Duchy of Aquitaine
It originated in the 7th century as a duchy of Francia, ultimately a recreation of the Roman provinces of Aquitania Prima and Secunda. It reappeared as a duchy, and in the High Middle Ages and their claims in France triggered the Hundred Years War, in which the kingdom of France emerged victorious in the 1450s, with many incorporated areas coming to be ruled directly by the French kings. Gallia Aquitania fell under Visigothic rule in the 5th century and it was conquered by the Franks under Clovis I in 507, as a result of the Battle of Vouillé. During the 6th and early 7th century, it was direct rule of Frankish kings. Under Chlothar II, Aquitaine was again part of Francia. This subkingdom, consisting of Gascony and the fringe of Aquitaine proper, is conventionally known as Aquitaine. Charibert campaigned successfully against the Basques, but after his death in 632, the duchy of Aquitaine as a quasi-independent realm within the Frankish empire established itself during the second half of the 7th century, certainly by 700 under Odo the Great.
The first duke is on record under the name of Felix, as his successor Lupus, he probably owed allegiance to the Frankish kings. Odo succeeded Lupus in 700 and signed a treaty with Charles Martel. He inflicted on the Moors a crushing defeat at the Battle of Toulouse in 721, Charles Martel coveted the southern realm, crossed the Loire in 731 and looted much of Aquitaine. Odo engaged the Franks in battle, but lost and came out weakened, soon after this battle, in 732, the Moors raided Vasconia and Aquitaine as far north as Poitiers and defeated Odo twice near Bordeaux. Odo saw no option but to invoke the aid of Charles Martel, Odo was succeeded by his son Hunald, who reverted to former independence, so defying the Frankish Mayor of the Palace Charles Martels authority. The Carolingian leader attacked Hunald twice in 735 and 736, but was unable to subdue the duke. Eventually, Hunald retired to a monastery, leaving both the kingdom and the conflict to Waifer, or Guaifer. For some years Waifer strenuously carried on a struggle with the Franks.
As a consequence, male-preference primogeniture was the succession law for the nobility. The autonomous and troublesome duchy of Aquitaine was conquered by the Franks in 769, in order to avoid a new demonstration of Aquitain particularism, Charlemagne decided to organize the land within his kingdom. In 781, he made his son, Louis 3 years of age
Odo II, Count of Blois
Odo II was the Count of Blois, Chartres, Châteaudun and Tours from 1004 and Count of Troyes and Meaux from 1022. He twice tried to make himself a king, first in Italy after 1024, Odo II was the son of Odo I of Blois and Bertha of Burgundy. About 1003/4 he married Maud of Normandy, a daughter of Richard I of Normandy, after her death in 1005, and as she had no children, Richard II of Normandy demanded a return of her dowry, half the county of Dreux. Odo refused and the two warred over the matter, Odo quickly married a second wife, daughter of Guilaume IV of Auvergne. Defeated by Fulk Nerra, Count of Anjou and Herbert I of Maine at the Battle of Pontlevoy in July 1016, after the death of his cousin Stephen I in 1019/20, without heirs he seized Troyes and all of Champagne for himself without royal approval. From there he attacked Ebles, the archbishop of Reims, and Theodoric I, due to an alliance between the king and the Emperor Henry II he was forced to relinquish the county of Rheims to the archbishop.
He was offered the crown of Italy by the Lombard barons, in 1032, he invaded the Kingdom of Burgundy on the death of Rudolph III. He retreated in the face of a coalition of the Emperor Conrad II and he died in combat near Bar-le-Duc during another attack on Lorraine. By his second wife, Ermengarde of Auvergne, Odo had three children, Theobald III, who inherited the county of Blois and most of his other possessions, Stephen II, who inherited the counties of Meaux and Troyes in Champagne. Bertha, who married first Alan III, Duke of Brittany, and second Hugh IV, Count of Maine Odo II, Count of Blois at Homepages
Louis X of France
Louis was the eldest son of Philip IV of France and Joan I of Navarre. Louis uncle—Charles of Valois, leader of the feudalist party—managed to convince the king to execute Enguerrand de Marigny, Louis allowed serfs to buy their freedom, abolished slavery, and readmitted French Jews into the kingdom. In 1305, Louis had married Margaret of Burgundy, with whom he had Joan II of Navarre, Margaret was convicted of adultery and died in prison, possibly murdered by strangulation. In 1315, Louis married Clementia of Hungary, who gave birth to John I of France a few months after the kings death, johns untimely death led to a disputed succession. Louis was born in Paris, the eldest son of Philip IV of France and he inherited the kingdom of Navarre on the death of his mother, on 4 April 1305, being crowned 6 June 1313. On 21 September 1305, at age 16, he married Margaret of Burgundy and they had a daughter, Louis was known as the Quarreler as the result of the tensions prevailing throughout his reigns.
Both Louis and Margaret became involved in the Tour de Nesle affair towards the end of Philips reign, in 1314, Margaret and Joan—the latter two being the wives of Louis brothers Charles and Philip, respectively—were arrested on charges of infidelity. Margaret and Blanche were both tried before the French parliament that year and found guilty and their alleged lovers were executed, and the women had their hair shorn and were sentenced to life imprisonment. Philip stood by his wife Joan, who was found innocent. Margaret would be imprisoned at Chateau Gaillard, where she died, on the death of his father in 1314, Louis became King of France. Louis and Clementia were crowned at Reims on 24 August 1315, Louis was king of Navarre for eleven years and king of France for less than two years. In 1315, Louis X published a decree proclaiming that France signifies freedom and this prompted subsequent governments to circumscribe slavery in the overseas colonies. Leagues of regional nobles began to form around the country, demanding changes, when these failed, Charles convinced Louis to bring sorcery charges against him instead, which proved more effective and led to de Marignys execution at Vincennes in April 1315.
Other former ministers were similarly prosecuted and this, combined with the halting of Philips reforms, the issuing of numerous charters of rights and a reversion to more traditional rule, largely assuaged the regional leagues. In practical terms, Louis X effectively abolished slavery within the Kingdom of France in 1315, Louis continued to require revenues and alighted on a reform of French serfdom as a way of achieving this. Arguing that all men are free, Louis declared in 1315 that French serfs would therefore be freed. A body of commissioners was established to undertake the reform, establishing the peculium, or value, of each serf. For serfs owned directly by the King, all of the peculium would be received by the Crown – for serfs owned by subjects of the King, Louis was responsible for a key shift in policy towards the Jews
Stephen, Count of Blois
Stephen II Henry, Count of Blois and Count of Chartres, was the son of Theobald III, count of Blois, and Garsinde du Maine. He is numbered Stephen II after Stephen I, Count of Troyes, in 1089, upon the death of his father, he became the Count of Blois and Chartres, although Theobald had given him the administration of those holdings in 1074. He was the father of Stephen of England, Stephen was the head of the army council at the Crusaders siege of Nicaea in 1097. He returned home in 1098 during the siege of Antioch, fleeing the battlefield. He was pressured by Adela into making a pilgrimage. In 1102, Stephen was killed at the Second Battle of Ramla at the age of fifty-seven, Stephen married Adela of Normandy, a daughter of William the Conqueror around 1080 in Chartres. He fathered Adelas children, Count of Sully Theobald II, Count of Champagne Odo, both drowned on 25 November 1120 in the White Ship disaster. Agnes, married Hugh III of Le Puiset Eleanor married Raoul I of Vermandois and had issue, davis, R. H. C.
King Stephen 1135–1154, Third Edition London, Longman 1990 ISBN 0-582-04000-0
Louis the Stammerer
Louis the Stammerer was the King of Aquitaine and the King of West Francia. He was the eldest son of emperor Charles the Bald and Ermentrude of Orléans, Louis the Stammerer was physically weak and outlived his father by only two years. He succeeded his younger brother Charles the Child as the ruler of Aquitaine in 866 and his father in West Francia in 877, in the French monarchial system, he is considered Louis II. The pope may have offered him the imperial crown. Louis had relatively little impact on politics and he was described a simple and sweet man, a lover of peace and religion. In 878, he gave the counties of Barcelona and his final act was to march against the invading Vikings, but he fell ill and died on 9 April or 10 April 879, not long after beginning this final campaign. On his death, his realms were divided between his two sons, Carloman II and Louis III of France, during the peace negotiations between his father and Erispoe, duke of Brittany, Louis was betrothed to an unnamed daughter of Erispoe in 856.
It is not known if this was the daughter who married Gurivant. The contract was broken in 857 after Erispoes murder and his first wife Ansgarde of Burgundy had two sons and Carloman, both of whom became kings of West Francia, and two daughters and Gisela. His second wife Adelaide of Paris had one daughter, Ermentrude and a son, Charles the Simple. This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Hugh
Sancho VII of Navarre
Sancho VII Sánchez, called the Strong or the Prudent, was the King of Navarre from 1194 to his death. His retirement at the end of his life has given rise to the nickname el Encerrado or the Retired. The historian and forensic anthropologist, Luis del Campo, who studied his mortal remains and he was probably the eldest child of Sancho VI and Sancha, daughter of Alfonso VII of León, born soon after their marriage, probably in Tudela, their usual residence. He was the brother of Berengaria, who was married to Richard the Lionheart. Sancho and Richard were reputed to have good friends and close allies. The French took advantage of Richards captivity in Germany and captured certain key fortresses of the Angevin dominions including Loches, when Richard returned to his continental lands in 1194, the knights of Sancho were besieging the castle for him. As soon as Richard arrived though, Sancho was forced to return to Navarre at the news of the death of his father and he was crowned in Pamplona on 15 August.
He arrived late at the Battle of Alarcos in 1195 and thus ruined good relations with the Castilian sovereign Alfonso VIII, the ensuing confrontation resulted in Sancho devastating Soria and Almazán and Alfonso accepted the Peace of Tarazona. Sancho made expeditions against Murcia and Andalusia, between 1198 and 1200, he campaigned in Africa, probably in the service of the Almohads, whose help he wanted against Castile. Taking advantage of his absence, Alfonso VIII of Castile and Peter II of Aragon invaded Navarre, which lost the provinces of Álava, Guipúzcoa and these conquests were subsequently confirmed by the Treaty of Guadalajara. His leadership was decisive in the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa in the year 1212, in that engagement, the Christian forces of Sancho, Afonso II of Portugal, and Peter II of Aragón allied to defeat the forces of the Almohad Caliph Muhammad an-Nasir. Sanchos troops cut the chains guarding the tent and Slavic guards ring of the Miramamolín, for this, it is believed the chains became the symbol of Navarre and replaced the sable eagle on a golden field with a golden chain on a gules field in the Navarrese coat-of-arms.
His relations with the north of the Pyrenees were notably better than his Castilian ones. Several Pyreneean counties declared themselves his vassals and he concluded treaties with John, King of England, and the various Aragonese kings of his time, the aforementioned Peter II and James I. With the latter he signed at Tudela, in 1231, which was never finished, Sancho continued the construction of a new cathedral in Pamplona, as begun by his father and to be finished by his successor. The construction of a certain Gothic bridge over the Ebro has attributed to him. His eldest sister, Queen of England, died in 1232, when he died in his castle at Tudela, probably of complications related to the varicose ulcer in his leg, Blancas son Theobald was recognized as the next monarch of Navarre on the 7th of April. According to Alberic de Trois-Fontaines, Sancho left a library of 1.7 million books and he was originally interred in the church of San Nicolás, but was moved to Roncesvalles after much resistance from the local Clergy
Rudolph of France
Rudolph or Rudolf was the elected King of France from 923 until his death in 936. Prior to his election as king, he was Duke of Burgundy and he was the son of Richard, Duke of Burgundy and Adelaide of Auxerre inheriting the Duchy of Burgundy from his father. He married Emma of France, daughter of king Robert I of France and he is frequently confused with his uncle Rudolph I of Burgundy. Rudolph was elected king of West Francia in 923 by an assembly of Frankish nobles and he was crowned by Walter, Archbishop of Sens at St. Médard in Soissons on Sunday,13 July 923. On assuming the crown he passed the Duchy of Burgundy to his younger brother Hugh the Black, in contemporary Latin documents, his name is usually Rodulfus, from the Germanic roots hruod and wulf, wolf. Rodulf and Rudolf are variants of this name, the French form is Rodolphe, by contrast, the king is normally known as Raoul in modern French, a name which derives from Radulfus, from Germanic rad and wulf. Although this name is of different origin, it was used interchangeably by contemporaries with Rodulfus.
The king himself, always, used Rodulfus, as on his personal seal, nonetheless, he is sometimes called Ralph or Radulf in English. The deposed Charles the Simple was still alive and claimed the throne and this was solved when Rudolphs brother-in-law, Herbert II, Count of Vermandois, who was married to Emmas sister, tricked Charles, a fellow Carolingian, into meeting and took him prisoner. Rudolphs first act was to lead an army against the king of East Francia Henry the Fowler, after trying to annex Lotharingia Henry met Rudolph with a considerably-sized army and made peace again. However, in 925 Henry attacked Gilbert, Duke of Lorraine and took over Lotharingia permanently, in 924 Vikings made a fresh series of raids into West Francia. From the Loire Valley they threatened Hugh the Great, brother of Queen Emma, soon they attacked Burgundy, domain of Rudolphs brother and were repulsed, moving on to Melun, where they threatened the royal lands. Joined only by his vassals and Herbert, he recruited troops in Burgundy.
After Vikings left, the Normans, whom Charles the Simple had settled in Duchy of Normandy in 911, in that year, Rudolph conversed with Louis the Blind, king of Provence, over the Magyars, the newest barbarian migrants to Europe, menacing Louis. In 930 Magyars invaded the region around Rheims, but left before the king could engage them, in 935 Magyars invaded Burgundy and Rudolph brought a large army against them, causing their retreat without a battle. West Francia was temporarily safe from both Vikings and Magyars at Rudolphss death, the complaints from Rudolph led Herbert II to bring Charles before William Longsword, Count of Rouen, for homage and to Rheims to press Charles claim on Pope John X. In 928 Herbert II finally got possession of Laon, but the next year Charles died at Péronne, in 929 Rudolph attempted to reduce the power of Ebalus, Duke of Aquitaine. He withdrew from him access to Berry, and in 932 granted the title of prince of Gothia to the count of Toulouse, Raymond Pons and he transferred the title Count of Auvergne to Raymond
Hugh, Count of Champagne
Hugh was the Count of Champagne from 1093 until his death. Hugh was the son of Theobald III, Count of Blois and Adele of Valois. His older brother Odo V, Count of Troyes, died in 1093, leaving him master of Troyes, where he centred his court and his first recorded act, a monastic gift in 1094, became the oldest document of the comital archive. Hughs charter makes over to the new foundation Clairvaux and its dependencies, meadows, woods, instead, he transferred his titles to his nephew, who became Theobald II of Champagne. Odos two sons, Odo II of Champlitte and William of Champlitte were important figures in the fourth crusade, hugh married first Constance, daughter of King Philip I of France and Bertha of Holland. Their only child, a son called Manasses, died young and he married second Isabella, daughter of Stephen I, Count of Burgundy, and niece of Pope Callixtus II. Hugh was the patron of the abbeys of Montieramey Abbey and of Molesme, making grants from his castle of Isle-Aumont. In a surviving letter to him from Ivo of Chartres, the Bishop of Chartres reminds him of his obligations of marriage, perhaps to deter him from making vows of continence
Joan I of Navarre
Joan I, the daughter of King Henry I of Navarre and Blanche of Artois, reigned as queen regnant of Navarre and served as queen consort to Philip IV of France. Joan was born in Bar-sur-Seine, Champagne on 14 January 1273 as a princess of the House of Blois, the following year, upon the death of her father, she became Countess of Champagne and queen regnant of Navarre. Her mother, was her guardian and regent in Navarre and her mother arrived in France in 1274, and by the Treaty of Orléans in 1275, Joan was betrothed to one of Philips sons. Blanche therefore placed her daughter and the government of Navarre under the protection of the King of France, after this, Joan was brought up with Philip. It is, in fact, uncertain whether she ever resided in Navarre during her childhood, at the age of 11, Joan married the future Philip IV of France on 16 August 1284, becoming queen consort of France in 1285 a year later. Their three surviving sons would all rule as kings of France, in turn, and their surviving daughter.
Joan was described as having been plump and plain, whereas her beautiful daughter Isabella resembled her father more in physical appearance, as regards her character, Joan was bold and enterprising. Having grown up together, the couple was close to each other. His emotional dependence on her is suggested as a reason to why she never visited Navarre, in 1294, Philip appointed her regent of France should his son succeed him being still a minor. However, he is not believed to have entrusted her with influence over the affairs of France, unless they concerned her own domains Navarre, queen Joan founded the famous College of Navarre in Paris in 1305. Queen Joan I of Navarre and countess of Champagne and Brie was declared to be of legal majority upon her marriage in 1284, and did homage for Champagne and Brie to her father-in-law in Paris. Joan never visited the Kingdom of Navarre, which was ruled in her name by French governors appointed first by her father-in-law, from afar, edicts were issued in her name, coins struck in her image, and she gave her protection to chapels and convents.
She never came closer to Navarre than to Carcasonne in 1300, Joan was much more directly active as countess of Champagne. While being a county rather than a kingdom, Champagne was much richer, in 1297, she raised and led an army against the Count of Bar when he rebelled against her by invading Champagne. This was explicitly in the absence of her spouse, and she brought the count to prison before she joined her spouse. She personally acted in her process against Bishop Guichard of Troyes, Joan died in 1305, allegedly in childbirth, though one chronicler accused her husband of having killed her. Her personal physician was the inventor Guido da Vigevano, the Queens Regnant of Navarre, Succession and Partnership, 1274-1512
The Carolingian dynasty was a Frankish noble family with origins in the Arnulfing and Pippinid clans of the 7th century AD. The name Carolingian derives from the Latinised name of Charles Martel, the Carolingian dynasty reached its peak in 800 with the crowning of Charlemagne as the first Emperor of Romans in over three centuries. His death in 814 began a period of fragmentation of the Carolingian empire and decline that would eventually lead to the evolution of the Kingdom of France. This picture, however, is not commonly accepted today, the greatest Carolingian monarch was Charlemagne, who was crowned Emperor by Pope Leo III at Rome in 800. His empire, ostensibly a continuation of the Western Roman Empire, is referred to historiographically as the Carolingian Empire, the Carolingian rulers did not give up the traditional Frankish practice of dividing inheritances among heirs, though the concept of the indivisibility of the Empire was accepted. The Carolingians had the practice of making their sons kings in the various regions of the Empire.
The Carolingians were displaced in most of the regna of the Empire by 888 and they ruled in East Francia until 911 and held the throne of West Francia intermittently until 987. One chronicler of Sens dates the end of Carolingian rule with the coronation of Robert II of France as junior co-ruler with his father, Hugh Capet, the dynasty became extinct in the male line with the death of Eudes, Count of Vermandois. His sister Adelaide, the last Carolingian, died in 1122, the Carolingian dynasty has five distinct branches, The Lombard branch, or Vermandois branch, or Herbertians, descended from Pepin of Italy, son of Charlemagne. Though he did not outlive his father, his son Bernard was allowed to retain Italy, Bernard rebelled against his uncle Louis the Pious, and lost both his kingdom and his life. Deprived of the title, the members of this branch settled in France. The counts of Vermandois perpetuated the Carolingian line until the 12th century, the Counts of Chiny and the lords of Mellier, Neufchâteau and Falkenstein are branches of the Herbertians.
With the descendants of the counts of Chiny, there would have been Herbertian Carolingians to the early 14th century, the Lotharingian branch, descended from Emperor Lothair, eldest son of Louis the Pious. At his death Middle Francia was divided equally between his three surviving sons, into Italy and Lower Burgundy, the sons of Emperor Lothair did not have sons of their own, so Middle Francia was divided between the western and eastern branches of the family in 875. The Aquitainian branch, descended from Pepin of Aquitaine, son of Louis the Pious, since he did not outlive his father, his sons were deprived of Aquitaine in favor of his younger brother Charles the Bald. The German branch, descended from Louis the German, King of East Francia, since he had three sons, his lands were divided into Duchy of Bavaria, Duchy of Saxony and Duchy of Swabia. His youngest son Charles the Fat briefly reunited both East and West Francia — the entirety of the Carolingian empire — but it again after his death.
With the failure of the lines of the German branch, Arnulf of Carinthia