Edward II of England
Edward II called Edward of Carnarvon, was King of England from 1307 until he was deposed in January 1327. The fourth son of Edward I, Edward became the heir apparent to the throne following the death of his elder brother Alphonso. Beginning in 1300, Edward accompanied his father on campaigns to pacify Scotland, in 1306 was knighted in a grand ceremony at Westminster Abbey. Following his father's death, Edward succeeded to the throne in 1307, he married Isabella, the daughter of the powerful King Philip IV of France, in 1308, as part of a long-running effort to resolve tensions between the English and French crowns. Edward had a close and controversial relationship with Piers Gaveston, who had joined his household in 1300; the precise nature of his and Gaveston's relationship is uncertain. Gaveston's arrogance and power as Edward's favourite provoked discontent among both the barons and the French royal family, Edward was forced to exile him. On Gaveston's return, the barons pressured the king into agreeing to wide-ranging reforms, called the Ordinances of 1311.
The newly empowered barons banished Gaveston, to which Edward responded by revoking the reforms and recalling his favourite. Led by Edward's cousin, the Earl of Lancaster, a group of the barons seized and executed Gaveston in 1312, beginning several years of armed confrontation. English forces were pushed back in Scotland, where Edward was decisively defeated by Robert the Bruce at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314. Widespread famine followed, criticism of the king's reign mounted; the Despenser family, in particular Hugh Despenser the Younger, became close friends and advisers to Edward, but Lancaster and many of the barons seized the Despensers' lands in 1321, forced the King to exile them. In response, Edward led a short military campaign and executing Lancaster. Edward and the Despensers strengthened their grip on power, formally revoking the 1311 reforms, executing their enemies and confiscating estates. Unable to make progress in Scotland, Edward signed a truce with Robert. Opposition to the regime grew, when Isabella was sent to France to negotiate a peace treaty in 1325, she turned against Edward and refused to return.
Instead, she allied herself with the exiled Roger Mortimer, invaded England with a small army in 1326. Edward's regime collapsed and he fled to Wales, where he was captured in November; the king was forced to relinquish his crown in January 1327 in favour of his 14-year-old son, Edward III, he died in Berkeley Castle on 21 September murdered on the orders of the new regime. Edward's relationship with Gaveston inspired Christopher Marlowe's 1592 play Edward II, along with other plays, films and media. Many of these have focused on the possible sexual relationship between the two men. Edward's contemporaries criticised his performance as king, noting his failures in Scotland and the oppressive regime of his years, although 19th-century academics argued that the growth of parliamentary institutions during his reign was a positive development for England over the longer term. Debate has continued into the 21st century as to whether Edward was a lazy and incompetent king, or a reluctant and unsuccessful ruler.
Edward II was his first wife, Eleanor of Castile. His father was the king of England and had inherited Gascony in south-western France, which he held as the feudal vassal of the King of France, the Lordship of Ireland, his mother was from the Castilian royal family, held the County of Ponthieu in northern France. Edward I proved a successful military leader, leading the suppression of the baronial revolts in the 1260s and joining the Ninth Crusade. During the 1280s he conquered North Wales, removing the native Welsh princes from power and, in the 1290s, he intervened in Scotland's civil war, claiming suzerainty over the country, he was considered an successful ruler by his contemporaries able to control the powerful earls that formed the senior ranks of the English nobility. The historian Michael Prestwich describes Edward I as "a king to inspire fear and respect", while John Gillingham characterises him as an efficient bully. Despite Edward I's successes, when he died in 1307 he left a range of challenges for his son to resolve.
One of the most critical was the problem of English rule in Scotland, where Edward's long but inconclusive military campaign was ongoing when he died. Edward's control of Gascony created tension with the French kings, they insisted. Edward I faced increasing opposition from his barons over the taxation and requisitions required to resource his wars, left his son debts of around £200,000 on his death. Edward II was born in Caernarfon Castle in north Wales on 25 April 1284, less than a year after Edward I had conquered the region, as a result is sometimes called Edward of Caernarfon; the king chose the castle deliberately as the location for Edward's birth as it was an important symbolic location for the native Welsh, associated with Roman imperial history, it formed the centre of the new royal administration of North Wales. Edward's birth brought predictions of greatness from contemporary prophets, who believed that the Last Days of the world were imminent, declaring him a new King Arthur, who would lead England to glory.
David Powel, a 16th-century clergyman, suggested that the baby was offered to the Welsh as a prince "that was borne in Wales and could speake never a word of English", but there is no evidence to support this account. Edward's n
Counts and dukes of Anjou
The Count of Anjou was the ruler of the county of Anjou, first granted by Charles the Bald in the 9th century to Robert the Strong. Ingelger and his son were viscounts of Angers until Ingelger's son Fulk the Red assumed the title of Count of Anjou; the Robertians and their Capetian successors were distracted by wars with the Vikings and other concerns and were unable to recover the county until the reign of Philip II Augustus, more than 270 years later. Ingelger's male line ended with Count of Anjou. Subsequent counts of Anjou were descended from Geoffrey's sister Ermengarde of Anjou and Geoffrey II, Count of Gâtinais, their agnatic descendants, who included the Angevin kings of England, continued to hold these titles and property until the French monarchy gained control of the area. Thereafter the titles Count of Anjou and, after 1360, Duke of Anjou were granted several times to members of the French ruling houses of Valois and Bourbon. Similar to the title of Duke of York in England, none of those who received the title Duke of Anjou, were able to transmit it.
The title was held by Philippe, a grandson of King Louis XIV, until he ascended the Spanish throne as Philip V of Spain in 1700. Since some Spanish legitimist claimants to the French throne have borne the title to the present day, as does a nephew of the Orléanist pretender. In 1204, Anjou was lost to king Philip II of France, it was re-granted as an appanage for Louis VIII's son John, who died in 1232 at the age of thirteen, to Louis's youngest son, Charles the first Angevin king of Sicily. In 1290, Margaret married Charles of the younger brother of king Philip IV of France, he became Count of Anjou in her right. In 1328, Philip of Valois ascended the French throne and became King Philip VI. At this time, the counties of Anjou and Valois returned to the royal domain. On 26 April 1332, Philip granted the county to his eldest son, John: Following John's ascension to the throne as John II in 1350, the title again returned to the royal domain; the dukes contributed to social reform in the 1300s and 1400s.
On the death of Charles IV, Anjou returned to the royal domain. After the death of Henry, Count of Chambord, only the descendants of Philip V of Spain remained of the male line of Louis XIV; the most senior of these, the Carlist claimant to the Spanish throne, became the eldest of the Capetians. Some of them used the courtesy title of Duke of Anjou. At the death of Alfonso Carlos in 1936, the Capetian seniority passed to the exiled King of Spain, Alfonso XIII. In 1941, Infante Jaime, Duke of Segovia, succeeded his father Alfonso XIII as the heir male of Louis XIV and therefore as the Legitimist claimant to the French throne, he adopted the title of Duke of Anjou. On December 8, 2004, Count of Paris, Duke of France, Orléanist Pretender to the French throne, granted the title Duke of Anjou to his nephew Charles-Philippe; because he doesn't recognize his cousin's courtesy title, in his view the title was available since 1824. List of Countesses and Duchesses of Anjou Anjou Titles of the counts and dukes of Anjou in the 11-16th centuries from contemporary documents with bibliography
Edward III of England
Edward III was King of England and Lord of Ireland from January 1327 until his death. Edward III transformed the Kingdom of England into one of the most formidable military powers in Europe, his long reign of 50 years was the second longest in medieval England and saw vital developments in legislation and government, in particular the evolution of the English parliament, as well as the ravages of the Black Death. Edward was crowned at age fourteen after his father was deposed by his mother, Isabella of France, her lover Roger Mortimer. At age seventeen he led a successful coup d'état against Mortimer, the de facto ruler of the country, began his personal reign. After a successful campaign in Scotland he declared himself rightful heir to the French throne in 1337; this started. Following some initial setbacks, this first phase of the war went exceptionally well for England; this phase would become known as the Edwardian War. Edward's years were marked by international failure and domestic strife as a result of his inactivity and poor health.
Edward III was a temperamental man but capable of unusual clemency. He was in many ways a conventional king. Admired in his own time and for centuries after, Edward was denounced as an irresponsible adventurer by Whig historians such as William Stubbs; this view has been challenged and modern historians credit him with some significant achievements. Edward was born at Windsor Castle on 13 November 1312, was referred to as Edward of Windsor in his early years; the reign of his father, Edward II, was a problematic period of English history. One source of contention was the king's inactivity, repeated failure, in the ongoing war with Scotland. Another controversial issue was the king's exclusive patronage of a small group of royal favourites; the birth of a male heir in 1312 temporarily improved Edward II's position in relation to the baronial opposition. To bolster further the independent prestige of the young prince, the king had him created Earl of Chester at only twelve days of age. In 1325, Edward II was faced with a demand from his brother-in-law, Charles IV of France, to perform homage for the English Duchy of Aquitaine.
Edward was reluctant to leave the country, as discontent was once again brewing domestically over his relationship with the favourite Hugh Despenser the Younger. Instead, he had his son Edward created Duke of Aquitaine in his place and sent him to France to perform the homage; the young Edward was accompanied by his mother Isabella, the sister of King Charles, was meant to negotiate a peace treaty with the French. While in France, Isabella conspired with the exiled Roger Mortimer to have Edward deposed. To build up diplomatic and military support for the venture, Isabella had her son engaged to the twelve-year-old Philippa of Hainault. An invasion of England was launched and Edward II's forces deserted him completely. Isabella and Mortimer summoned a parliament, the king was forced to relinquish the throne to his son, proclaimed king in London on 25 January 1327; the new king was crowned as Edward III at Westminster Abbey on 1 February at the age of 14. It was not long before the new reign met with other problems caused by the central position at court of Roger Mortimer, now the de facto ruler of England.
Mortimer used his power to acquire noble estates and titles, his unpopularity grew with the humiliating defeat by the Scots at the Battle of Stanhope Park and the ensuing Treaty of Edinburgh–Northampton, signed with the Scots in 1328. The young king came into conflict with his guardian. Mortimer knew his position in relation to the king was precarious and subjected Edward to disrespect; the tension increased after Edward and Philippa, who had married at York Minster on 24 January 1328, had a son on 15 June 1330. Edward decided to take direct action against Mortimer. Aided by his close companion William Montagu and a small number of other trusted men, Edward took Mortimer by surprise at Nottingham Castle on 19 October 1330. Mortimer was executed and Edward III's personal reign began. Edward III was not content with the peace agreement made in his name, but the renewal of the war with Scotland originated in private, rather than royal initiative. A group of English magnates known as The Disinherited, who had lost land in Scotland by the peace accord, staged an invasion of Scotland and won a great victory at the Battle of Dupplin Moor in 1332.
They attempted to install Edward Balliol as king of Scotland in David II's place, but Balliol was soon expelled and was forced to seek the help of Edward III. The English king responded by laying siege to the important border town of Berwick and defeated a large relieving army at the Battle of Halidon Hill. Edward reinstated Balliol on the throne and received a substantial amount of land in southern Scotland; these victories proved hard to sustain, as forces loyal to David II regained control of the country. In 1338, Edward was forced to agree to a truce with the Scots. One reason for the change of strategy towards Scotland was a growing concern for the relationship between England and France; as long as Scotland and France were in an alliance, the English were faced with the prospect of fighting a war on two fronts. The French carried out raids on English coastal towns, leading to rumour
William III, Count of Ponthieu
William III of Ponthieu called William Talvas. He was seigneur de Montgomery in Count of Ponthieu. William was son of Robert II of Agnes of Ponthieu, he succeeded his father as count of Ponthieu some time between 1105 and 1111, when he alone as count made a gift to the abbey of Cluny. His father Robert de Bellême had turned against Henry I on several occasions, had escaped capture at the battle of Tinchebrai in 1106 commanding Duke Robert's rear guard and while serving as envoy for King Louis of France, he was arrested by Henry I and imprisoned for life. William was driven by this to oppose King Henry. In June 1119, Henry I restored all his father's lands in Normandy. Sometime prior to 1126, William resigned the county of Ponthieu to his son Guy but retained the title of count. In 1135 Henry I again confiscated all his Norman lands to which William responded by joining count Geoffrey of Anjou in his invasion of Normandy after Henry I's death He married, abt. 1115, Helie of Burgundy, daughter of Eudes I, Duke of Burgundy.
The Gesta Normannorum Ducum says that they had three sons and two daughters. Europäische Stammtafeln, shows eleven; the five both agree on are: Guy II. He assumed the county of Ponthieu during his father Talvas' lifetime, but died in 1147 predeceasing his father. William, Count of Alençon. John I, Count of Alençon, married Beatrix d'Anjou, daughter of Elias II, Count of Maine and Philippa, daughter of Rotrou III, Count of Perche. Clemence married Juhel, son of Walter of Mayenne. Adela married William de Warenne, 3rd Earl of Surrey, she married, Patrick of Salisbury. The Gesta Normannorum Ducum of William of Jumièges, Orderic Vitalis, Robert of Torigni and translated by Elisabeth M. C. Van Houts, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1995
Marie, Countess of Ponthieu
Marie of Ponthieu was suo jure Countess of Ponthieu and Countess of Montreuil, ruling from 1221 to 1250. Marie was the daughter of William IV of Ponthieu and Alys, Countess of the Vexin, granddaughter of King Louis VII of France by his second wife Constance of Castile; as her father's only surviving child, Marie succeeded him, ruling as Countess of Ponthieu and Montreuil from 1221 to 1250. She married Simon of Dammartin before September 1208, he was the son of Alberic II of Dammartin and Maud de Clermont, daughter of Renaud de Clermont, Count de Clermont-en-Beauvaisis. Simon and Marie had four daughters but only two are recorded, their elder daughter was Joan of second wife of Ferdinand III of Castile. Their younger daughter was Philippe of Dammartin who married firstly Raoul II d' Issoudun, secondly Raoul II de Coucy, thirdly Otto II, Count Geldern. Marie married secondly sometime between September 1240 and 15 December 1241, Mathieu de Montmorency, Seigneur d'Attichy, killed in battle at Mansurrah on 8 February 1250 during the Seventh Crusade, led by King Louis IX of France.
Baldwin, John W.. Aristocratic Life in Medieval France; the Johns Hopkins University Press. Shadis, Miriam. Berenguela of Castile and Political Women in the High Middle Ages. Palgrave Macmillan
Crown lands of France
The crown lands, crown estate, royal domain or domaine royal of France refers to the lands and rights directly possessed by the kings of France. While the term came to refer to a territorial unit, the royal domain referred to the network of "castles and estates, towns, religious houses and bishoprics, the rights of justice and taxes" held by the king or under his domination. In terms of territory, before the reign of Henry IV, the domaine royal did not encompass the entirety of the territory of the kingdom of France and for much of the Middle Ages significant portions of the kingdom were the direct possessions of other feudal lords. In the tenth and eleventh centuries, the first Capetians—while being the kings of France—were among the least powerful of the great feudal lords of France in terms of territory possessed. Patiently, through the use of feudal law, annexation, skillful marriages with heiresses of large fiefs, by purchase, the kings of France were able to increase the royal domain.
By the time of Philip IV, the meaning of "royal domain" began to shift from a mere collection of lands and rights to a fixed territorial unit, by the sixteenth century the "royal domain" began to coincide with the entire kingdom. However, the medieval system of appanage alienated large territories from the royal domain and sometimes created dangerous rivals. During the Wars of Religion, the alienation of lands and fiefs from the royal domain was criticized; the Edict of Moulins declared that the royal domain could not be alienated, except in two cases: by interlocking, in the case of financial emergency, with a perpetual option to repurchase the land. Traditionally, the king was expected to survive from the revenues generated from the royal domain, but fiscal necessity in times of war, led the kings to enact "exceptional" taxes, like the taille, upon the whole of the kingdom. At the beginning of Hugh Capet's reign, the crown estate was small and consisted of scattered possessions in the Île-de-France and Orléanais regions, with several other isolated pockets, such as Attigny.
These lands were the inheritance of the Robertians, the direct ancestors of the Capetians. 988: Montreuil-sur-Mer, the first port held by the Capetians, is acquired through the marriage of the crown prince Robert with Rozala, the widow of the Arnulf II, Count of Flanders. 1016: acquisition of the Duchy of Burgundy. The king was the nephew of Duke Henry of Burgundy. Robert gains the counties of Paris and Melun, negotiates the ultimate acquisition of a part of Sens. 1034: the king gives the Duchy of Burgundy to his brother Robert 1055: annexation of the County of Sens. 1068: acquisition of Gâtinais and Château-Landon from Fulk IV, Count of Anjou 1077: annexation of the French Vexin 1081: acquisition of Moret-sur-Loing 1101: acquisition of the Viscounty of Bourges and the seigneury of Dun-sur-Auron from Odo Arpin of Bourges the king spends much of his reign pacifying and consolidating the royal domain by battling certain feudal lords from Fulk, Viscount of Gâtinais, Louis bought Moret, Le Châtelet-en-Brie, Boësses, Yèvre-le-Châtel and Chambon.
Other additions to the royal domain include: Montlhéry and Châteaufort, Corbeil, Meung-sur-Loire, Châteaurenard and Saint-Brisson. 1137: marriage of Louis with Eleanor of Aquitaine, Duchess of Aquitaine and Gascony and Countess of Poitou. By this marriage, Louis hopes to attach most of South-West France to the royal domain. 1137: Louis gives Dreux to his brother Robert. 1151: separation of Louis VII and of Eleanor of Aquitaine, who in 1152 weds Henry Plantagenet, Count of Anjou, Count of Maine and Duke of Normandy, who becomes in 1154, King of England. Eleanor's lands come to Henry in her dowry. 1160: gives Norman Vexin to his daughter Margaret as a dowry. Margaret is forced to surrender her dowry. 1184: granted Montargis. 1185: by the Treaty of Boves, gains Amiens and Montdidier, Choisy-au-Bac, Thourotte and rights to the inheritance of Vermandois and Valois. 1187: seizes Tournai from the bishop. Confiscates Meulan and other castles. 1191: at the death of Philip of Alsace, Count of Flanders, the County of Artois and its dependencies, the inheritance of the queen Isabelle of Hainaut, are given to prince Louis.
These areas would not become integrated into the royal domain until 1223. 1191: the County of Vermandois is acquired by the king, after the death of Elisabeth of Vermandois, the inheritor of the County. Confirmed in 1213, by Eléonore of Vermandois sister of Elisabeth. Philip gains Valois. 1200: the Norman Vexin is annexed 1200 the County of Évreux and Issoudun are annexed, in exchange for the king's recognition of John of England as king of England. 1204: confiscation of the Duchy of Normandy, the Touraine, Saintonge and, temporarily, of the Poitou from John of England. 1208: La Ferté-Macé confiscated from Guillaume IV of Ferté-Macé 1220: the Count
Treaty of Brétigny
The Treaty of Brétigny was a treaty, drafted on 8 May 1360 and ratified on 24 October 1360, between King Edward III of England and King John II of France. In retrospect it is seen as having marked the end of the first phase of the Hundred Years' War —as well as the height of English power on the Continent, it was signed at Brétigny, a village near Chartres, ratified as the Treaty of Calais on 24 October 1360. The treaty was signed four years after John was taken as a prisoner of war at the Battle of Poitiers; the ensuing conflicts in Paris between Étienne Marcel and the Dauphin, the outbreak of the Jacquerie peasant revolt weakened French bargaining power. The exactions of the English, who wished to yield as few as possible of the advantages claimed by them in the abortive Treaty of London the year before, made negotiations difficult, the discussion of terms begun early in April lasted more than a month. By virtue of this treaty, Edward III obtained, besides Guyenne and Gascony, Poitou and Aunis, Agenais, Périgord, Quercy, the countship of Gauré, Rouergue, Montreuil-sur-Mer, Calais, Sangatte and the countship of Guînes.
The king of England was to hold these clear, without doing homage for them. Furthermore, the treaty established that title to'all the islands that the King of England now holds' would no longer be under the suzerainty of the King of France; the title Duke of Aquitaine was abandoned in favor of Lord of Aquitaine. On his side, the King of England gave up the duchy of Touraine, the countships of Anjou and Maine, the suzerainty of Brittany and of Flanders, he renounced all claims to the French throne. The terms of Brétigny were meant to untangle the feudal responsibilities that had caused so much conflict, and, as far as the English were concerned, would concentrate English territories in an expanded version of Aquitaine. England restored the rights of the Bishop of Coutances to Alderney, stripped from them by the King of England in 1228. John II had to pay three million écus for his ransom, would be released after he paid one million; the occasion was the first minting of the franc, equivalent to one livre tournois.
As a guarantee for the payment of his ransom, John gave as hostages two of his sons, Louis I, Duke of Anjou and John, Duke of Berry, several princes and nobles, four inhabitants of Paris, two citizens from each of the nineteen principal towns of France. This treaty was ratified and sworn to by the two kings and by their eldest sons, the Black Prince and the dauphin Charles on 24 October 1360 at Calais. At the same time, the special conditions relating to each important article of the treaty and the renunciatory clauses in which the kings abandoned their rights over the territory they had yielded to one another were signed. Edward III retired to England. While the hostages were held, John returned to France to try to raise funds to pay the ransom. In 1362, John's son, Louis of Anjou, a hostage in English-held Calais, escaped captivity. Thus, with his stand-in hostage gone, John felt honour-bound to return to captivity in England, he died in captivity in 1364 and his son, Dauphin Charles, succeeded him as Charles V, king of France.
In 1369, on the pretext that Edward III had failed to observe the terms of the treaty, the king of France declared war once again. By the time of the 1377 death of Edward III, English forces had been pushed back into their territories in the southwest, around Bordeaux; the treaty did not lead to lasting peace, but procured nine years' respite from the Hundred Years' War. In the following years, French forces were involved in battles against the Anglo-Navarrese and the Bretons. List of treaties Treaty of Troyes Burne, Alfred H; the Crecy War: Military History of the Hundred Years War from 1337 to the Peace of Bretigny, 1360. Eyre & Spottiswoode: 1955. ISBN 0-8371-8301-4. Guignebert, Charles. A Short History of the French People. Vol 1. F. G. Richmond Translator. New York: Macmillan and Company