The Counter-Earth is a hypothetical body of the Solar System hypothesized by the pre-Socratic Greek philosopher Philolaus to support his non-geocentric cosmology, in which all objects in the universe revolve around an unseen "Central Fire". The Greek word Antichthon means "Counter-Earth". In modern times a hypothetical planet always on the other side of the Sun from Earth has been called a "Counter-Earth", has been a recurring theme in UFO claims, as well as in fiction. An astronomical system positing that the Earth, Sun and unseen "counter-earth" revolve around an unseen "Central Fire" was developed in the 5th century BC and attributed to the Pythagorean philosopher Philolaus. Philolaus' universe moved "the earth from the center of the cosmos", provided the insight that "the apparent motion of the heavenly bodies" was due to "the real motion of the observer"—i.e. Earth. In Philolaus' system, The Earth and Counter-Earth revolved around the unseen Central Fire every 24 hours. While the Moon's revolution was monthly, the sun's yearly.
It was the Earth's speedy travel past the slower moving Sun that resulted in the appearance on Earth of the Sun rising and setting. Further from the Central Fire, the Planets' movement was slower still, the outermost "sky" fixed. Along with the Central Fire, the "mysterious" Counter-Earth was the other heavenly body not visible from Earth. We know that Aristotle described it as "another Earth", from which Greek scholar George Burch infers that it must be similar in size and constitution to Earth; some think Philolaus had it following an orbit so that it was always located between Earth and the Central Fire. This tenth planet is always invisible to us, because it is between us and the central fire and always keeps pace with the Earth. Burch argues. Since "counter" means "opposite", opposite could only be in respect to the Central Fire, it follows that the Counter-Earth must be orbiting 180 degrees from Earth. According to Aristotle—a critic of the Pythagoreans—the function of the Counter-Earth was to explain "eclipses of the moon and their frequency", which could not be explained by Earth blocking the light of the sun if the Earth did not revolve around the sun.
Aristotle suggests that it was introduced "to raise the number of heavenly bodies around the central fire from nine to ten, which the Pythagoreans regarded as the perfect number". However Burch believes Aristotle was having a joke "at the expense of Pythagorean number theory", that the true purpose of the Counter-Earth was to "balance" Philolaus' cosmos—balance being needed because without a counter there would be only one dense, massive object in the system—Earth. Although his system had both the Earth and the Planets orbiting a single point, the ancient Greeks did not consider Earth a "planet". In the time before Galileo could observe from his telescope that planets were spheres like Earth, they were thought to be different from stars only in brightness and in their motion, like stars composed of a fiery or ethereal matter having little or no density. However, the Earth was made of the dense elements of earth and water. According to Burch, "If there was a single Earth revolving at some distance from the center of space the universe's center of gravity, located in the Earth as its only dense body, would not coincide with its spatial center...
The universe would be off center, so to speak—lopsided and asymmetric—a notion repugnant to any Greek, doubly so to a Pythagorean." This could be corrected by another body with the same mass as Earth, orbiting the same central point but 180 degrees from Earth—the Counter-Earth. In the 1st century A. D. after the idea of a spherical Earth gained more general acceptance, Pomponius Mela, a Latin cosmographer, developed an updated version of the idea, wherein a spherical Earth must have a more or less balanced distribution of land and water though all known continents were in the northern hemisphere. Mela drew a map which postulated a continental landmass in the unknown, southern half of Earth - the antipodes - below the equator and the tropics, climes which he believed uninhabitable and impassably hot. To the inhabitants of this continent Mela ascribed the name Antichthones. Philolaus's ideas were all superseded by the modern realization that a spherical Earth rotating on its own axis was one of several spherical planets following the laws of gravity and revolving around a much larger Sun.
The idea of a Counter-Earth waned after the heliocentric model of the solar system became accepted from the 16th century. In the contemporary world "Counter-Earth" refers to a hypothetical planet with an orbit as Burch described, on the other side of the "Central fire"—i.e. the Sun. It cannot be seen from Earth, not because Earth faces away from the center, but because the Sun's great size blocks its view, it has been a recurring motif in science fiction, fiction—often serving as an allegory for the real Earth—and UFO claims. A planet orbiting the Sun so that it was always on the other side of the Sun from Earth could have such an orbit because it was the same distance from the Sun and had the same mass as Earth. Thus, what would make it undetectable to astronomers on Earth would make it habitable to beings at least similar to humans. With the same size and distance from the Sun as Earth, it could have the same surface environment—gravity, atmospheric pressure, surface temperature range. At the same t
The 2013 If Stockholm Open was a professional men's tennis tournament played on indoor hard courts. It was the 45th edition of the tournament, part of the ATP World Tour 250 series of the 2013 ATP World Tour, it took place in Stockholm, Sweden between 14 and 20 October 2013. 1 Rankings are as of October 7, 2013 The following players received wildcards into the singles main draw: Markus Eriksson Benoît Paire Milos RaonicThe following players received entry from the qualifying draw: Marius Copil Joachim Johansson Nils Langer Milos Sekulic Before the tournament Brian Baker Marin Čilić David Goffin Sam Querrey Mikhail YouzhnyDuring the tournament Fernando Verdasco Jürgen Zopp Rankings are as of October 7, 2013 The following pairs received wildcards into the doubles main draw: Isak Arvidsson / Andreas Siljeström Jonas Björkman / Robert LindstedtThe following pair received entry as alternates: Patrik Rosenholm / Milos Sekulic Before the tournament Marcelo Melo During the tournament Fernando Verdasco Grigor Dimitrov def.
Srećko Bogdan is a Croatian former professional footballer who played a defender. He is now a youth coach in NK Inter Zaprešić. Bogdan was born in Mursko Croatia, FPR Yugoslavia, he started his career in his home town with NK Rudar Mursko Središće, where he spent three years before moving to MTČ Čakovec and starting his senior career in 1973. He spent one season and a half with Čakovec before transferring first to Dinamo Zagreb and to Karlsruhe, he is in third place in Dinamo Zagreb's all-time list of appearances for the club, with a total of 595 appearances in which he scored 125 goals. He played for Dinamo Zagreb between January 1975 and June 1985, after which he moved to Karlsruhe in the German 2. Bundesliga. After two years at Karlsruhe, he managed promotion to the Bundesliga with the club and subsequently made 169 appearances for the club in the league over the following six seasons, scoring nine goals, he retired from playing in June 1993. In his international career, he played for both former Yugoslavia and Croatia, won 11 caps for Yugoslavia and two for Croatia, scoring one goal for the latter.
Bogdan worked as a coach at Karlsruhe's youth academy between 1993 and 1996, following his retirement as a player at the club. He went on to work as an assistant coach at the club's first team between 1996 and 2001; the first club where he was appointed head coach was Croatian side Inter Zaprešić, where he was in charge in 2005 and 2006. He was appointed head coach at Segesta Sisak in January 2007, staying with the club until October 2008. In October 2009, he was appointed head coach at Međimurje, signing a contract until the end of the 2009–10 season, he was sacked on 2 April 2010, when the club found themselves on the brink of the relegation zone after a streak of five games without a win. During the 2006 FIFA World Cup, Bogdan commented several of the tournament's matches as a co-commentator for the Croatian Radiotelevision. Srećko Bogdan at National-Football-Teams.com Srećko Bogdan at the Croatian Football Federation Srećko Bogdan at the Serbia national football team website
Geza Šifliš was a Yugoslav football goalkeeper of Hungarian ethnicity. Nicknamed Gouliver for his height and strength, he played in top league clubs in Yugoslavia and Hungary. Born in Krstur, Austro-Hungary, he first appeared playing for SAND Subotica in the 1927 Yugoslav Football Championship. In 1929 he moved to Hungary where he first played with Ferencvárosi TC between 1929 and 1931, with Újpest FC between 1931 and 1933, he played 5 matches for the Yugoslav national team, one of them at the 1928 Summer Olympics against Portugal. He played all 5 national team matches while playing with SAND, he was an ethnic Hungarian, after joining Hungarian side Ferencváros, he stayed in Hungary. In 1936 he married Hungarian swimmer Magda Szász, he died in Baja, Hungary on 18 November 1948
The presence of street vendors in Mexico City dates back to pre-Hispanic era and over the centuries the government has struggled to control it, with most a clearing of downtown streets of vendors in 2007, but despite this there is a persistent presence of many thousands illegally. In 2003 it was estimated. Prior to the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire, commercial activity took place in the tianguis or marketplaces. In New Spain, outside of the controlled mercado or market on the Zócalo and other squares, street vendors emerged called buhoneros. Efforts to control street vendors date back to at least 1541, when the city government prohibited itinerant vendors; the 1970s and 1980s saw huge growth in the number of vendors. In 1993 the first of several major efforts to reduce street vending in the Historic Center of Mexico City began, with the removal of about 10,000 vendors from the streets and construction of markets to reaccommodate them, as well as subject them to tax codes, health regulations and otherwise pay the full "costs of formality."In 1998 guidelines attempting to formalize and bring order to the sector were published as the Programa de Reordenamiento del Comercio en Via Publica, or Program for the Reordering of Trade in the Public Streets, however street vending continued to grow.
Efforts to remove the vendors failed as vendors returned to the streets. During the 1990s and 2000s street vendors have paid union leaders "dues" in exchange for the right to occupy a piece of sidewalk without city permission, an illegal act; the unions in turn and lobbied city officials to allow the vendors to stay. In October 2007 the streets of the Historic Center were cleared of vendors with much success, considered a victory for mayor Marcelo Ebrard. However, toreros remain active in the area — people who sell merchandise from a tarp on the ground which converts to a bag that they can carry the merchandise in and carry it away when police show up to clear illegal street vendors. Street vendors in a variety of formats, with items sold from: baskets sandwiches, pushcarts prepared fruit and coconut water the backs of trucks fruit and toilet paper a tarp or cloth laid on the ground stallsVendors selling from stalls may be organized into a number of formats: tianguis and mobile markets: These markets take place in a designated place on certain days of the week, with a fixed schedule and supervised by a city inspector for compliance with weights and measurements.
These markets are part of the strategy for the distribution of food staples to the city. Concentrations: areas of vendors selling from stalls, not organized, specializing in certain types of products, such as imported illegal merchandise or fayuca electronics, in Tepito, or auto parts, clothing, etc. Although in many cases those selling from stalls are not itinerant - they are still referred to as ambulantes. Concentrations of stalls are found at metro station entrances, near hospital entrances etc. Bazaars, where vendors of a certain "theme" are housed. A study in the mid-1990s had estimated the number of street vendors as follows: Total full-time street vendors: 185,600; this number excludes those who sell in the street or who add to the numbers during peak commercial seasons, the study estimated that if included they would add at least 50 per cent to the figure. Concentrations: 1,500 stalls on the street or sidewalks Rotating Markets: 38,000 stalls Ambulatory: 67,248 stalls Metro stations: 5,000 stalls Street corners/neighbourhoods: 10,000 Total stalls: 121,738.– Source
Warren Frank Alfson was an American football guard and linebacker for the Nebraska Cornhuskers, as well as the Brooklyn Dodgers of the National Football League. He was raised in Wisner, Nebraska. Alfson graduated from Wisner High School in 1933, where he was a halfback on the school's single wing football team. After graduating from high school, Alfson worked and farmed for several years until earning enough money to attend the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Class of 1941, where he was a member of the Chi Phi Fraternity; when he attended school, he decided to try out for the Cornhusker football team, but as a lineman. After one year on the freshman squad, he asked the school's permission to continue practicing, but to not play, so that he could get himself into proper condition as well as to wait for the upperclassmen ahead of him to graduate; this made Alfson the first recorded redshirt in Cornhusker history, the first in collegiate history - the inventor of "redshirting" - the Nebraska color without a number.
Alfson's year of conditioning would pay off well, as he returned to become a three-year starter for Nebraska. In the era of one-platoon football, he was a guard on offense, a linebacker on defense, he wore jersey number #22 throughout his Cornhusker career, he would become recognized as first team All Big Six Conference in 1939 and 1940, second team All-America in 1939, he would earn first team All-America status in 1940, the year the Nebraska Cornhuskers went 8-2 and played Stanford in the 1941 Rose Bowl under coach Biff Jones. Alfson would play one year with the NFL's Brooklyn Dodgers, earned NFL All-Rookie status, despite being drafted in the sixteenth round due to his age. However, World War II cut his career short, Alfson married and served in the war. After the war he returned to Wisner and farmed, he served on the Wisner school board as well as other organizations, briefly served as Wisner's mayor, he took great pride in his Cornhusker connections, attended many Nebraska games. In 1975, he was inducted into the Nebraska Football Hall of Fame.
In 2005, Alfson was recognized with'honorable mention' recognition for the state of Nebraska's "Our Top 100" athletes of all time, as selected by the Omaha World-Herald. Alfson died in his home in Wisner, Nebraska, in 2001, he had one granddaughter. Babcock, Mike. Go Big Red: The Ultimate Fan's Guide to Nebraska Cornhusker Football. New York: St. Martin's Griffin. ISBN 0-312-19457-9 – via Google Books. Warren Alfson's NFL Career Statistics Brooklyn Dodger Football History Nebraska Top 100 Athletes Warren Alfson at Find a Grave