Sándor Ferenczi was a Hungarian psychoanalyst, a key theorist of the psychoanalytic school and a close associate of Sigmund Freud. Born Sándor Fränkel to Baruch Fränkel and Rosa Eibenschütz, both Polish Jews, he magyarized his surname to Ferenczi; as a result of his psychiatric work, he came to believe that his patients' accounts of sexual abuse as children were truthful, having verified those accounts through other patients in the same family. This was a major reason for his eventual disputes with Sigmund Freud. Prior to this conclusion he was notable as a psychoanalyst for working with the most difficult of patients and for developing a theory of more active intervention than is usual for psychoanalytic practice. During the early 1920s, criticizing Freud's "classical" method of neutral interpretation, Ferenczi collaborated with Otto Rank to create a "here-and-now" psychotherapy that, through Rank's personal influence, led the American Carl Rogers to conceptualize person-centered therapy. Ferenczi has found some favour in modern times among the followers of Jacques Lacan as well as among relational psychoanalysts in the United States.
Relational analysts read Ferenczi as anticipating their own clinical emphasis on mutuality, intersubjectivity, the importance of the analyst's countertransference. Ferenczi's work has influenced theory and praxis of the interpersonal-relational theory of American psychoanalysis, as typified by psychoanalysts at the William Alanson White Institute. Ferenczi was president of the International Psychoanalytical Association from 1918 to 1919. Ernest Jones, a biographer of Freud, termed Ferenczi as "mentally ill" at the end of his life, famously ignoring Ferenczi's struggle with pernicious anemia, which killed him in 1933. Though ill with the then-untreatable disease, Ferenczi managed to deliver his most famous paper, "Confusion of Tongues" to the 12th International Psycho-Analytic Congress in Wiesbaden, Germany, on 4 September 1932. Ferenczi's reputation was revived in 2002 by publication of Disappearing and Reviving: Sandor Ferenczi in the History of Psychoanalysis. One of the book's chapters dealt with the nature of the relationship between Ferenczi.
Contrary to Freud's opinion of therapeutic abstinence, Ferenczi advocated a more active role for the analyst. For example, instead of the relative "passivity" of a listening analyst encouraging the patient to free associate, Ferenczi used to curtail certain responses and non-verbal alike, on the part of the analysand so as to allow suppressed thoughts and feelings to emerge. Ferenczi described in a case study how he used a kind of behavioral activation when he asked an opera singer with performance anxiety to “perform” during a therapy session and in this way to struggle with her fears. Ferenczi believed, he based his intervention on responding to the subjective experience of the analysand. If the more traditional opinion was that the analyst had the role of a physician, administering a treatment to the patient based upon diagnostic judgment of psychopathology, Ferenczi wanted the analysand to become a co-participant in an encounter created by the therapeutic dyad; this emphasis on empathic reciprocity during the therapeutic encounter was an important contribution to the evolution of psychoanalysis.
Ferenczi believed that self-disclosure of the analyst is an important therapeutic reparative force. The practice of including the therapist's personality in therapy resulted in the development of the idea of mutual encounter: the therapist is allowed to discuss some content from his/her own life and thoughts, as long as it is relevant to the therapy; this is in contrast to the Freudian therapeutic abstinence according to which the therapist should not involve his/her personal life with the therapy, should remain neutral. The mutual encounter is a precedent for the psychoanalytic theory of two-person psychology. Ferenczi believed that the persistent traumatic effect of chronic overstimulation, deprivation, or empathic failure during childhood is what causes neurotic, character and psychotic disorders. According to this concept, trauma develops as a result of the sexual seduction of a child by a parent or authority figure; the confusion of tongues occurs. The pathological adult interprets this infantile and innocent game according to his adult "passion tongue" and forces the child to conform to his passion tongue.
The adult uses a tongue the child does not know, interprets the child’s innocent game according to his disturbed perspective. For example, a father is playing with his little girl. During their common game, she offers him the role of her husband and wants him to sleep with her just as he sleeps with her mother; the pathological father misinterprets this childish offer, touches his daughter in an inappropriate manner while they are in bed together. Here, the child spoke her innocent childish tongue, the father interpreted her offer with his passionate adult sexual tongue; the adult attempts to convince the child that the lust on his part is the love for which the child yearns. Ferenczi generalized the idea of trauma to emotional neglect, physical maltreatment, empathic failure; the prominent manifestation of these disturbances would be the sexual abuse. In Thalassa: A Theory of Genitality, Ferenczi suggested that the wish to return to the womb and the comfort of its amniotic fluids symbolizes a wish to r
The Interpretation of Dreams
The Interpretation of Dreams is an 1899 book by Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, in which the author introduces his theory of the unconscious with respect to dream interpretation, discusses what would become the theory of the Oedipus complex. Freud revised the book at least eight times and, in the third edition, added an extensive section which treated dream symbolism literally, following the influence of Wilhelm Stekel. Freud said of this work, "Insight such as this falls to one's lot but once in a lifetime."Dated 1900, the book was first published in an edition of 600 copies, which did not sell out for eight years. The Interpretation of Dreams gained in popularity, seven more editions were published in Freud's lifetime; because of the book's length and complexity, Freud wrote an abridged version called On Dreams. The original text is regarded as one of Freud's most significant works. Freud spent the summer of 1895 at Schloss BelleVue near Grinzing in Austria, where he began the inception of The Interpretation of Dreams.
In a 1900 letter to Wilhelm Fliess, he wrote in commemoration of the place: "Do you suppose that some day a marble tablet will be placed on the house, inscribed with these words:'In this house on July 24, 1895, the secret of dreams was revealed to Dr. Sigm. Freud'? At the moment I see little prospect of it." — Freud in a letter to Wilhelm Fliess, June 12, 1900 While staying at Schloss Bellevue, Freud dreamed his famous dream of'Irma's injection'. His reading and analysis of the dream allowed him to be exonerated from his mishandling of the treatment of a patient in 1895. In 1963, Belle Vue manor was demolished, but today a memorial plaque with just that inscription has been erected at the site by the Austrian Sigmund Freud Society. Dreams, in Freud's view, are formed as the result of two mental processes; the first process involves unconscious forces that construct a wish, expressed by the dream, the second is the process of censorship that forcibly distorts the expression of the wish. In Freud's view, all dreams are forms of "wish fulfillment".
Freud states: "My presumption that dreams can be interpreted at once puts me in opposition to the ruling theory of dreams and in fact to every theory of dreams..."Freud advanced the idea that an analyst can differentiate between the manifest content and latent content of a dream. The manifest content refers to the remembered narrative; the latent content refers to the underlying meaning of the dream. During sleep, the unconscious condenses and forms representations of the dream content, the latent content of, unrecognizable to the individual upon waking. Critics have argued. Freud, contested this criticism, noting that "the assertion that all dreams require a sexual interpretation, against which critics rage so incessantly, occurs nowhere in my Interpretation of Dreams, it is not to be found in any of the numerous editions of this book and is in obvious contradiction to other views expressed in it." Freud acknowledged that the interpretation of dreams is the royal road to a knowledge of the unconscious activities of the mind."
Freud claimed. Though, the connection may be minor, as the dream content can be selected from any part of the dreamer's life, he described four possible sources of dreams: a) mentally significant experiences represented directly, b) several recent and significant experiences combined into a single unity by the dream, c) one or more recent and significant experiences which are represented in the content by the mention of a contemporary but indifferent experience, d) an internal significant experience, such as a memory or train of thought, invariably represented in the dream by a mention of a recent but indifferent impression. Oftentimes people experience external stimuli, such as an alarm clock or music, being distorted and incorporated into their dreams. Freud explained that this is because "the mind is withdrawn from the external world during sleep, it is unable to give it a correct interpretation..." He further explained that our mind wishes to continue sleeping, therefore will try to suppress external stimuli, weave the stimuli into the dream, compel a person to wake up, or encourage him or her to overcome it.
Freud believed that dreams were picture-puzzles, though they may appear nonsensical and worthless on the surface, through the process of interpretation they can form a "poetical phrase of the greatest beauty and significance." Dreams are brief compared to the abundance of dream thoughts. Through condensation or compression, dream content can be presented in one dream. Oftentimes, people may recall having more than one dream in a night. Freud explained that the content of all dreams occurring on the same night represents part of the same whole, he believed. The first dream is more distorted and the latter is more distinct. Displacement of dream content occurs when manifest content does not resemble the actual meaning of the dream. Displacement comes through the influence of a censorship agent. Representation in dreams is the causal relation between two things. Freud argues that objects can be combined into a single representation in a dream. An abridged version called On Dreams was published in 1901 as part of Lowenfeld and Kurella's Grenzfragen des Nerven und Seelenlebens.
It was re-published in 1911 in larger form as a book. On Dreams is also
Denial, in ordinary English usage, is asserting that a statement or allegation is not true. The same word, abnegation, is used for a psychological defense mechanism postulated by psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud, in which a person is faced with a fact, too uncomfortable to accept and rejects it instead, insisting that it is not true despite what may be overwhelming evidence. An individual that exhibits such behavior is described as a true believer. Denial could mean denying the happening of an event or the reliability of information, which can lead to a feeling of aloofness and to the ignoring of beneficial information; the subject may use: simple denial: deny the reality of the unpleasant fact altogether minimisation: admit the fact but deny its seriousness projection: admit both the fact and seriousness but deny responsibility by blaming somebody or something else The concept of denial is important to the study of addiction. The theory of denial was first researched by Anna Freud, she classified denial as a mechanism of the immature mind, because it conflicts with the ability to learn from and cope with reality.
Where denial occurs in mature minds, it is most associated with death and rape. More recent research has expanded the scope and utility of the concept. Elisabeth Kübler-Ross used denial as the first of five stages in the psychology of a dying patient, the idea has been extended to include the reactions of survivors to news of a death. Many contemporary psychoanalysts treat denial as the first stage of a coping cycle; when an unwelcome change occurs, a trauma of some sort, the first impulse to disbelieve begins the process of coping. That denial, in a healthy mind rises to greater consciousness. Becoming a subconscious pressure, just beneath the surface of overt awareness, the mechanism of coping involves repression, while the person accumulates the emotional resources to face the trauma. Once faced, the person deals with the trauma in a stage alternately called acceptance or enlightenment, depending on the scope of the issue and the therapist's school of thought. After this stage, once sufficiently dealt with, or dealt with for the time being, the trauma must sink away from total conscious awareness again.
Left out of the conscious mind, the process of sublimation involves a balance of neither quite forgetting nor quite remembering. This allows the trauma to re-emerge in consciousness if it involves an ongoing process such as a protracted illness. Alternately, sublimation may begin the full resolution process, where the trauma sinks away into eventual forgetfulness; this entire cycle has been referred to in modern parlance as denial, confusing the full cycle with only one stage of it. To further muddy discourse, the terms denial and cycle of denial sometimes get used to refer to an unhealthy, dysfunctional cycle of unresolved coping with regard to addiction and compulsion. Unlike some other defense mechanisms postulated by psychoanalytic theory, the general existence of denial is easy to verify for non-specialists. However, denial is one of the most controversial defense mechanisms, since it can be used to create unfalsifiable theories: anything the subject says or does that appears to disprove the interpreter's theory is explained, not as evidence that the interpreter's theory is wrong, but as the subject's being "in denial".
However, researchers note that in some cases of corroborated child sexual abuse, the victims sometimes make a series of partial confessions and recantations as they struggle with their own denial and the denial of abusers or family members. Use of denial theory in a legal setting, therefore, is regulated and experts' credentials verified. "Formulaic guilt" by "being a denier" has been castigated by English judges and academics. The main objection is that denial theory is founded on the premise that that which the supposed denier is denying is truth; this usurps the judge as triers of fact. What makes denial denial and not just a refusal to admit to or accept a truth or fact rests in the degree of an individual's awareness of the existence of the truth or fact. In denial, an individual does not see or is unconscious of existence of the truth or fact; the choice to refuse reality is unconscious as well. Refusal to admit to or accept a truth or fact differs from denial in that the individual recognizes or is conscious of the existence of the truth or fact but consciously refuses to accept it as such.
Denial is characteristic of mania, of people with bipolar affective disorder in the manic stage — in this state, one can deny, remarkably a long period of time, the fact that he has fatigue, negative emotions and problems in general, until he is physically exhausted McWilliams, Nancy. Psychoanalytic Diagnosis, Second Edition: Understanding Personality Structure in the Clinical Process; the Guilford Pres. Freud employs the term Verleugnung as distinct from Verneinung. In Verleugnung, the defense consists of denying something that affects the individual and is a way of affirming what he or she is denying. For Freud, Verleugnung is related to psychoses. Freud broadened his clinical work on disavowal beyond the realm of psychosis. In "Fetishism", he reported a case of two young men. Freud notes that neither of them developed a psychosis though "a piece of reality, und
Alfred Adler was an Austrian medical doctor and founder of the school of individual psychology. His emphasis on the importance of feelings of inferiority, the inferiority complex, is recognized as an isolating element which plays a key role in personality development. Alfred Adler considered human beings as an individual whole, therefore he called his psychology "Individual Psychology". Adler was the first to emphasize the importance of the social element in the re-adjustment process of the individual and who carried psychiatry into the community. A Review of General Psychology survey, published in 2002, ranked Adler as the 67th most eminent psychologist of the 20th century. Alfred Adler was born at Mariahilfer Straße 208 in Rudolfsheim a village on the western fringes of Vienna, today part of Rudolfsheim-Fünfhaus, the 15th district of the city, he was second of the seven children of his wife. Alfred's younger brother died in the bed next to him. Alfred was an active, popular child and an average student, known for his competitive attitude toward his older brother, Sigmund.
Early on, he developed rickets. At the age of four, he developed pneumonia and heard a doctor say to his father, "Your boy is lost". At that point, he decided to be a physician, he was interested in the subjects of psychology and philosophy. After studying at University of Vienna, he specialized as an eye doctor, in neurology and psychiatry. Adler began his medical career as an ophthalmologist, but he soon switched to general practice, established his office in a less affluent part of Vienna across from the Prater, a combination amusement park and circus, his clients included circus people, it has been suggested that the unusual strengths and weaknesses of the performers led to his insights into "organ inferiorities" and "compensation". In 1902 Adler received an invitation from Sigmund Freud to join an informal discussion group that included Rudolf Reitler and Wilhelm Stekel; the group, the "Wednesday Society", met on Wednesday evenings at Freud's home and was the beginning of the psychoanalytic movement, expanding over time to include many more members.
A long-serving member of the group, Adler became president of the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society eight years later. He remained a member of the Society until 1911, when he and a group of his supporters formally disengaged from Freud's circle, the first of the great dissenters from orthodox psychoanalysis; this departure suited both Adler, since they had grown to dislike each other. During his association with Freud, Adler maintained his own ideas which diverged from Freud's. While Adler is referred to as "a pupil of Freud", in fact this was never true. In 1929 Adler showed a reporter with the New York Herald a copy of the faded postcard that Freud had sent him in 1902, he wanted to prove that he had never been a disciple of Freud's but rather that Freud had sought him out to share his ideas. Adler founded the Society for Individual Psychology in 1912 after his break from the psychoanalytic movement. Adler's group included some orthodox Nietzschean adherents, their enmity aside, Adler retained a lifelong admiration for Freud's ideas on dreams and credited him with creating a scientific approach to their clinical utilization.
Regarding dream interpretation, Adler had his own theoretical and clinical approach. The primary differences between Adler and Freud centered on Adler's contention that the social realm is as important to psychology as is the internal realm; the dynamics of power and compensation extend beyond sexuality, gender and politics can be as important as libido. Moreover, Freud did not share Adler's socialist beliefs, the latter's wife being for example an intimate friend of many of the Russian Marxists such as Leon Trotsky. Following Adler's break from Freud, he enjoyed considerable success and celebrity in building an independent school of psychotherapy and a unique personality theory, he traveled and lectured for a period of 25 years promoting his oriented approach. His intent was to build a movement that would rival supplant, others in psychology by arguing for the holistic integrity of psychological well-being with that of social equality. Adler's efforts were halted by World War I, during which he served as a doctor with the Austro-Hungarian Army.
After the conclusion of the war, his influence increased greatly. In the 1920s, he established a number of child guidance clinics. From 1921 onwards, he was a frequent lecturer in Europe and the United States, becoming a visiting professor at Columbia University in 1927, his clinical treatment methods for adults were aimed at uncovering the hidden purpose of symptoms using the therapeutic functions of insight and meaning. Adler was concerned with the overcoming of the superiority/inferiority dynamic and was one of the first psychotherapists to discard the analytic couch in favor of two chairs; this allows the patient to sit together more or less as equals. Clinically, Adler's methods are not limited to treatment after-the-fact but extend to the realm of prevention by preempting future problems in the child. Prevention strategies include encouraging and promoting social interest, a cultural shift within families and
Anna Freud was an Austrian-British psychoanalyst. She was born in the sixth and youngest child of Sigmund Freud and Martha Bernays, she contributed to the field of psychoanalysis. Alongside Melanie Klein, she may be considered the founder of psychoanalytic child psychology. Compared to her father, her work emphasized the importance of the ego and its normal "developmental lines" as well as incorporating a distinctive emphasis on collaborative work across a range of analytical and observational contexts. After the Freud family were forced to leave Vienna in 1938, with the advent of the Nazi regime in Austria, she resumed her psychoanalytic practice and her pioneering work in child psychology in London, establishing the Hampstead Child Therapy Course and Clinic in 1952 as a centre for therapy and research work. Anna Freud was born in Vienna, Austria-Hungary on 3 December 1895, she was the youngest daughter of Martha Bernays. She grew up in "comfortable bourgeois circumstances." Anna Freud appears to have had a comparatively unhappy childhood, in which she "never made a close or pleasurable relationship with her mother, was instead nurtured by their Catholic nurse Josephine."
She had difficulties getting along with her siblings with her sister Sophie Freud. Sophie, the more attractive child, represented a threat in the struggle for the affection of their father: "the two young Freuds developed their version of a common sisterly division of territories:'beauty' and'brains', their father once spoke of her'age-old jealousy of Sophie.'As well as this rivalry between the two sisters, Anna had other difficulties growing up –'a somewhat troubled youngster who complained to her father in candid letters how all sorts of unreasonable thoughts and feelings plagued her'. It seems that'in general, she was relentlessly competitive with her siblings...and was sent to health farms for thorough rest, salutary walks, some extra pounds to fill out her all too slender shape': she may have suffered from depression which caused eating disorders. The close relationship between Anna and her father was different from the rest of her family, she was a lively child with a reputation for mischief.
Freud wrote to his friend Wilhelm Fliess in 1899: "Anna has become downright beautiful through naughtiness." Freud is said to refer to her in his diaries more than others in the family. On Anna Freud would say that she didn't learn much in school; this was how she picked up Hebrew, English and Italian. At the age of 15, she started reading her father's work and discovered a dream she had'at the age of nineteen months... appeared in The Interpretation of Dreams. Commentators have noted how'in the dream of little Anna... little Anna only hallucinates forbidden objects'. Anna finished her education at the Cottage Lyceum in Vienna in 1912. Suffering from a depression and anorexia, she was insecure about what to do in the future. A visit to Britain in the autumn of 1914, which her father's colleague, Ernest Jones, became of concern to Freud when he learned of the latter's romantic intentions, his advice to Jones, in a letter of 22 July 1914, was that his daughter "... does not claim to be treated as a woman, being still far away from sexual longings and rather refusing man.
There is an outspoken understanding between me and her that she should not consider marriage or the preliminaries before she gets two or three years older". In 1914 she passed the test to work as a teaching apprentice at the Cottage Lyceum. From 1915 to 1917, she worked as a teaching apprentice for third and fifth graders. For the school year 1917-18, she began'her first venture as Klassenlehrerin for the second grade'. For her performance during the school years 1915-18 she was praised by her superior, Salka Goldman who'wrote... she showed "great zeal "for all her responsibilities, but she was appreciated for her "conscientious preparations" and for her "gift for teaching"... being such a success that she was invited to stay on with a regular four-year contract starting in the fall of 1918'. After experiencing multiple episodes of illness Anna Freud resigned her teaching post in 1920; this enabled her to pursue further her growing interest in her father's work and writings. From 1918 to 1921 and from 1924 to 1929 she was in analysis with her father.
In 1922 she presented her paper "Beating Fantasies and Daydreams" to the Vienna Psychoanalytical Society and became a member of the society. In 1923, she began her own psychoanalytical practice with children and by 1925 she was teaching at the Vienna Psychoanalytic Training Institute on the technique of child analysis. From 1925 until 1934, she was the Secretary of the International Psychoanalytical Association while she continued child analysis and contributed to seminars and conferences on the subject. In 1935, she became director of the Vienna Psychoanalytical Training Institute and the following year she published her influential study of the "ways and means by which the ego wards off depression and anxiety", The Ego and the Mechanisms of Defence, it became a founding work of ego psychology and established Freud's reputation as a pioneering theoretician. Among the first children Anna Freud took into analysis. In 1925 Burlingham, heiress to the Tiffany luxury jewellery retailer, had arrived in Vienna from New York with her four children and entered analysis firstly with Theodore Reik and with a view to training in child analysis, with Freud himself.
Anna and Dorothy soon d
A defence mechanism is an unconscious psychological mechanism that reduces anxiety arising from unacceptable or harmful stimuli. Defence mechanisms may result in healthy or unhealthy consequences depending on the circumstances and frequency with which the mechanism is used. In psychoanalytic theory, defence mechanisms are psychological strategies brought into play by the unconscious mind to manipulate, deny, or distort reality in order to defend against feelings of anxiety and unacceptable impulses and to maintain one's self-schema or other schemas; these processes that manipulate, deny, or distort reality may include the following: repression, or the burying of a painful feeling or thought from one's awareness though it may resurface in a symbolic form. In psychoanalytic theory, repression is considered as the basis for other defence mechanisms. Healthy persons use different defences throughout life. An ego defence mechanism becomes pathological only when its persistent use leads to maladaptive behaviour such that the physical or mental health of the individual is adversely affected.
Among the purposes of ego defence mechanisms is to protect the mind/self/ego from anxiety or social sanctions or to provide a refuge from a situation with which one cannot cope. One resource used to evaluate these mechanisms is the Defense Style Questionnaire; the concept of id impulses comes from Sigmund Freud's structural model. According to this theory, id impulses are based on the pleasure principle: instant gratification of one's own desires and needs. Freud believed that the id represents biological instinctual impulses in humans, such as aggression and sexuality. For example, when the id impulses conflict with the superego, unsatisfied feelings of anxiousness or feelings of anxiety come to the surface. To reduce these unpleasant feelings, the ego might use defence mechanisms. Freud believed that conflicts between these two structures resulted in conflicts associated with psychosexual stages. Freud proposed three structures of the psyche or personality: Id: The id is the unconscious reservoir of the libido, the psychic energy that fuels instincts and psychic processes.
It is a selfish, pleasure-oriented part of the personality with no ability to delay gratification. Superego: The superego contains internalised societal and parental standards of "good" and "bad", "right" and "wrong" behaviour, they include conscious appreciations of rules and regulations as well as those incorporated unconsciously. Ego: The ego acts as a moderator between the pleasure sought by the id and the morals of the superego, seeking compromises to pacify both, it can be viewed as the individual's "sense of time and place". In the ego, there are two ongoing processes. First, there is the unconscious primary process, where the thoughts are not organised in a coherent way. There is no time line. Lust is important for this process. By contrast, there is the conscious secondary process, where strong boundaries are set and thoughts must be organised in a coherent way. Most conscious thoughts originate here. Id impulses are not appropriate in a civilised society, so there is societal pressure to modify the pleasure principle in favour of the reality principle.
The superego forms as the child learns parental and social standards. The superego consists of two structures: the conscience, which stores information about what is "bad" and what has been punished, the ego ideal, which stores information about what is "good" and what one "should" do or be; when anxiety becomes overwhelming, it is the ego's place to protect the person by employing defence mechanisms. Guilt and shame accompany anxiety. In the first definitive book on defence mechanisms, The Ego and the Mechanisms of Defence, Anna Freud introduced the concept of signal anxiety; the signalling function of anxiety is thus seen as crucial, biologically adapted to warn the organism of danger or a threat to its equilibrium. The anxiety is felt as an increase in bodily or mental tension, the signal that the organism receives in this way allows for the possibility of taking defensive action regarding the perceived danger. Defence mechanisms work by distorting the id impulses into acceptable forms, or by unconscious or conscious blockage of these impulses.
The list of defence mechanisms, with no theoretical consensus on the exact number. Classifying defence mechanisms according to some of their properties has been attempted. Different theorists have different conceptualizations of defence mechanisms. Large reviews of theories of defence mechanisms are available from Paulhus and Hayes and Cramer; the Journal of Personality published a special issue on defence mechanisms. In 1936, Anna Freud enumerated the ten defence mechanisms that appear in the works of her father, Sigmund Freud: repression, reaction formation, undoing, introje
Jacques-Alain Miller is a psychoanalyst and writer. He is one of the founder members of the École de la Cause freudienne and the World Association of Psychoanalysis which he presided from 1992 to 2002, he is the sole editor of the books of The Seminars of Jacques Lacan. Miller's career began early. At the time he was in khâgne at the Lycée Louis-le-Grand and studying Latin in private classes with Jean-Louis Laugier who gave him "the desire to be a Normalien". In 1962, he entered the École Normale Supérieure. There he befriended fellow students who would go on to leave a lasting mark on intellectual life in France: Étienne Balibar, Pierre Macherey, François Regnault, Robert Linart and Jean-Claude Milner. At the ENS he attended the seminars of Roland Barthes, the "first writer with whom I had a close friendship". At this time he met the young Derrida, lecturing at the Sorbonne. In 1963, Althusser assigned Miller the task of reading "all of Lacan" and Miller carried out the task admiringly; the following year, Jacques Lacan was appointed lecturer at the École Pratique des Hautes Etudes and transferred his Seminar to the ENS. Miller's encounter with Lacan was to be a decisive one: he contributed to the Seminar first with questions with full texts over the following years.
Over the summer break of 1964, Lacan invited Miller to his country house, La Prévôté in Guitrancourt, where Miller read the transcriptions of Lacan's early seminars. During a stay at Guitrancourt, Miller began a relationship with Judith Lacan, Lacan's daughter, whom he married in 1966; the index of concepts and the commentary on the graphs in Lacan's 1966 Écrits were drawn up by Miller, in that same year, he founded Cahiers pour l'Analyse, a seminal publication whose editorial board included Alain Grosrichard, Regnault and Alain Badiou. Miller's written texts from this early period are published in the Gallimard collection, Un début dans la vie which includes his interview with Sartre and the influential text presented at Lacan's Seminar, "Suture: Elements of the Logic of the Signifier". After a period of active involvement in the leftwing movements associated with May 1968, Miller was encouraged by Lacan to take "another path by which to get your privileged revolt across: mine for example".
In time Miller would become instrumental in Lacan's École Freudienne de Paris and editing the journal Ornicar? which published lessons of Lacan's Seminar. When Lacan moved to the University of Vincennes—the Department of Psychoanalysis was renamed "Le Champ freudien"—Lacan became its director, Michel Foucault appointed Jacques-Alain Miller president. Miller's teaching from this period took on the name L'Orientation lacanienne and gave rise to published texts on Bentham and Church. In 1973, Miller transcribed at Lacan's behest the 1964 Seminar on The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psychoanalysis, to lead to a lifelong commitment to establishing the full series of Lacan's annual Parisian Seminar. Book XI was published by Seuil in 1973, with Books I & Book XX following in 1975 and Book II in 1978. Miller contributed in 1973 to the two-part televised programme that became known as "Television", leading Lacan to credit Miller by saying "He who interrogates me / knows how to read me". Lacan's dissolution of the EFP in 1980 was followed by the creation of La cause freudienne.
Soon thereafter Lacan died. Miller resumed his weekly seminars in 1980, thus opening the series known as L'Orientation lacanienne II. Dedicated to expounding and elucidating Lacan's work, Miller's course was attended by many influential figures in psychoanalytic theory, notably Éric Laurent and Slavoj Zizek; the Lacanian Orientation course went under the banner of a "return to the clinic" and early themes included "From the Symptom to the Fantasy", "The Differential Clinic of Psychoses", "Traits of Perversion". The nineteen eighties were a period of extensive travel in Europe and Latin America to consolidate the emerging communities of Lacan's students and adherents, culminating in the founding of the European School of Psychoanalysis in 1990 and the Argentine Escuela de la Orientación Lacaniana in 1992. Over this decade, Miller established Book Book VII of Lacan's Seminar. Miller's 1980s lectures. In the early nineties, Miller's work began to be translated into English and published in the United States through the Newsletter of the Freudian Field and the New York-based cultural journal Lacanian Ink under the editorship of Josefina Ayerza.
In 1992, Miller launched the World Association of Psychoanalysis which grouped together the École de la Cause freudienne, the European School of Psychoanalysis, the Escuela de la Orientación Lacaniana, soon thereafter oversaw the creation of Schools in Brazil and Italy which were included in the WAP. The end of the decade saw a "thaw" in relations with the IPA thanks to the efforts of its President Horacio Etchegoyen. Miller was invited to attend the 1997 IPA Congress in Barcelona where his remarks from the floor were greeted with warm applause. In 1995, Miller's weekly course moved to the Paul-Painlevé Amphitheatre at the Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers, where it would continue until his retirement from University Paris-VIII in 2009. In 1998, his teaching entered its third phase as L'Orientation lacanienne III; the Buenos Aires lectures of the 1989-1996