned around and many new legislations have been put in place to break down these invisible walls that were surrounding the people who were affected by this hindrance.
“The U. S. like other countries in the 21st century, is operating in an interconnected world. New structures require that teachers and our next generations of students prepare and expand ideas about their responsibilities as citizens". For 2006, the ED discretionary budget was $56 billion and the mandatory budget contained $23 billion. In 2009 it received additional ARRA funding of $102 billion; as of 2011, the discretionary budget is $70 billion. A previous Department of Education was created in 1867 but was soon demoted to an Office in 1868; as an agency not represented in the president's cabinet, it became a minor bureau in the Department of the Interior. In 1939, the bureau was transferred to the Federal Security Agency, where it was renamed the Office of Education. In 1953, the Federal Security Agency was upgraded to cabinet-level status as the Department of Health and Welfare. In 1979, President Carter advocated for creating a cabinet-level Department of Education. Carter's plan was to transfer most of the Department of Health and Welfare's education-related functions to the Department of Education.
Carter planned to transfer the education-related functions of the departments of Defense, Justice and Urban Development, Agriculture, as well as a few other federal entities. Among the federal education-related programs that were not proposed to be transferred were Headstart, the Department of Agriculture's school lunch and nutrition programs, the Department of the Interior's Native Americans' education programs, the Department of Labor's education and training programs. Upgrading Education to cabinet level status in 1979 was opposed by many in the Republican Party, who saw the department as unconstitutional, arguing that the Constitution doesn't mention education, deemed it an unnecessary and illegal federal bureaucratic intrusion into local affairs. However, many see the department as constitutional under the Commerce Clause, that the funding role of the Department is constitutional under the Taxing and Spending Clause; the National Education Association supported the bill, while the American Federation of Teachers opposed it.
As of 1979, the Office of Education had an annual budget of $12 billion. Congress appropriated to the Department of Education an annual budget of $14 billion and 17,000
Social work is an academic discipline and profession that concerns itself with individuals, families and communities in an effort to enhance social functioning and overall well-being. Social functioning refers to the way in which people perform their social roles, the structural institutions that are provided to sustain them. Social work applies social sciences, such as sociology, political science, public health, community development and economics, to engage with client systems, conduct assessments, develop interventions to solve social and personal problems. Social work practice is divided into micro-work, which involves working directly with individuals or small groups. Social work developed in the 19th century, with roots in voluntary philanthropy and grassroots organizing. However, the act of responding to social needs have existed long before primarily from private charities, religious organizations; the effects of the Industrial Revolution and the Great Depression placed pressure on social work to become a more defined discipline.
Social work is a broad profession. Social work organizations offer the following definitions: “Social work is a practice-based profession and an academic discipline that promotes social change and development, social cohesion, the empowerment and liberation of people. Principles of social justice, human rights, collective responsibility and respect for diversities are central to social work. Underpinned by theories of social work, social sciences and indigenous knowledge, social work engages people and structures to address life challenges and enhance wellbeing." International Federation of Social Workers "Social work is a profession concerned with helping individuals, families and communities to enhance their individual and collective well-being. It aims to help people develop their skills and their ability to use their own resources and those of the community to resolve problems. Social work is concerned with individual and personal problems but with broader social issues such as poverty and domestic violence."
- Canadian Association of Social Workers Social work practice consists of the professional application of social work values and techniques to one or more of the following ends: helping people obtain tangible services. The practice of social work requires knowledge of human behavior; this may be helping to protect vulnerable people from harm or abuse or supporting people to live independently. Social workers support people, act as advocates and direct people to the services they may require. Social workers work in multi-disciplinary teams alongside health and education professionals." - British Association of Social Workers The practice and profession of social work has a modern and scientific origin, is considered to have developed out of three strands. The first was individual casework, a strategy pioneered by the Charity Organization Society in the mid-19th century, founded by Helen Bosanquet and Octavia Hill in London, England. Most historians identify COS as the pioneering organization of the social theory that led to the emergence of social work as a professional occupation.
COS had its main focus on individual casework. The second was social administration, which included various forms of poverty relief –'relief of paupers'. Statewide poverty relief could be said to have its roots in the English Poor Laws of the 17th century, but was first systematized through the efforts of the Charity Organization Society; the third consisted of social action – rather than engaging in the resolution of immediate individual requirements, the emphasis was placed on political action working through the community and the group to improve their social conditions and thereby alleviate poverty. This approach was developed by the Settlement House Movement; this was accompanied by a less defined movement. All had their most rapid growth during the nineteenth century, laid the foundation basis for modern social work, both in theory and in practice. Professional social work originated in 19th century England, had its roots in the social and economic upheaval wrought by the Industrial Revolution, in particular the societal struggle to deal with the resultant mass urban-based poverty and its related problems.
Because poverty was the main focus of early social work, it was intricately linked with the idea of charity work. Other important historical figures that shaped the growth of the social work profession are Jane Addams, who founded the Hull House in Chicago and won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1931. Social work is an interdisciplinary profession, meaning it draws from a number of areas, s
Performance measurement is the process of collecting, analyzing and/or reporting information regarding the performance of an individual, organization, system or component. Performance measurement is not a new concept, some of the earliest records of human activity relate to the counting or recording of activities. Definitions of performance measurement tend to be predicated upon an assumption about why the performance is being measured. Moullin defines the term with a forward looking organisational focus - "the process of evaluating how well organisations are managed and the value they deliver for customers and other stakeholders”. Neely et al. use a more operational retrospective focus "the process of quantifying the efficiency and effectiveness of past actions". In 2007 the Office of the Chief Information Officer in the USA defined it using a more evaluative focus - "Performance measurement estimates the parameters under which programs and acquisitions are reaching the targeted results". Beyond a simple agreement about it being linked to some kind of measurement of performance there is little consensus about how to define or use performance measures.
In the light of this what has happened is the emergence of organising frameworks that incorporate performance measures and also proscribe methods for choosing and using the appropriate measures for that application. The most common such frameworks include: Balanced Scorecard - used by organisations to manage the implementation of corporate strategies. Key performance indicator - a method for choosing important / critical performance measures in an organisational contextOperational standards include pre-defined lists of standard performance measures. For example EN 15341 identifies 71 performance indicators, whereof 21 are technical indicators, or those in a US Federal Government directive from 1999 - National Partnership for Reinventing Government, USA. Defining performance measures or methods by which they can be chosen is a popular activity for academics - for example a list of railway infrastructure indicators is offered by Stenström et al, a novel method for measure selection is proposed by Mendibil et al.
Academic articles that provide critical reviews of performance measurement in specific domains are common - e.g. Ittner's observations on non-financial reporting by commercial organisations, or Boris et al's observations about use of performance measurement in non-profit organisations
National Institutes of Health
The National Institutes of Health is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and public health research. It was founded in the late 1870s and is now part of the United States Department of Health and Human Services; the majority of NIH facilities are located in Maryland. The NIH conducts its own scientific research through its Intramural Research Program and provides major biomedical research funding to non-NIH research facilities through its Extramural Research Program; as of 2013, the IRP had 1,200 principal investigators and more than 4,000 postdoctoral fellows in basic and clinical research, being the largest biomedical research institution in the world, while, as of 2003, the extramural arm provided 28% of biomedical research funding spent annually in the U. S. or about US$26.4 billion. The NIH comprises 27 separate institutes and centers of different biomedical disciplines and is responsible for many scientific accomplishments, including the discovery of fluoride to prevent tooth decay, the use of lithium to manage bipolar disorder, the creation of vaccines against hepatitis, Haemophilus influenzae, human papillomavirus.
NIH's roots extend back to the Marine Hospital Service in the late 1790s that provided medical relief to sick and disabled men in the U. S. Navy. By 1870, a network of marine hospitals had developed and was placed under the charge of a medical officer within the Bureau of the Treasury Department. In the late 1870s, Congress allocated funds to investigate the causes of epidemics like cholera and yellow fever, it created the National Board of Health, making medical research an official government initiative. In 1887, a laboratory for the study of bacteria, the Hygienic Laboratory, was established at the Marine Hospital in New York. In the early 1900s, Congress began appropriating funds for the Marine Hospital Service. By 1922, this organization changed its name to Public Health Services and established a Special Cancer Investigations laboratory at Harvard Medical School; this marked the beginning of a partnership with universities. In 1930, the Hygienic Laboratory was re-designated as the National Institute of Health by the Ransdell Act, was given $750,000 to construct two NIH buildings.
Over the next few decades, Congress would increase funding tremendously to the NIH, various institutes and centers within the NIH were created for specific research programs. In 1944, the Public Health Service Act was approved, the National Cancer Institute became a division of NIH. In 1948, the name changed from National Institute of Health to National Institutes of Health. In the 1960s, virologist and cancer researcher Chester M. Southam injected HeLa cancer cells into patients at the Jewish Chronic Disease Hospital; when three doctors resigned after refusing to inject patients without their consent, the experiment gained considerable media attention. The NIH was a major source of funding for Southam's research and had required all research involving human subjects to obtain their consent prior to any experimentation. Upon investigating all of their grantee institutions, the NIH discovered that the majority of them did not protect the rights of human subjects. From on, the NIH has required all grantee institutions to approve any research proposals involving human experimentation with review boards.
In 1967, the Division of Regional Medical Programs was created to administer grants for research for heart disease and strokes. That same year, the NIH director lobbied the White House for increased federal funding in order to increase research and the speed with which health benefits could be brought to the people. An advisory committee was formed to oversee further development of the NIH and its research programs. By 1971 cancer research was in full force and President Nixon signed the National Cancer Act, initiating a National Cancer Program, President's Cancer Panel, National Cancer Advisory Board, 15 new research and demonstration centers. Funding for the NIH has been a source of contention in Congress, serving as a proxy for the political currents of the time. In 1992, the NIH encompassed nearly 1 percent of the federal government's operating budget and controlled more than 50 percent of all funding for health research, 85 percent of all funding for health studies in universities. While government funding for research in other disciplines has been increasing at a rate similar to inflation since the 1970s, research funding for the NIH nearly tripled through the 1990s and early 2000s, but has remained stagnant since then.
By the 1990s, the NIH committee focus had shifted to DNA research, launched the Human Genome Project. The NIH Office of the Director is the central office responsible for setting policy for NIH, for planning and coordinating the programs and activities of all NIH components; the NIH Director plays an active role in shaping outlook. The Director is responsible for providing leadership to the Institutes and Centers by identifying needs and opportunities in efforts involving multiple Institutes. Within this Office is the Division of Program Coordination and Strategic Initiatives with 12 divisions including: Office of AIDS Research Office of Research on Women's Health Office of Disease Prevention Sexual and Gender Minority Research Office Tribal Heath Research Office Office of Program Evaluation and PerformancePrevious directors: Joseph J. Kinyoun, served August 1887 – April 30, 1899 Milton J. Rosenau, served May 1, 1899 – September 30, 1909 John F. Anderson, served October 1, 1909 – November 19, 1915 George W. McCoy, served November 20, 1915 – January 31, 1937 Lewis R. Thompson, served February 1, 1937 – January 31, 1942 R
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration
The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration is a branch of the U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, it is charged with improving the quality and availability of treatment and rehabilitative services in order to reduce illness, death and the cost to society resulting from substance abuse and mental illnesses. The Administrator of SAMHSA reports directly to the Secretary of the U. S. Department of Health and Human Services. SAMHSA's headquarters building is located outside of Maryland. SAMHSA was established in 1992 by Congress as part of a reorganization of the Federal administration of mental health services. ADAMHA had passed through a series of name changes and organizational arrangements throughout its history: Narcotics Division Division of Mental Hygiene Mental Hygiene Division, Bureau of Medical Services NIMH, National Institutes of Health NIMH NIMH, Health Services and Mental Health Administration NIMH, NIH National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, NIMH ADAMHA, established 1973.
Congress directed SAMHSA to target substance abuse and mental health services to the people most in need and to translate research in these areas more and into the general health care system. Charles Curie was SAMHSA's Director until his resignation in May 2006. In December 2006 Terry Cline was appointed as SAMHSA's Director. Dr. Cline served through August 2008. Rear Admiral Eric Broderick served as the Acting Director upon Dr. Cline's departure, until the arrival of the succeeding Administrator, Pamela S. Hyde, J. D. in November 2009. She resigned in August 2015 and Kana Enomoto, M. A. served as Acting Director of SAMHSA until Dr. Elinore F. McCance-Katz was appointed as the inaugural Assistant Secretary for Mental Health and Substance Abuse; the title was changed by Section 6001 of the 21st Century Cures Act. SAMHSA's mission is to reduce the impact of substance abuse and mental illness on American's communities. Four SAMHSA offices, called Centers, administer competitive and block grant programs and data collection activities: The Center for Mental Health Services focuses on prevention and treatment of mental disorders.
The Center for Substance Abuse Prevention seeks to reduce the abuse of illegal drugs and tobacco. The Center for Substance Abuse Treatment supports effective substance abuse treatment and recovery services; the Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality collects and publishes behavior health data. The Centers give grant and contracts to U. S. states, tribes and local organizations. They support the provision of quality behavioral-health services such as addiction-prevention and recovery-support services through competitive Programs of Regional and National Significance grants. Several staff offices support the Centers: Office of the Administrator Office of Policy and Innovation Office of Behavioral Health Equity Office of Financial Resources Office of Management and Operations Office of Communications Office of Tribal Affairs and Policy The Center for Mental Health Services is a unit of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration within the U. S. Department of Health and Human Services.
This U. S. government agency describes its role as: The Center for Mental Health Services leads federal efforts to promote the prevention and treatment of mental disorders. Congress created CMHS to bring new hope to adults who have serious mental illness and children with emotional disorders; as of March 2016, the director of CMHS is Paolo del Vecchio. CMHS is the driving force behind the largest US children's mental health initiative to date, focused on creating and sustaining systems of care; this initiative provides grants to States, political subdivisions of States, Indian Tribes and tribal organizations to improve and expand their Systems Of Care to meet the needs of the focus population—children and adolescents with serious emotional, behavioral, or mental disorders. The Children's Mental Health Initiative is the largest Federal commitment to children’s mental health to date, through FY 2006, it has provided over $950 million to support SOC development in 126 communities; the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention aims to reduce the use of illegal substances and the abuse of legal ones.
CSAP promotes self-esteem and cultural pride as a way to reduce the attractiveness of drugs, advocates raising taxes as a way to discourage drinking alcohol by young people, develops alcohol and drug curricula, funds research on alcohol and drug abuse prevention. CSAP encourages the use of "evidence-based programs" for alcohol prevention. Evidence-based programs are programs that have been rigorously and scientifically evaluated to show effectiveness in reducing or preventing drug use; the current director of CSAP is Frances Harding. CSAP was established in 1992 from the previous Office of Substance Abuse Prevention by the law called the ADAMHA Reorganization Act. Defining regulations include those of Title 42; the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment was established in October 1992 with a Congressional mandate to expand the availability of effective treatment and recovery services for alcohol and drug problems. CSAT supports a variety of activities aimed at fulfilling its mission: To improve the lives of individuals and families affected by alcohol and drug abuse by ensuring access to clinically sound, cost-effective addiction treatment that reduces the health and social costs to our commun
The field of social medicine seeks to implement social care through understanding how social and economic conditions impact health and the practice of medicine and fostering conditions in which this understanding can lead to a healthier society. Social medicine as a scientific field began in the early 19th century, the Industrial Revolution and the subsequent increase in poverty and disease among workers raised concerns about the effect of social processes on the health of the poor; the field of social medicine is most addressed today by public health efforts to understand what are known as social determinants of health. The major emphasis on biomedical science in medical education, health care, medical research has resulted into a gap with our understanding and acknowledgement of far more important social determinants of public health and individual disease: social-economic inequalities, illiteracy, detrimental life-styles, discrimination because of race and religion. Farmer et al. gave the following explanation for this gap:'The holy grail of modern medicine remains the search for a molecular basis of disease.
While the practical yield of such circumscribed inquiry has been enormous, exclusive focus on molecular-level phenomena has contributed to the increasing "desocialization" of scientific inquiry: a tendency to ask only biological questions about what are in fact biosocial phenomena.' They further concluded that'Biosocial understandings of medical phenomena are urgently needed'. Social care traditionally takes a different look at issues of impairment and disability by adopting a holistic perspective on health; the social model was developed as a direct response to the medical model, the social model sees barriers not just as a biomedical issue, but as caused in part by the society we live in – as a product of the physical and social worlds that lead to discrimination. Social care advocates equality of opportunities for vulnerable sections of society. German physician Rudolf Virchow laid foundations for this model. Other prominent figures in the history of social medicine, beginning from the 20th century, include Salvador Allende, Henry E. Sigerist, Thomas McKeown, Victor W. Sidel, Howard Waitzkin, more Paul Farmer and Jim Yong Kim.
In The Second Sickness, Howard Waitzkin traces the history of social medicine from Engels, through Virchow, through Allende. Waitzkin has sought to educate North Americans about the contributions of Latin American Social Medicine. In 1976, the British public health scientist and health care critic, Thomas McKeown, MD, published The role of medicine: Dream, mirage or nemesis?, wherein he summarized facts and arguments that supported what became known as the McKeown's thesis, i.e. that the growth of population can be attributed to a decline in mortality from infectious diseases thanks to better nutrition also to better hygiene, only marginally and late to medical interventions such as antibiotics and vaccines. McKeown was criticized for his controversial ideas, but is nowadays remembered as'the founder of social medicine'. BibliographySocial Medicine: http://journals.sfu.ca/socialmedicine/index.php/socialmedicine/index Social Medicine Portal: http://www.socialmedicine.org/ Porter D. "How Did Social Medicine Evolve, Where Is It Heading?".
PLoS Med. 3: e399. Doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0030399. PMC 1621092. PMID 17076552. Matthew R. Anderson, Lanny Smith, Victor W. Sidel. What is Social Medicine? Monthly Review: 56. Http://www.monthlyreview.org/0105anderson.htm King NMP, Strauss RP, Churchill LR, Estroff SE, Henderson GE, et al. editors Patients and illness. Volume I: The social medicine reader 2nd edition Durham: Duke University Press. Henderson GE, Estroff SE, Churchill LR, King NMP, Oberlander J, et al. editors Social and cultural contributions to health and inequality. Volume II: The social medicine reader 2nd edition Durham: Duke University Press. Oberlander J, Churchill LR, Estroff SE, Henderson GE, King NMP, et al. editors Health policy and medicine. Volume III: The social medicine reader 2nd edition Durham: Duke University Press. Porter D, Porter R. "What was social medicine? An historiographical essay". J Hist Sociol. 1: 90–106. Doi:10.1111/j.1467-6443.1988.tb00005.x. PMID 11617341. Stonington S, Holmes SM. "Social medicine in the twenty-first century".
PLoS Med. 3: e445. Doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0030445. PMC 1621097. Introduction to the journal: Social Medicine What is social medicine