History of Portugal
The history of Portugal can be traced from circa 400,000 years ago, when the region of present-day Portugal was inhabited by Homo heidelbergensis. The oldest human fossil is the skull discovered in the Cave of Aroeira in Almonda. Neanderthals roamed the northern Iberian peninsula. Homo sapiens arrived in Portugal around 35,000 years ago. Pre-Celtic tribes such as the Cynetes lived in the Algarve and Lower Alentejo regions before the 6th century BC, developed the city of Tartessos and the written Tartessian language, left many stelae in the south of the country. Early in the first millennium BC, waves of Celts from Central Europe invaded and intermarried with the local populations to form several ethnic groups and many tribes, their presence is traceable, through archaeological and linguistic evidence. Although they dominated much of the northern and central area, they were unable to establish in the south, which retained its non-Indo-European character until the Roman conquest; some small, semi-permanent coastal settlements were founded by Phoenician-Carthaginians on the southern coast.
The Roman invasion in the 3rd century BC lasted several centuries, developed the Roman provinces of Lusitania in the south and Gallaecia in the north. Numerous Roman sites include works of engineering, temples, roads, theatres, layman's homes, coins and ceramics; as elsewhere in Western Europe, there was a sharp decline in urban life during the Dark Ages following the fall of Rome. Germanic tribes controlled the territory between the 7th centuries; these included the Kingdom of the Suebi centred at the Visigothic Kingdom in the south. Under the Visigoths a new class emerged, a nobility, which played a tremendous social and political role during the Middle Ages; the Church began to play a important part within the state, but since the Visigoths did not know Latin the Catholic bishops continued the Roman system of governance. The clergy started to emerge as a high-ranking class. In 711 an invasion by the Islamic Umayyad Caliphate, comprising Berbers from North Africa and Arabs from the Middle East plus other Muslims from all around the Islamic world, conquered the Visigoth Kingdom and founded the Islamic state of Al Andalus.
The Umayyads reigned supreme and advanced through Iberia and France until the Battle of Tours but endured across Iberia until the fall of the Kingdom of Granada in 1492. But Lisbon, Gharb Al-Andalus, the rest of what would become Portugal, was reconquered by the early 12th century. At the end of the 9th century, a small minor county based in the area of Portus Cale was established under King Alfonso III of Asturias, by the 10th century the Counts were known as the Magnus Dux Portucalensium; the Kingdom of Asturias was divided so that northern "Portugal" became part of the Kingdom of León. As a vassal of the Kingdom of León, Portugal grew in power and territory and gained de facto independence during weak Leonese reigns. In 1071 Garcia II of Galicia was declared King of Portugal and in 1095, Portugal broke away from the Kingdom of Galicia. At the end of the 11th century, the Burgundian knight Henry became count of Portugal and defended its independence by merging the County of Portugal and the County of Coimbra.
Henry's son Afonso Henriques proclaimed himself Prince of Portugal on 24 June 1128 and King of Portugal in 1139. In 1179 a papal bull recognised Afonso I as king; the Algarve was conquered from the Moors in 1249, in 1255 Lisbon became the capital. Portugal's land boundaries have remained unchanged since the 13th century; the Treaty of Windsor created an alliance between Portugal and England that remains in effect to this day. From the late Middle Ages, in the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal ascended to the status of a world power during Europe's "Age of Discovery" as it built up a vast empire, including possessions in South America, Africa and Oceania. Over the following two centuries, Portugal kept most of its colonies, but lost much of its wealth and status as the Dutch and French took an increasing share of the spice and slave trades by surrounding or conquering the scattered Portuguese trading posts and territories. Signs of military decline began with two disastrous battles: the Battle of Alcácer Quibir in Morocco in 1578 and Spain's abortive attempt to conquer England in 1588 by means of the Spanish Armada – Portugal was in a dynastic union with Spain and contributed ships to the Spanish invasion fleet.
The country was further weakened by the destruction of much of its capital city in an earthquake in 1755, occupation during the Napoleonic Wars and the loss of its largest colony, Brazil, in 1822. From the middle of the 19th century to the late 1950s, nearly two million Portuguese left Portugal to live in Brazil and the United States. In 1910, there was a revolution. Amid corruption, repression of the church, the near bankruptcy of the state, a military coup in 1926 installed a dictatorship that remained until another coup in 1974; the new government instituted sweeping democratic reforms and granted independence to all of Portugal's African colonies in 1975. Portugal is a founding member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the European Free Trade Association, it entered the European Economic Community in 1986. The word Portugal derives from the Roman-Celtic place name Portus Cale. Cale or Cailleach was the name of a Celtic deity and the name of an early settlement located at the mouth of the Douro River (present-day
The Távora affair was a political scandal of the 18th century Portuguese court. The events triggered by the attempted assassination of King Joseph I of Portugal in 1758 ended with the public execution of the entire Távora family and its closest relatives in 1759; some historians interpret the whole affair as an attempt by the prime minister Sebastião de Melo to limit the growing powers of the old aristocratic families. In the aftermath of the Lisbon earthquake on November 1, 1755, which destroyed the royal palace, King Joseph I of Portugal took up residence in a huge complex of tents and barracks in Ajuda, on the outskirts of the city; this was the centre of Portuguese social life. The king lived surrounded by his staff, led by the prime minister, Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, was attended by his peers, the Portuguese high nobility; the prime minister was a strict man, son of a country squire, with a grudge against the old nobility, who despised him. Clashes between them were frequent and tolerated by the king, who trusted Sebastião de Melo for his competent leadership after the earthquake.
King Joseph I was married to Mariana Victoria of Spain, Infanta of Spain, had four daughters. Despite an attested happy family life, Joseph I had a favourite mistress: Teresa Leonor, wife of Luis Bernardo, heir of the Távora family. Luis Bernardo's parents, Marquise Leonor Tomásia de Távora, her husband, Francisco Assis, Count of Alvor and former viceroy of India, headed one of the most powerful families in the kingdom, they were related to the houses of Aveiro and Alorna. They were among the bitterest enemies of Sebastião de Melo. Leonor of Távora was politically influential, preoccupied with the affairs of the kingdom handed to, from her perspective, an upstart with no education, she was a devout Catholic with strong ties to the Jesuits, including her personal confessor, Gabriel Malagrida. On the night of September 3, 1758, Joseph I was riding in an unmarked carriage on a secondary, unfrequented road on the outskirts of Lisbon; the king was returning to the tents of Ajuda after an evening with his mistress.
Somewhere along the way two or three men fired on its occupants. Joseph I was shot in the arm and his driver was badly wounded, but both survived and returned to Ajuda. Sebastião de Melo took control of the situation. Concealing the attack and the king's injuries, he initiated a swift enquiry. A few days two men were arrested for the shootings and tortured; the men confessed their guilt and stated that they were following the orders of the Távora family, who were plotting to put the Duke of Aveiro on the throne. Both men were hanged the following day before the attempted regicide was made public. In the following weeks the Marchioness Leonor of Távora, her husband the Count of Alvor, all of their sons and grandchildren were imprisoned. Alleged conspirators, the Duke of Aveiro and the Távoras' sons-in-law, the Marquis of Alorna and the Count of Atouguia, were arrested with their families. Gabriel Malagrida, the Jesuit confessor of Leonor of Távora, was arrested. All were accused of attempted regicide.
The evidence presented in their common trial was simple: a) the confessions of the executed assassins. The Távoras denied all charges but were sentenced to death, their estates were confiscated by the crown, their palace in Lisbon destroyed and its soil salted, their name erased from the peerage and their coat-of-arms outlawed. The original sentence ordered execution of entire families, including children. Only the intervention of Queen Mariana and Maria Francisca, heiress to the throne, saved most of them; the Marchioness, was not spared. She and the other defendants sentenced to death were publicly tortured and executed on January 13, 1759, in a field near Lisbon; the king was present with his bewildered court. The Távoras were their peers and kin. Afterwards the ground was salted. To this day, in this location there remains; the inscription on the monument reads: In this place were razed to the ground and salted the houses of José Mascarenhas, stripped of the honours of Duque de Aveiro and others, convicted by sentence proclaimed in the Supreme Court of Inconfidences on the 12th of January 1759.
Brought to Justice as one of the leaders of the most barbarous and execrable upheaval that, on the night of the 3rd of September 1758, was committed against the most royal and sacred person of the Lord Joseph I. On this infamous land nothing may be built for all time. Gabriel Malagrida was burned at the stake in September 1761 and the Jesuit Order outlawed that same year. All its estates were confiscated and all Jesuits expelled from Portuguese territory, both in Europe and the colonies; the Alorna family and the daughters of the Duke of Aveiro were sentenced to life imprisonment in various monasteries and convents. Sebastião de Melo was made Count of Oeiras for his competent handling of the affair, in 1770, was promoted to Marquis of Pombal, the name by which he is known today; the guilt
Brazil the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers and with over 208 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the fifth most populous. Its capital is Brasília, its most populated city is São Paulo; the federation is composed of the union of the 26 states, the Federal District, the 5,570 municipalities. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas. Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of 7,491 kilometers, it borders all other South American countries except Ecuador and Chile and covers 47.3% of the continent's land area. Its Amazon River basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to diverse wildlife, a variety of ecological systems, extensive natural resources spanning numerous protected habitats; this unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, is the subject of significant global interest and debate regarding deforestation and environmental protection.
Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro. In 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system; the ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, now called the National Congress. The country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup d'état. An authoritarian military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, after which civilian governance resumed. Brazil's current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a democratic federal republic. Due to its rich culture and history, the country ranks thirteenth in the world by number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
Brazil is considered an advanced emerging economy. It has the ninth largest GDP in the world by nominal, eight and PPP measures, it is one of the world's major breadbaskets, being the largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years. It is classified as an upper-middle income economy by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country, with the largest share of global wealth in Latin America. Brazil is a regional power and sometimes considered a great or a middle power in international affairs. On account of its international recognition and influence, the country is subsequently classified as an emerging power and a potential superpower by several analysts. Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Union of South American Nations, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, it is that the word "Brazil" comes from the Portuguese word for brazilwood, a tree that once grew plentifully along the Brazilian coast.
In Portuguese, brazilwood is called pau-brasil, with the word brasil given the etymology "red like an ember", formed from brasa and the suffix -il. As brazilwood produces a deep red dye, it was valued by the European textile industry and was the earliest commercially exploited product from Brazil. Throughout the 16th century, massive amounts of brazilwood were harvested by indigenous peoples along the Brazilian coast, who sold the timber to European traders in return for assorted European consumer goods; the official Portuguese name of the land, in original Portuguese records, was the "Land of the Holy Cross", but European sailors and merchants called it the "Land of Brazil" because of the brazilwood trade. The popular appellation eclipsed and supplanted the official Portuguese name; some early sailors called it the "Land of Parrots". In the Guarani language, an official language of Paraguay, Brazil is called "Pindorama"; this was the name the indigenous population gave to the region, meaning "land of the palm trees".
Some of the earliest human remains found in the Americas, Luzia Woman, were found in the area of Pedro Leopoldo, Minas Gerais and provide evidence of human habitation going back at least 11,000 years. The earliest pottery found in the Western Hemisphere was excavated in the Amazon basin of Brazil and radiocarbon dated to 8,000 years ago; the pottery was found near Santarém and provides evidence that the tropical forest region supported a complex prehistoric culture. The Marajoara culture flourished on Marajó in the Amazon delta from 800 CE to 1400 CE, developing sophisticated pottery, social stratification, large populations, mound building, complex social formations such as chiefdoms. Around the time of the Portuguese arrival, the territory of current day Brazil had an estimated indigenous population of 7 million people semi-nomadic who subsisted on hunting, fishing and migrant agriculture; the indigenous population of Brazil comprised several large indigenous ethnic groups. The Tupí people were subdivided into the Tupiniquins and Tupinambás, there were many subdivisions of the other gro
Afonso V of Portugal
Afonso V, called the African, was King of Portugal. His sobriquet refers to his conquests in Northern Africa; as of 1471, Afonso V was the first king of Portugal to claim dominion over a plural "Kingdom of the Algarves", instead of the singular "Kingdom of the Algarve". Territories added to the Portuguese crown lands in North Africa during the 15th century came to be referred to as possessions of the Kingdom of the Algarve, not the Kingdom of Portugal; the "Algarves" were considered to be the southern Portuguese territories on both sides of the Strait of Gibraltar. Afonso was born in the second son of King Edward of Portugal by his wife Eleanor of Aragon. Following the death of his older brother, Infante João, Afonso acceded to the position of heir apparent and was made the first Prince of Portugal by his father, who sought to emulate the English Court's custom of a dynastic title that distinguished the heir apparent from the other children of the monarch, he was only six years old when he succeeded his father in 1438.
During his minority, Afonso V was placed under the regency of his mother in accordance with a will of his late father. As both a foreigner and a woman, the queen was not a popular choice for regent. Opposition rose and without any important ally among the Portuguese aristocracy other than Afonso, Count of Barcelos, the illegitimate half brother of King Edward, the queen's position was untenable. In 1439, the Portuguese Cortes decided to replace the queen with Peter, Duke of Coimbra, the young king's oldest uncle. Peter's main policies were concerned with restricting the political power of the great noble houses and expanding the powers of the crown; the country prospered under his rule, but not peacefully, as his laws interfered with the ambition of powerful nobles. The count of Barcelos, a personal enemy of the Duke of Coimbra became the king's favourite uncle and began a constant struggle for power. In 1442, the king made Afonso the first Duke of Braganza. With this title and its lands, he became the most powerful man in Portugal and one of the richest men in Europe.
To secure his position as regent, Peter had Afonso marry his daughter, Isabella of Coimbra, in 1445. But on 9 June 1448, when the king came of age, Peter had to surrender his power to Afonso V; the years of conspiracy by the Duke of Braganza came to a head. On 15 September of the same year, Afonso V nullified all the laws and edicts approved under the regency. In the following year, led by what were discovered to be false accusations, Afonso declared Peter a rebel and defeated his army in the Battle of Alfarrobeira, in which his uncle was killed. After this battle and the loss of one of Portugal's most remarkable infantes, the Duke of Braganza became the de facto ruler of the country. Afonso V turned his attentions to North Africa. In the reign of his grandfather John I, Ceuta had been conquered from the king of Morocco, now the new king wanted to expand the conquests; the king's army conquered Alcácer Ceguer in 1458 and Arzila in 1471. Tangiers, on the other hand, was won and lost several times between 1460 and 1464.
These achievements granted the king the nickname of the Africano. The king supported the exploration of the Atlantic Ocean led by prince Henry the Navigator but after Henry's death in 1460, he did nothing to continue Henry's work. Administratively, Afonso V was a passive king, he chose not to pursue the revision of laws or development of commerce, preferring instead to preserve the legacy of his father Edward and grandfather John I. In 1452, Pope Nicholas V issued the papal bull Dum Diversas, which granted Afonso V the right to reduce "Saracens and any other unbelievers" to hereditary slavery; this was reaffirmed and extended in the Romanus Pontifex bull of 1455. These papal bulls came to be seen by some as a justification for the subsequent era of slave trade and European colonialism; when the campaigns in Africa were over, Afonso V found new grounds for battle in neighboring Castile. On December 11, 1474 King Henry IV of Castile died without a male heir, leaving just one daughter, Joanna la Beltraneja.
However, her paternity was questioned. The death of Henry ignited a war of succession with one faction supporting Joanna and the other supporting Isabella, Henry's half-sister. Afonso V was persuaded to intervene on behalf of his niece, he proclaimed himself king of Castile and led troops into the kingdom. Because of their close blood-relationship, a formal marriage had to wait for papal dispensation. On May 12, 1475, Afonso entered Castile with an army of 14,000 foot soldiers. In March, 1476, after several skirmishes and much maneuvering, the 8, 000 men of Afonso and Prince João, faced a Castilian force of similar size in the battle of Toro; the Castilians were led by Isabella's husband, Prince Ferdinand II of Aragon, Cardinal Mendoza and the Duke of Alba. The fight was fierce and confusing but the result was a stalemate: While the forces of Cardinal Mendoza and the Duke of Alba won over their opponents led by the Portuguese King –who left the battlefield to take refuge in Castronuño, the troops commanded by Prince Joao defeated and persecuted the troops of the Castilian right wing, recovered the Portuguese royal standard, remaining ordered in the battlefield where they collected the fugitives of Afonso.
Both sides claimed victory but Afonso's prospects for obtaining the Castilian crown were damaged. “It was
The State of India referred as the Portuguese State of India or Portuguese India, was a state of the Portuguese Overseas Empire, founded six years after the discovery of a sea route between Portugal and the Indian Subcontinent to serve as the governing body of a string of Portuguese fortresses and colonies overseas. The first viceroy, Francisco de Almeida, established his headquarters in Cochin. Subsequent Portuguese governors were not always of viceroy rank. After 1510, the capital of the Portuguese viceroyalty was transferred to Goa; until the 18th century, the Portuguese governor in Goa had authority over all Portuguese possessions in the Indian Ocean, from southern Africa to southeast Asia. In 1752 Mozambique got its own separate government and in 1844 the Portuguese Government of India stopped administering the territory of Macau and Timor, its authority was confined to the colonial holdings on the Malabar coast of present-day India. At the time of the British Indian Empire's dissolution in 1947, Portuguese India was subdivided into three districts located on modern-day India's western coast, sometimes referred to collectively as Goa: namely Goa.
Portugal lost effective control of the enclaves of Dadra and Nagar Haveli in 1954, the rest of the overseas territory in December 1961, when it was taken by India after military action. In spite of this, Portugal only recognised Indian control in 1975, after the Carnation Revolution and the fall of the Estado Novo regime; the first Portuguese encounter with the subcontinent was on 20 May 1498 when Vasco da Gama reached Calicut on Malabar Coast. Anchored off the coast of Calicut, the Portuguese invited native fishermen on board and bought some Indian items. One Portuguese met with a Tunisian Muslim. On the advice of this man, Gama sent a couple of his men to Ponnani to meet with ruler of Calicut, the Zamorin. Over the objections of Arab merchants, Gama managed to secure a letter of concession for trading rights from the Zamorin, Calicut's Brahman ruler. But, the Portuguese were unable to pay the prescribed customs duties and price of his goods in gold. Calicut officials temporarily detained Gama's Portuguese agents as security for payment.
This, annoyed Gama, who carried a few natives and sixteen fishermen with him by force. Gama's expedition was successful beyond all reasonable expectation, bringing in cargo, worth sixty times the cost of the expedition. Pedro Álvares Cabral sailed to India, marking the arrival of Europeans to Brazil on the way, to trade for pepper and other spices and establishing a factory at Calicut, where he arrived on 13 September 1500. Matters worsened when the Portuguese factory at Calicut was attacked by surprise by the locals, resulting in the death of more than fifty Portuguese. Cabral was outraged by the attack on the factory and seized ten Arab merchant ships anchored in the harbour, killing about six hundred of their crew and confiscating their cargo before burning the ships. Cabral ordered his ships to bombard Calicut for an entire day in retaliation for the violation of the agreement. In Cochin and Cannanore Cabral succeeded in making advantageous treaties with the local rulers. Cabral started the return voyage on 16 January 1501 and arrived in Portugal with only 4 of 13 ships on 23 June 1501.
The Portuguese built the Pulicat fort with the help of the Vijayanagar ruler. Vasco da Gama sailed to India for a second time with 15 ships and 800 men, arriving at Calicut on 30 October 1502, where the ruler was willing to sign a treaty. Gama this time made a call to expel all Muslims from Calicut, vehemently turned down, he captured several rice vessels. He returned to Portugal in September 1503. On 25 March 1505, Francisco de Almeida was appointed Viceroy of India, on the condition that he would set up four forts on the southwestern Indian coast: at Anjediva Island, Cannanore and Quilon. Francisco de Almeida left Portugal with a fleet of 22 vessels with 1,500 men. On 13 September, Francisco de Almeida reached Anjadip Island, where he started the construction of Fort Anjediva. On 23 October, with the permission of the friendly ruler of Cannanore, he started building St. Angelo Fort at Cannanore, leaving Lourenço de Brito in charge with 150 men and two ships. Francisco de Almeida reached Cochin on 31 October 1505 with only 8 vessels left.
There he learned. He decided to send his son Lourenço de Almeida with 6 ships, who destroyed 27 Calicut vessels in the harbour of Quilon. Almeida took up residence in Cochin, he strengthened the Portuguese fortifications of Fort Manuel on Cochin. The Zamorin prepared a large fleet of 200 ships to oppose the Portuguese, but in March 1506 Lourenço de Almeida was victorious in a sea battle at the entrance to the harbour of Cannanore, the Battle of Cannanore, an important setback for the fleet of the Zamorin. Thereupon Lourenço de Almeida explored the coastal waters southwards to Colombo, in what is now Sri Lanka. In Cannanore, however, a new ruler, hostile to the Portuguese and friendly with the Zamorin, attacked the Portuguese garrison, leading to the Siege of Cannanore. In 1507 Almeida's mission was strengthened by the arrival of Tristão da Cunha's squadron. Afonso de Albuquerque's squadron had, split from that of Cunha off East Africa and was independently conquering territories in the Persian Gulf to the west.
In March 1508 a Portuguese squadron under command of Lourenço de Almeida was att