In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or Medieval Period lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance, the Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history, classical antiquity, the medieval period, and the modern period. The medieval period is subdivided into the Early, High. Population decline, counterurbanisation and movement of peoples, the large-scale movements of the Migration Period, including various Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire. In the seventh century, North Africa and the Middle East—once part of the Byzantine Empire—came under the rule of the Umayyad Caliphate, although there were substantial changes in society and political structures, the break with classical antiquity was not complete. The still-sizeable Byzantine Empire survived in the east and remained a major power, the empires law code, the Corpus Juris Civilis or Code of Justinian, was rediscovered in Northern Italy in 1070 and became widely admired in the Middle Ages.
In the West, most kingdoms incorporated the few extant Roman institutions, monasteries were founded as campaigns to Christianise pagan Europe continued. The Franks, under the Carolingian dynasty, briefly established the Carolingian Empire during the 8th, the Crusades, first preached in 1095, were military attempts by Western European Christians to regain control of the Holy Land from Muslims. Kings became the heads of centralised nation states, reducing crime and violence, intellectual life was marked by scholasticism, a philosophy that emphasised joining faith to reason, and by the founding of universities. Controversy and the Western Schism within the Catholic Church paralleled the conflict, civil strife. Cultural and technological developments transformed European society, concluding the Late Middle Ages, the Middle Ages is one of the three major periods in the most enduring scheme for analysing European history, classical civilisation, or Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and the Modern Period.
Medieval writers divided history into periods such as the Six Ages or the Four Empires, when referring to their own times, they spoke of them as being modern. In the 1330s, the humanist and poet Petrarch referred to pre-Christian times as antiqua, leonardo Bruni was the first historian to use tripartite periodisation in his History of the Florentine People. Bruni and argued that Italy had recovered since Petrarchs time. The Middle Ages first appears in Latin in 1469 as media tempestas or middle season, in early usage, there were many variants, including medium aevum, or middle age, first recorded in 1604, and media saecula, or middle ages, first recorded in 1625. The alternative term medieval derives from medium aevum, tripartite periodisation became standard after the German 17th-century historian Christoph Cellarius divided history into three periods, Ancient and Modern. The most commonly given starting point for the Middle Ages is 476, for Europe as a whole,1500 is often considered to be the end of the Middle Ages, but there is no universally agreed upon end date.
English historians often use the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485 to mark the end of the period
Battle of Poitiers
The Battle of Poitiers was a major battle of the Hundred Years War between England and France. The battle occurred on 19 September 1356 near Poitiers, preceded by the Battle of Crécy in 1346, and followed by the Battle of Agincourt in 1415, it was the second of the three great English victories of the war. The town and battle were often referred to as Poictiers at the time, Prince of Wales, the eldest son of King Edward III, began a great chevauchée on 8 August 1356. He conducted many scorched earth raids northwards from the English base in Aquitaine, in an effort to bolster his troops in central France, as well as to raid and ravage the countryside. His forces met little resistance, burning towns to the ground and living off the land. They were unable to take the castle or burn the town due to a heavy downpour and this delay allowed John II, King of France, to attempt to catch Edwards army. There were negotiations before the battle of Poitiers that are recorded in the writings of the life of Sir John Chandos and he records the final moments of a meeting of both sides in an effort to avoid the bloody conflict at Poitiers.
Of speech there he made no stint, there they held their parliament, and each one spoke his mind. But their counsel I cannot relate, yet I know well, in truth, as I hear in my record. Sir Thomas Felton fought not only at Poitiers but at the Battle of Crécy, one of the chief commanders at both Crécy and Poitiers was John de Vere, Earl of Oxford, mentioned above. Another account states that John of Ghistelles perished at the Battle of Crécy so there is ambiguity as to this man. The French army included a contingent of Scots commanded by Sir William Douglas, Douglas fought in the Kings own Battle, but when the fight seemed over Douglas was dragged by his men from the melee. At the beginning of the battle, the English removed their baggage train leading the French to think they were about to retreat which provoked a hasty charge by the French knights against the archers. According to Froissart, the English attacked the enemy, especially the horses, geoffrey the Baker writes that the French armour was invulnerable to the English arrows, that the arrowheads either skidded off the armour or shattered on impact.
Given the following actions of the archers, it seems likely Baker was correct, the armour on the horses was weaker on the sides and back, so the archers moved to the sides of the cavalry and shot the horses in the flanks. This was a method of stopping a cavalry charge, as a falling horse often destroyed the cohesion of the enemys line. The Dauphin attacked Salisbury and pressed his advance in spite of heavy shot by the English archers, green suggests that the Dauphin had thousands of troops with him in this phase of the attack. He advanced to the English lines but ultimately fell back, the French were unable to penetrate the protective hedge the English were using
Duchy of Bar
The County of Bar, from 1354 the Duchy of Bar, was a principality of the Holy Roman Empire encompassing the pays de Barrois and centred on the city of Bar-le-Duc. Part of the county, the so-called Barrois mouvant, became a fief of the Kingdom of France in 1301, the Barrois non-mouvant remained a part of the Empire. From 1480, it was united to the imperial Duchy of Lorraine, both imperial Bar and Lorraine were ceded to France in 1738. With the death of the last duke, Stanislaus Leszczynski, in 1766, the county of Bar originated in the frontier fortress of Bar that Duke Frederick I of Upper Lorraine built on the bank of the river Ornain around 960. The fortress was originally directed at the counts of Champagne, who had made incursions into Fredericks allodial lands, Frederick confiscated some lands from the nearby Abbey of Saint-Mihiel and settled his knights on it. The original Barrois was thus a mixture of the dukes allodial lands, on the death of Duke Frederick III in 1033, these lands passed to his sister, who was the first person to associate the comital title with Bar, styling herself Countess of Bar.
Sophias descendants, of the House of Montbéliard, expanded Bar by usurpation, conquest and its population was francophone and culturally French, and the counts were involved in French politics. Count Reginald II married Agnes, a sister of the queen of France and his son, Henry I, died on the Third Crusade in 1190. From 1214 to 1291 Bar was ruled by Henry II and Theobald II, in the Treaty of Bruges of 1301 Henry was forced to recognise all of his county west of the river Meuse as a fief of France. This was the origin of the Barrois mouvant, a territory that was turned into a fief was said to have moved and entered the mouvance of its suzerain and it was subject to the Parliament of Paris. The Treaty of Bruges did not represent any expansion of French territory, the territory to the west of the Meuse was French since the Treaty of Verdun of 843, but in 1301 it became a direct fief of the crown, including its allodial parts. In 1354 the Count of Bar took the title and was thereafter recognised as a Peer of France.
Père Anselme believed that Count Robert had been created a duke by King John II of France in preparation for the marriage to Johns daughter. The rulers of Bar were not created dukes by imperial appointment, the only title Count Robert received by imperial grant in 1354 was that of Margrave of Pont-à-Mousson. This margraviate was bestowed by the Dukes of Bar on their heirs apparent. In that same year the emperor raised the County of Luxembourg into a duchy, Bar passed to his great-nephew, René I, who was married to Isabella, Duchess of Lorraine. In 1431 the couple inherited Lorraine, on Renés death in 1480, Bar passed to his daughter Yolanda and her son, René II, who was already Duke of Lorraine. In 1482 he conquered the prévôté of Virton, a part of the Duchy of Luxembourg, in 1484 Peter II, Duke of Bourbon, regent for King Charles VIII of France, formally installed him in the Duchy of Bar
John II, Count of Soissons
John II, known as Jean de Nesle and by the sobriquet le Bon et le Bègue, was the tenth Count of Soissons, succeeding his father Ralph the Good, in 1235. He was the son of his fathers wife, Yolande. By marriage he became Count of Chartres and Lord of Amboise and he was well-connected with the trouvères, his younger brother Raoul was one and he received the dedication of a song by Pierrekin de la Coupele. He was a cousin by marriage of the historian Jean de Joinville and he is not to be confused with John II of Nesle, the burggrave of Bruges. Johns first marriage was to Mary, the heiress of Roger du Thour et de Chimay and his wife Agnes. John and Mary confirmed donations to the Teutonic Knights in May 1234 and she left him a son, John III, who would succeed him. Johns second wife was Matilda, the daughter and eldest surviving child of Sulpice III of Amboise and Isabella, Matilda was the widow of Richard II, the viscount of Beaumont-sur-Sarthe. On Isabellas death in 1246, Chartres thus passed to Matilda, John, in 1230 he supported Blanche of Castile as regent for the young Louis IX, in opposition to Peter I, Duke of Brittany.
In 1231 he began a controversy over property with the leadership of Soissons. After imprisoning several ecclesiastics, Louis IX and the Archbishop of Reims, Henry of Dreux, in 1242 John supported Louis against the rebellious Hugh X of Lusignan and the invading Henry III of England in a conflict that became known as the Saintonge War. John joined the Seventh Crusade in 1248, on the day of the Battle of Mansurah he commented to Jean de Joinville that well speak about this day again, you and me, in the ladies chamber. He was captured by the Mamelukes in April 1250, but was soon freed, in 1265 John joined the army of Charles of Anjou that was heading to Italy to conquer the Kingdom of Sicily. He was in charge of the escort of Charles wife, Beatrice of Provence, in 1266 he fought in the Battle of Benevento on the winning side. In 1270 John joined the Eighth Crusade in Tunisia and died shortly after his return, nobility of the Paris region, Chapter 9. Nesle at the Medieval Lands Project
The Carolingian dynasty was a Frankish noble family with origins in the Arnulfing and Pippinid clans of the 7th century AD. The name Carolingian derives from the Latinised name of Charles Martel, the Carolingian dynasty reached its peak in 800 with the crowning of Charlemagne as the first Emperor of Romans in over three centuries. His death in 814 began a period of fragmentation of the Carolingian empire and decline that would eventually lead to the evolution of the Kingdom of France. This picture, however, is not commonly accepted today, the greatest Carolingian monarch was Charlemagne, who was crowned Emperor by Pope Leo III at Rome in 800. His empire, ostensibly a continuation of the Western Roman Empire, is referred to historiographically as the Carolingian Empire, the Carolingian rulers did not give up the traditional Frankish practice of dividing inheritances among heirs, though the concept of the indivisibility of the Empire was accepted. The Carolingians had the practice of making their sons kings in the various regions of the Empire.
The Carolingians were displaced in most of the regna of the Empire by 888 and they ruled in East Francia until 911 and held the throne of West Francia intermittently until 987. One chronicler of Sens dates the end of Carolingian rule with the coronation of Robert II of France as junior co-ruler with his father, Hugh Capet, the dynasty became extinct in the male line with the death of Eudes, Count of Vermandois. His sister Adelaide, the last Carolingian, died in 1122, the Carolingian dynasty has five distinct branches, The Lombard branch, or Vermandois branch, or Herbertians, descended from Pepin of Italy, son of Charlemagne. Though he did not outlive his father, his son Bernard was allowed to retain Italy, Bernard rebelled against his uncle Louis the Pious, and lost both his kingdom and his life. Deprived of the title, the members of this branch settled in France. The counts of Vermandois perpetuated the Carolingian line until the 12th century, the Counts of Chiny and the lords of Mellier, Neufchâteau and Falkenstein are branches of the Herbertians.
With the descendants of the counts of Chiny, there would have been Herbertian Carolingians to the early 14th century, the Lotharingian branch, descended from Emperor Lothair, eldest son of Louis the Pious. At his death Middle Francia was divided equally between his three surviving sons, into Italy and Lower Burgundy, the sons of Emperor Lothair did not have sons of their own, so Middle Francia was divided between the western and eastern branches of the family in 875. The Aquitainian branch, descended from Pepin of Aquitaine, son of Louis the Pious, since he did not outlive his father, his sons were deprived of Aquitaine in favor of his younger brother Charles the Bald. The German branch, descended from Louis the German, King of East Francia, since he had three sons, his lands were divided into Duchy of Bavaria, Duchy of Saxony and Duchy of Swabia. His youngest son Charles the Fat briefly reunited both East and West Francia — the entirety of the Carolingian empire — but it again after his death.
With the failure of the lines of the German branch, Arnulf of Carinthia
Eugene Maurice, Count of Soissons
Eugene Maurice of Savoy was an Italian-French general and nobleman. A count of Soissons, he was the father of imperial feld-marshal Prince Eugene of Savoy, Eugene Maurice was born in Chambéry, Savoy. He was son of Thomas Francis, Prince of Carignano and Marie de Bourbon, on 21 February 1657 he married Olimpia Mancini, a niece of cardinal Mazarin, daughter of Michele Mancini and Geronima Mazarini. He obtained high military posts through his wifes influence and he died at Unna in Westphalia in 1673, out of a deadly fever, although there were voices that he had been poisoned. Louis Thomas, Count of Soissons married Urania de La Cropte and had issue Philippe, louis Jules, Cavaliere of Savoy killed at the battle of Petronell against the Turks known as the Cavaliere di Savoia Emanuel Philibert, Count of Dreux unmarried. Prince Eugene of Savoy famous general, princess Marie Jeanne of Savoy Mademoiselle de Soissons. Princess Louise Philiberte of Savoy Mademoiselle de Dreux
Marie I de Coucy, Countess of Soissons
Marie I de Coucy, Dame de Coucy and dOisy, Countess of Soissons was the wife of Henry of Bar, and the granddaughter of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault. She succeeded to the title of suo jure Countess of Soissons, on 18 February 1397, upon the death of her father, in addition to her titles, she owned numerous estates in North-Eastern France. Mary, Queen of Scots, King Henry IV of France, Marie was born in April 1366 at Coucy Castle, France. She was the eldest daughter of a powerful French nobleman, Enguerrand VII de Coucy and she had a younger sister, Philippa de Coucy, who married Robert de Vere, 9th Earl of Oxford, Marquess of Dublin, Duke of Ireland. When Marie was about an old, she accompanied her parents to England. In 1376 at the age of ten, Marie joined the household of the French queen, Joanna of Bourbon and was educated alongside the Dauphin and his siblings. In November 1384, she married Henry of Bar, Marquis de Pont-à-Mousson, son of Robert I, Duke of Bar and Marie of Valois, the marriage produced two sons, Enguerrand Robert of Bar.
Maries mother, died in 1379, and her father remarried in February 1386 and her name was Isabelle, and she was the daughter of John I, Duke of Lorraine. Near the end of same year, she was widowed. Following the Battle of Nicopolis, her husband Henry was taken prisoner and ransomed, in October 1397, on the lengthy journey home to France, Henry of Bar died at the Crusaders camp in Treviso after having contracted the plague during his sojourn in Venice. He was buried at the convent of the Celestines in Paris, Marie disputed the wealthy de Coucy inheritance with her stepmother, with Marie claiming the entire inheritance, while Isabelle insisted upon receiving half. The rich barony was described as having castles of grandeur, with its 150 towns and villages, its famous forests, fine ponds, many good vassals, much great nobility and inestimable revenues. The women lived in mutual hostility, each in a castle of the domain, with her own captains and entourage of relatives. Marie was coerced by Louis dOrléans into selling the barony to him in 1404 and she brought at least eleven lawsuits against Orléans in an attempt to recover her property, but following a wedding feast which she had attended in 1405, Marie died suddenly.
There were persistent rumours that she had poisoned, but nothing could be proven to substantiate the allegations. Her son Robert continued the litigation, but eventually, the barony of Coucy passed to the French Crown, barbara W. Tuchman, A Distant Mirror published by Alfred A. Knopf,1978 Charles Cawley, Medieval Lands, Dukes of Bar
Count or countess is a title in European countries for a noble of varying status, but historically deemed to convey an approximate rank intermediate between the highest and lowest titles of nobility. The word count came into English from the French comte, itself from Latin comes—in its accusative comitem—meaning “companion”, the adjective form of the word is comital. The British and Irish equivalent is an earl, alternative names for the count rank in the nobility structure are used in other countries, such as Graf in Germany and Hakushaku during the Japanese Imperial era. In the Western Roman Empire, Count came to indicate generically a military commander, in the Eastern Roman Empire, from about the seventh century, count was a specific rank indicating the commander of two centuries. Military counts in the Late Empire and the Germanic successor kingdoms were often appointed by a dux, the position of comes was originally not hereditary. By virtue of their estates, many counts could pass the title to their heirs—but not always.
For instance, in Piast Poland, the position of komes was not hereditary, the title had disappeared by the era of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, and the office had been replaced by others. Only after the Partitions of Poland did the title of count resurface in the title hrabia, in the United Kingdom, the equivalent Earl can be used as a courtesy title for the eldest son of a duke or marquess. In Italy, by contrast, all the sons of certain counts were counts, in Sweden there is a distinction between counts created before and after 1809. All children in comital families elevated before 1809 are called count/countess, the following lists are originally based on a Glossary on Heraldica. org by Alexander Krischnig. The male form is followed by the female, and when available, apart from all these, a few unusual titles have been of comital rank, not necessarily to remain there. Dauphin was a comital title in southern France, used by the Dauphins of Vienne and Auvergne. The Dauphin was the lord of the province known as the région Dauphiné.
Conde-Barão Count-Baron is a title used in Portugal, notably by D. Luís Lobo da Silveira, 7th Baron of Alvito. His palace in Lisbon still exists, located in a named after him. The German Graf and Dutch graaf stems from the Byzantine-Greek grapheus meaning he who calls a meeting together), the Ottoman military title of Serdar was used in Montenegro and Serbia as a lesser noble title with the equivalent rank of a Count. Since Louis VII, the highest precedence amongst the vassals of the French crown was enjoyed by those whose benefice or temporal fief was a pairie, i. e. In the eleventh century, conti like the Count of Savoy or the Norman Count of Apulia, were virtually sovereign lords of broad territories